Click here for access to the Executive Summary of the NCIP project and the critical skill infusion matrix for the project. Multiple Experiences Enhance Learning : Several stages are needed for students to learn something well enough to remember it and apply it. This is especially true for subtle skills and more so when we live in a society that often models behavior counter to those skills. We need to be introduced to a concept or skill; we need to apply it to something we already understand; we need to see it modeled; we need to practice it, engage in self-reflection, hear feedback, practice some more, and improve.
Finally, it might be something we internalize. Infusing CRE into curricula may provide an opportunity for a student to move through these various stages of skill development more effectively than an external program. Emphasize Assessment and Feedback : A student' s assessment of his or her self, as well as feedback from peers and teachers, is important for them to improve over multiple experiences. Assessment can be done in many ways.
For example, student participation in historical role plays or writing alternative endings of stories can show teachers the extent to which students understand the concepts. As students write journal entries reflecting on their actions and statements, they are monitoring their own progress. Teachers and students can create and use methods for marking improvement. Stress Professional Development for Teachers : There are two important professional development components required for infusion to be done well. The first is a strong grounding in conflict management and social and emotional learning.
Teachers need and deserve real professional development in the skills and concepts of the field, where they are participating in multiple experiences of the skills and concepts. They will be introduced to it; they will practice it; they will see it modeled; and they will apply it to material with which they are already familiar. The facilitator can offer sample lessons, establish a supportive process, and encourage creative collegial work.
Second, teachers will need on-going time with colleagues to identify infusion opportunities in their curricula. A CRE consultant or coach will likely be helpful in this process. Establishing a means for documenting and sharing lessons will enhance infusion over time. This process may not look like the entertaining kind of professional development that some faculties are accustomed to, but most will come to appreciate it as their own learning community. How Administrators Can Help : As teachers integrate CRE and SEL skills and concepts into their own understanding of their fields it is helpful to support the effort by discussing teacher' s methods at faculty meetings, and by supporting the vehicle for documenting and sharing lessons.
This might be in files, binders or on a district' s website. Administrators can also encourage teachers to make connections between their lessons and school-wide efforts related to holidays, service projects, drama performances, or art displays. The challenge for administrators is to provide just enough leadership to keep the skills and concepts of conflict resolution present. One of the most important kinds of support is for administrators to provide some time for teachers to meet and share their curriculum infusion experiences.
Some districts have held summer workshops or arranged for graduate credit to support the effort. Another important way for administrators to support infusion of conflict resolution into the academic curriculum is to infuse the same concepts and skills into school culture, including the adult culture.
One principal used the negotiation terms of " positions" and " interests" as the faculty was reworking the discipline code to sort out the behavioral outcomes interests that faculty hoped students would internalize by obeying school rules positions. Another principal chose to promote a sense of community among teachers by starting faculty meetings with gatherings, sometimes a poem, sometimes a sharing moment, other times an exercise related to emotional intelligence.
Teachers can include conflict resolution creatively in the teaching of all subjects. Below are a few examples of infusion and specific examples of links that provide more information about how these have been used in school like yours. In the Needham Public Schools the entire district created a wellness program that identified core competencies for K Language Arts : The whole language approach is ideal for weaving conflict management concepts into a wide variety of subjects. CRE and children' s literature are a natural.
For example, in K you can use Kevin Henkes' works Lily and the Purple Plastic Purse to teach emotional control, Chrysanthemum to teach respect and perspective-taking. In high school you can take required novels like Elie Weisel' s Nightwatch and use is as a basis for an extended week unit on prejudice, social oppression and social justice for an example of this unit see NCIP web site. Reading : In schools with established peer mediation programs, mediators are called in to mediate disputes between fictional characters. During discussions about stories students are asked to analyze and identify the root causes of specific conflicts and to brainstorm other potential options for resolving conflicts that arose in the reading.
Speech: The difficulty and challenge of speaking in such a way that another gains a clear understanding of your perspective is easily reinforced in such activities as presenting a persuasive speech, explaining directions to a game one has invented, or describing a design in such a way that another can draw it. Starters can range from simple phrases such as "the good thing about conflict is Students can keep track of their progress in using and improving their skills through logs or journals. Math: Mathematical problem solving involves the following steps: reading and formulating the problem; analyzing and exploring the problem and selecting strategies to solve it; finding and implementing solutions; and verifying and interpreting solutions to ensure that they are correct.
