A sixteenth shelter, was built in brick on the surface and had several uses: as a first aid centre, a communications centre and an ARP Warden's post. Informal research has shown that a surviving group of so many air raid shelters is very rare. Industrial WWII civil defence structures are disappearing at an alarming rate, so Halstead is very lucky to still have this piece of history. The verdant land the shelters lie on is part of Halstead Conservation Area but has been promoted for development for 50 years.
The plan proposes the construction of up to 73 dwellings comprising of 32 houses and 41 apartments, with associated car parking, amenity spaces and external works. It is expected that the planning application will be determined during the spring of These shelters are on Save Britain's Heritage buildings at risk register. Preserving our past… …………. The other 20 public shelters owned by the Brisbane City Council can be divided into three types of pillbox intended for conversion after the war: "park", "bus", and "bus stone ".
They were designed to serve as structures such as bus waiting shelters or shade structures for parks, with some or all of the perimeter blast walls to be removed, leaving the concrete slab roof, floor slab and piers. The reusable pillboxes were designed to hold 70 people, as were the non- reusable standard pillboxes. Costello, Brisbane City Council City Architect between and , was responsible for the design of the surface air raid shelters, and his variants of the standard pillbox were designed to provide a post-war utility for at least part of the Council's shelter building programme.
In an address delivered to the Constitutional Club in Brisbane on February , Costello noted that if the emergency for their use does not arise He added that I can assure you that wherever it is possible, without sacrificing the primary requirements of shelter from air attack, I have endeavoured in our Council buildings to so plan the shelters that they will fit into schemes of improvement which we hope will proceed immediately after the war.
World War II Air Raid Shelters in Ipswich
Costello's work was characterised by the use of an architectural language inspired by the modern movement in architecture. This movement pursued the rational use of modern materials and principles of functionalist planning and established a visual aesthetic largely inspired by the machine. It was part of an architecture employing the language of vertical and horizontal volumes and planes, floating flat roofs, masses set against voids and monumentality.
Though modest in scale and form, the design of the shelters is characteristic of work in this idiom.
The reusable shelters were often sited under fig trees, to aid in camouflage. The first of Costello's reusable designs is the pillbox with double- cantilevered roof slab, or "park" type shelter. In an original list of all the shelters constructed by the Brisbane City Council, these were simply labelled as "cantilever".
They had four central piers supporting the roof slab, which allowed for the removal of the four blast walls after the war. There was an entrance at each end of the front wall, where an internal wall extended into the shelter. The difference was due to the fact that the brick walls finished in line with the top of the roof slab, covering the fascia, whereas the concrete walls finished at the soffit of the roof slab, flush with the fascia.
The minimum wall thickness for brick was set at The roof slab was intended to have at least four inches of concrete. Most are used as simple park shelters, as intended, but the shelter at Nundah has been modified as a toilet block, and the shelter at Kelvin Grove is used as a bus shelter as distinct from those shelters in the next category, which were specifically designed as "bus" type shelters.
About half of the surviving park shelters had concrete blast walls, while half used brick. The second design was the pillbox with single-cantilevered roof slab, or "bus" type shelter, as it was called in the original Brisbane City Council list. These were designed so that the three brick blast walls could be removed after the war, leaving a concrete back wall and five brick piers at the front.
Again, entrances were at each end of the front wall. Of the 19 "bus" types listed only two survive, at Newmarket and Newstead. The third design was also a "bus" type shelter, but it was built with a stone rear wall, instead of concrete, and six stone piers were later added, instead of five brick piers.
The three brick blast walls could be removed as normal. Two of these "colonnade" types were built- referred to in the Brisbane City Council list as "bus stone "- and only one survives, at King Edward Park. Most of the Brisbane structures built for the war were removed at the end of World War Two. The saltwater mains, slit trenches, and sirens disappeared, as did the many standard pillboxes that had stood in the middle of the streets of the Central Business District.
Of the 21 special shelters, only the one on Queens Wharf Road survives. However, of Costello's 58 reusable public surface shelters, 20 have survived; the removal of their blast walls, as planned, had given them a renewed purpose. The blast walls of the air raid shelter at Morningside were removed according to plan after World War Two, although evidence of the location of the walls is still visible.
The shelter roof and piers have been painted and the floor slab has been covered with concrete pebble topping. The Morningside air raid shelter is a rectangular concrete structure comprising a heavy floor slab, which is now covered by concrete pebbling, and a flat roof supported by concrete piers. There is also a coloured mosaic on the western side of the floor slab. There is evidence on the soffit of the two entrances on the Wynnum Road side. The shelter stands within a vegetated road reserve, west of the Morningside Railway Station, with a canopy of mature fig trees and camphor laurels.
The roof of the shelter is painted maroon and the piers are painted cream.
World War II Air Raid Shelters in Ipswich - Ipswich Libraries
The Morningside air raid is important as a part of the Air Raid Precaution activities that were implemented for the defence of Brisbane during World War Two. Designed to afford protection to the civilian population of Brisbane in the event of air raid attacks or other emergencies, the air raid shelter located at the corner of Wynnum Road and Thynne Road is important in demonstrating the impact of World War Two on the civilian population of Brisbane.
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The place demonstrates rare, uncommon or endangered aspects of Queensland's cultural heritage. Although many air raid shelters were constructed during World War Two in Queensland, comparatively few survive. Also, there are not many types of structures built by the Brisbane City Council during World War Two, for wartime purposes, which survive.
The place is important in demonstrating the principal characteristics of a particular class of cultural places. The shelter's solid construction, rectangular shape, and its siting near a population concentration, demonstrate the principal characteristics of a World War Two Brisbane public air raid shelter.
The place is important in demonstrating a high degree of creative or technical achievement at a particular period.