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Following Europe's conversion to Christianity, crowning ceremonies became more and more ornate, depending on the country in question, and their Christian elements—especially anointing—became the paramount concern. During the Middle Ages , this rite was considered so vital in some European kingdoms that it was sometimes referred to as an "eighth sacrament ". Crowning ceremonies arose from a worldview in which monarchs were seen as ordained by God [N 1] to serve not merely as political or military leaders, nor as figureheads, but rather to occupy a vital spiritual place in their dominions as well.

During the Protestant Reformation , the idea of divinely ordained monarchs began to be challenged. The Age of Enlightenment and various revolutions of the last three centuries all helped to further this trend. Majority of contemporary European monarchies today have either long abandoned coronations ceremonies e. Spain , last practiced in or have never practiced coronations e. Belgium , The Netherlands , Luxembourg. Of all European monarchies today, only the United Kingdom still retains its coronation rite.

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The Papacy retains the option of a coronation, but no pope has used it since after Pope John Paul I opted for an Inauguration in Since , the act has been carried out through the authorised decree by the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. In most kingdoms, a monarch succeeding hereditarily does not have to undergo a coronation to ascend the throne or exercise the prerogatives of their office. This is because in Britain, the law stipulates that in the moment one monarch dies, the new one assumes automatically and immediately the throne; thus, there is no point at which the throne is vacant.

France likewise followed automatic succession, though by tradition the new king ascended the throne when the coffin of the previous monarch descended into the vault at Saint Denis Basilica , and the Duke of Uzes proclaimed " Le Roi est mort, vive le Roi "! In the Holy Roman Empire an individual became King of the Romans , thus gained governance of the Empire unless he was elected during his predecessor's lifetime, upon his acceptance of the election capitulation, not his coronation. However, prior to Maximilian I he could not style himself "Emperor" until his coronation by the Pope, resulting in many individuals being "Kings of the Romans" or "Kings of Germany," but not "Emperor.

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His successors likewise adopted the title with the last Emperor crowned by the Pope being Maxmilian's grandson Charles V. The official coronation gifts Royal or Imperial commencing in the 19th century were commissioned by the coronation commission, intended for the incoming monarch, as personal mementos of the coronation event. Personal coronation gifts presented at the coronation festivities directly by the newly crowned monarch to the official coronation guest were similar or identical to the official coronation gift all according to the Royal or Imperial protocol and Court status of the recipient.

Presentation of coronation gifts was major anticipated reviling function of the incoming monarch. During the Middle Ages , Capetian Kings of France chose to have their heirs apparent crowned during their own lifetime in order to avoid succession disputes.


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From the moment of their coronation, the heirs were regarded as junior kings rex iunior , but they exercised little power and historically were not included in the numbering of monarchs if they predeceased their fathers. The nobility disliked this custom, as it reduced their chances to benefit from a possible succession dispute.

The last heir apparent to the French throne to be crowned during his father's lifetime was the future Philip II , while the only crowned heir apparent to the English throne was Henry the Young King , who was first crowned alone and then with his wife, Margaret of France. The practice was eventually abandoned by all kingdoms that had adopted it, as the rules of primogeniture became stronger. The last coronation of an heir apparent, with the exception of investitures of the Prince of Wales in and , was the coronation of the future Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria as junior King of Hungary in Specific coronation rituals by country, arranged by continent or region, are described in the following articles:.

The term coronation is sometimes used in a semi-ironic sense to refer to uncontested party leadership elections, with all potential party leaders choosing to back a single candidate or to stay silent, rather than stand in an election they are likely to lose. Richard I of England crowned king. Coronation of Pope Celestine V.

About Coronation

Coronation ceremony of Emperor Pedro I of Brazil in Coronation Scene by Dutch painter Abraham Bloemaert. Janos M. University of California Press Logistisches Meisterwerk, zeremonielle Glanzleistung und Kulturgueter fuer die Ewigkeit. Peter Lang IN: Historiography in Motion.

The coronation ceremony

This section contains expansions on the main text of the article, as well as links provided for context that may not meet Wikipedia standards for reliable sources , due largely to being self-published. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Coronation disambiguation. Main article: Coronations in Antiquity. Further information: Sacred king , Diadem , and Tiara.

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