A teacher might ask students to develop a plan for a city park that meets a variety of community interests while staying within a maximum budget. Another approach teachers might use requires students to use math skills and conflict resolution knowledge to solve story problems. For example, a story problem might ask students to resolve a conflict in which one friend has loaned friend money, but repayment is not made on the promised date.
The resolution of the problem may include interest calculations, as well as an apology or an agreed-to payment plan. Music: Conflict management concepts can be reinforced through song and taught in principles of harmony and discord. Lyric writing offers students the opportunity to present conflict management concepts in interesting and often entertaining ways. Physical Education: This subject provides opportunities for students to experience and discuss the differences between competitive and cooperative games.
Day 2 - Managing and Resolving Conflicts Effectively
It is an ideal setting for students to learn how ground rules can encourage a safe and cooperative or a competitive climate. Science: One could say that the earth, as we know it now, has undergone many conflicts. What are some " win-win" resolutions in nature? Symbiotic relationships, such as the mutually advantageous partnership between algae and fungi in lichens, are an example. Social Studies: Teachers ask students to analyze local, state, national and international conflicts and to discuss potential conflict resolution strategies to resolve those issues. The conflict may be a current event or a past occurrence that are found in textbooks.
For example, many texts describe the Montgomery Bus Boycott that lasted over a year and had a negative economic impact on the city. African-Americans instituted the boycott to protest a law that required them to ride only in the rear of the bus and to relinquish their seats to Caucasians upon demand. Teachers can ask students to identify the interests of each side and to propose solutions that might have prevented the boycott or ended it in a timelier manner.
Middle grade students can develop the same concept when studying the relationship between the early North American settlers and the Native Americans. Students might be asked to act out a conflict that was described in an assigned reading. For example, students could decide to analyze the conflict between Egypt and Israel. To do this, student could rely on information from their readings to play the roles of Menachem Begin and Anwar Sadat in a mock negotiation. This excerpt focuses on examples of curriculum infusion across disciplines. Creative Response to Conflict : CRC conducts workshops for people of all ages in conflict resolution, mediation, problem solving and bias awareness.
Workshops can be adapted for specific age groups and to meet specific needs. School-based Workshops focus on providing an environment where students and staff can begin looking at new ways to examine conflicts and develop solutions. Workshops are experiential and fun. Specially designed activities help participants to see that there are many alternatives to violence. The CRC "handbook. Tales from the Dragon's Cave A wonderful collection of fairy tales geared to teaching young children lessons in conflict resolution from a dragon's perspective.
Task Force. Includes sample dialogues between children and adults. Chapters on gender identity, non-bias holiday activities, and working with parents. Second Edition. Practical resource for multicultural education and social justice. Includes activities on bias awareness and the expressive arts for Kindergarten through grade 8. ESR' s innovative and practical programs are tailored to match the unique needs of each school, district, or institution and help to create safer, more caring, and respectful classroom and school environments. ESR offers the following comprehensive programs and publications:.
Stories offers a framework of skills and concepts for integrating social skill development into the language arts curriculum, helping administrators and teachers enhance literacy while creating safe and caring learning communities. Adventures in Peacemaking Early Childhood and Afterschool. AIP provides a wide variety of over activities, routines, and practices to help children learn cooperation, healthy emotional expression, appreciation for diversity, effective communication, and win-win problem solving.
This unique guide uses games, music, art, drama, and storytelling to teach young children effective, nonviolent ways to resolve conflicts. This second edition contains sections on developmentally appropriate practice; tips on classroom set-up; instructions for incorporating social and emotional skills into daily routines; suggestions for when things don' t go as planned; and materials and activities for parents to help reinforce the themes, skills, and concepts of a Peaceable Program at home.
ESR Designed to meet the needs of afterschool programs, camps, and recreation centers, this guide contains hundreds of hands-on, engaging activities that teach basic conflict resolution skills through cooperative challenges, drama, crafts, music, and even cooking. Also included are easy-to-implement strategies and tips for providers to both reduce conflict in their programs and to intervene effectively when conflict does occur. Adventures in Peacemaking blends ESR' s innovative conflict resolution curricula with Project Adventure' s activity-based programming. Kreidler Description: Grades Highly acclaimed, this teacher' s guide features 28 skill-building sections to help students address the conflicts that come with adolescence.
Included are seven implementation models; sections on creating a classroom for teaching conflict resolution, developing staff and parent support, and assessing student learning; an infusion section which includes math and science; and a section on adolescent development exploring gender and race. Kreidler and Rachel A. Poliner Description: Grades This workbook and journal will help deepen students' understanding of conflict, anger management, communication, and appreciating diversity while providing them with practice to strengthen their skills.
Vibrantly designed with young adolescents in mind, the workbook includes information handouts and worksheets, journal writing activities, and self-directed assignments. Through numerous writing activities, students will reflect on issues associated with conflict in their own lives while also learning to be accountable.
Through ten skill-focused chapters, this unique curriculum paints a portrait of nonadversarial dialogue through the story of Centerville, a fictional town caught in a controversy over whether or not to mandate school uniforms. Teachers learn techniques and structures for helping students build skills such as listening, researching issues, understanding and appreciating different perspectives, and creating solutions. Well-suited for social studies or English teachers, as well as student-government and debate-team advisors.
What gives the school the right to give my child homework?
This comprehensive, sequenced curriculum will help secondary educators address conflict resolution and problem solving; diversity and intergroup relations; social and emotional development; and building community and creating a Peaceable Classroom. Includes sections on implementation, assessment, and infusion of conflict resolution throughout a standard curriculum. To learn more about training opportunities, please contact us at 1.
Program for Young Negotiators: Program for Young Negotiators PYN empowers middle school aged youth to resolve their problems and conflicts on their own without resorting to violence.
By offering negotiation and conflict resolution as a real and compelling alternative to fighting or "giving in," Program for Young Negotiators brings a positive, original approach to violence prevention through youth empowerment. At the same time, those adults are increasing their own understanding of the programs' concepts and applying them to their own lives. As part of a comprehensive program, SERA Learning offers curriculum, professional development, onsite support, third-party evaluation and parent components that enable youth to successfully build their own personal power.
It makes me feel that the more I help people, the more I appreciate myself as a person and as a mediator. I have more respect for myself and others now. I try my best to achieve more things in life. School-based peer mediation is one of the most popular and effective approaches to integrating the practice of conflict resolution into schools. From the start of the modern " conflict resolution in education" CRE movement in the early ' s, peer mediation has been one of its centerpieces.
Many thousands of schools in the US and in dozens of other countries have implemented peer mediation programs, and these efforts serve almost every conceivable student population. Peer mediation elegantly marries educators' " mandate to intervene" with their " mission to educate" and empower young people. Additional features have led to the widespread implementation of the peer mediation concept. For one, it is very effective.
Finally, and significantly, student mediators love doing this work. Mediating is an eminently rewarding way for students to improve their schools. The video includes Administration and Student testimonials about the success and value of Peer Mediation in their school. Mediation is a structured method of conflict resolution in which trained individuals the mediators assist people in dispute the parties by listening to their concerns and helping them negotiate.
Four essential elements of mediation are:. Voluntary Participation Parties choose to participate in mediation, and once the process begins, they choose whether and how to resolve their dispute. Parties are free to conclude the mediation process at any time and pursue other means of resolving their conflict. Impartiality Mediators refrain from demonstrating judgment about right and wrong and strive to be unbiased at all times.
They also have no power or interest in forcing parties to take any particular action. When agreements are created, they are fashioned according to the wishes of the parties. Of that, 5. This leaves million rand for all else. Last year 25 million rand was spent on security and a tiny fraction on books.
This led to the decision to eliminate security guards so that more money would be available for much-needed books, programmes, and equipment. School governing bodies must now raise the fees for security and many other budgetary shortfalls. Unfortunately, many lack the expertise or ability to do this. They are also confronted by parental resistance to increased fees and responsibilities. Thus, major social obligations and material costs are being directed to school governing bodies from higher levels of government while some parents are resisting this 'imposition'.
Isibonelo Secondary School in KwaMashu furnishes an example of this problem. School fees per pupil have been set at R30 a year. For comparison, Northwood's per pupil fees for are times higher or R4, The KwaMashu school might be able to collect R30, from its parents except only half the parents are willing to pay. With R15,, they must cover lights, electricity, water, maintenance, extra teaching staff, and security measures such as guards and adequate fencing. Proper fencing and gates would cost about R, In the meantime, shootings, robbery, theft, extortion, rape and murder have affected this school.
Secure environments for learning should be the first priority of any educational policy. At education conferences, summits, and in media coverage the shortages of classrooms, equipment, teachers, and money is often prioritised over the tragedy of our children living in severe stress owing to violence in the schools. However, better supplies do not offer a solution in environments that are prone to arson, theft, vandalism, gang warfare and other forms of violence.
For instance computers delivered to upgrade the facilities in a KwaMashu school are kept in a safe unused because the school is subjected to constant vandalism and theft both during and after school hours. Thus, an organised local response is required to rescue children and schools subjected to violence. Five Big Problems Here are five major problems that must be urgently addressed: 1. Informants in all ten schools we studied, whether children or adults, told us that their areas are troubled by gang violence to one degree or another. The worst reports came from KwaMashu and Newlands East.
This portrait is supported by a recent national survey commissioned by Business Day. We discovered that turf wars not only spill onto school grounds but the school itself is a territorial prize. Gangs need a controlled area from which to sell drugs, collect revenue from theft, and recruit members. Some schools in our study were so destabilised by gangs that both children and staff members enter and leave campus as they wish and classes are not conducted according to any regular schedule. Sometimes teachers fear their own pupils who carry weapons, smoke dagga in the toilets, and move off and onto school grounds freely.
We also know of certain KwaMashu schools where students cower in class during all the breaks for fear of gang members who enter and leave the grounds as they please. The school youth, so often the targets of gang activities, dare not talk as their well-being and the lives of their families are then threatened. Gangs hunt down and sometimes kill learners who are suspected of revealing their activities.
Intimidation by gangs undermines all attempts at creating a culture of learning and teaching. The security conditions in nearly all the disadvantaged schools were appalling. The most basic safeguards were either not in place or were being removed. These include adequate fencing, police protection, weapons checks, and security guards. This not only creates a problem but hampers solutions. We know of good people, educators, and counsellors who will not work in disadvantaged schools because their security cannot be guaranteed.
Many schools have no fencing. Most have inadequate fencing. At Zakhe school, the attempt to use rudimentary materials to re-seal the fences failed because gang members re-opened all the gaps the next day. Police protection is so inadequate that police response time can take days or weeks even in the wake of murder. Gangs tend to operate with impunity in many school environments. This even means engaging in murders that are never investigated. At Isibonelo Secondary School, a 16 year old boy was shot on campus in late October. A week later no investigation had even been attempted.
Weapons checks are rare. When they do occur learners are informed in advance and stash their weapons. Last month at Mzuvele School, five armed youngsters marched into the school in daylight hours and took jewellery off pupils at knife and gunpoint. No one stopped the boys at the entrance, checked for weapons, or even followed them as suspect.
No prosecutions or investigations followed. Security guards often act like gatekeepers, reading books and playing games at the entrance to schools while criminals, weapons, and drugs slip in and out through holes in the fences. Most guards also lack the skills training to handle violent conflict. One of several unarmed security guards killed this year by gang members was shot at a Chatsworth school in April after approaching armed youths robbing the tuckshop. In any case, they have been retrenched unless the school governing bodies can afford to re-hire them.
Despite the high levels of trauma that accompany modern school life, there is no budget for counsellors and no programme to provide them. Girls who have been raped or assaulted often have no counselling afterwards. Townships are particularly hard-hit. Last year one Newlands pupil committed suicide because of constant molestation and rape.
She pleaded for help but there was no institution or person she could trust Walk into any classroom in a so-called 'integrated' school, and children are sitting in racial groupings. Many classify each other by racial stereotypes and complain of racial groups that smell, steal, or act in some uniform way. This leads to name-calling, fighting and occasional death such as the stabbing at Forest Haven School in March. Despite these problems only one out of ten of the schools studied offered workshops, curriculum or guidance periods to address prejudice, stereotyping, and other related problems.
Interviews with educators, learners, parents, police, and education officials indicate that the low level of parental involvement in the schools is a stumbling block to effective programmes. The IPT receives reports from both pupils and teachers that parental participation is near absent.