Manual Animalistic Desires 1 (The First Mission)

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Many of the surface activities took longer than expected, so they had to stop documenting sample collection halfway through the allotted 34 minutes. Armalcolite was named after Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins. All have subsequently been found on Earth. Mission Control used a coded phrase to warn Armstrong that his metabolic rates were high, and that he should slow down.

He was moving rapidly from task to task as time ran out. As metabolic rates remained generally lower than expected for both astronauts throughout the walk, Mission Control granted the astronauts a minute extension. Aldrin entered Eagle first. With some difficulty the astronauts lifted film and two sample boxes containing This proved to be an inefficient tool, and later missions preferred to carry equipment and samples up to the LM by hand.

Armstrong then jumped onto the ladder's third rung, and climbed into the LM. After transferring to LM life support , the explorers lightened the ascent stage for the return to lunar orbit by tossing out their PLSS backpacks, lunar overshoes, an empty Hasselblad camera, and other equipment. The hatch was closed again at They then pressurized the LM and settled down to sleep. Nixon's speech writer William Safire had prepared In Event of Moon Disaster for the President to read on television in the event the Apollo 11 astronauts were stranded on the Moon.

Haldeman , in which Safire suggested a protocol the administration might follow in reaction to such a disaster. While moving inside the cabin, Aldrin accidentally damaged the circuit breaker that would arm the main engine for lift off from the Moon. There was a concern this would prevent firing the engine, stranding them on the Moon. However, a felt-tip pen was sufficient to activate the switch; had this not worked, the LM circuitry could have been reconfigured to allow firing the ascent engine. After about seven hours of rest, the crew was awakened by Houston to prepare for the return flight.

Two and a half hours later, at UTC, they lifted off in Eagle 's ascent stage to rejoin Collins aboard Columbia in lunar orbit. Aldrin looked up in time to witness the flag topple: "The ascent stage of the LM separated I was concentrating on the computers, and Neil was studying the attitude indicator , but I looked up long enough to see the flag fall over. During his day flying solo around the Moon, Collins never felt lonely. Although it has been said "not since Adam has any human known such solitude", [] Collins felt very much a part of the mission.

In his autobiography he wrote: "this venture has been structured for three men, and I consider my third to be as necessary as either of the other two". One of Collins' first tasks was to identify the lunar module on the ground. To give Collins an idea where to look, Mission Control radioed that they believed the lunar module landed about four miles off target. Each time he passed over the suspected lunar landing site, he tried in vain to find the module. On his first orbits on the back side of the Moon, Collins performed maintenance activities such as dumping excess water produced by the fuel cells and preparing the cabin for Armstrong and Aldrin to return.

Just before he reached the dark side on the third orbit, Mission Control informed Collins that there was a problem with the temperature of the coolant. If it became too cold, parts of Columbia might freeze. Mission Control advised him to assume manual control and implement Environmental Control System Malfunction Procedure Instead, Collins flicked the switch on the offending system from automatic to manual and back to automatic again, and carried on with normal housekeeping chores, while keeping an eye on the temperature.

When Columbia came back around to the near side of the Moon again, he was able to report that the problem had been resolved. For the next couple of orbits, he described his time on the back side of the Moon as "relaxing". While the flight plan called for Eagle to meet up with Columbia , Collins was prepared for certain contingencies in which he would fly Columbia down to meet Eagle.

Eagle ' s ascent stage was jettisoned into lunar orbit at Later NASA reports mentioned that Eagle 's orbit had decayed, resulting in it impacting in an "uncertain location" on the lunar surface. On July 23, the last night before splashdown, the three astronauts made a television broadcast in which Collins commented:. The Saturn V rocket which put us in orbit is an incredibly complicated piece of machinery, every piece of which worked flawlessly We have always had confidence that this equipment will work properly.

All this is possible only through the blood, sweat, and tears of a number of people All you see is the three of us, but beneath the surface are thousands and thousands of others, and to all of those, I would like to say, "Thank you very much. Aldrin added:. This has been far more than three men on a mission to the Moon; more, still, than the efforts of a government and industry team; more, even, than the efforts of one nation.

We feel that this stands as a symbol of the insatiable curiosity of all mankind to explore the unknown Personally, in reflecting on the events of the past several days, a verse from Psalms comes to mind. Armstrong concluded:. The responsibility for this flight lies first with history and with the giants of science who have preceded this effort; next with the American people, who have, through their will, indicated their desire; next with four administrations and their Congresses, for implementing that will; and then, with the agency and industry teams that built our spacecraft, the Saturn, the Columbia, the Eagle, and the little EMU , the spacesuit and backpack that was our small spacecraft out on the lunar surface.

We would like to give special thanks to all those Americans who built the spacecraft; who did the construction, design, the tests, and put their hearts and all their abilities into those craft. To those people tonight, we give a special thank you, and to all the other people that are listening and watching tonight, God bless you. Good night from Apollo On the return to Earth, a bearing at the Guam tracking station failed, potentially preventing communication on the last segment of the Earth return.

A regular repair was not possible in the available time but the station director, Charles Force, had his ten-year-old son Greg use his small hands to reach into the housing and pack it with grease. Greg was later thanked by Armstrong. Hornet was then at her home port of Long Beach, California. To make room, most of Hornet ' s air wing was left behind in Long Beach. Special recovery equipment was also loaded, including a boilerplate command module used for training.

After a night on board, they would fly to Hornet in Marine One for a few hours of ceremonies. McCain Jr. Paine , who flew to Hornet from Pago Pago in one of Hornet ' s carrier onboard delivery aircraft. He realized that a storm front was headed for the Apollo recovery area. Poor visibility was a serious threat to the mission; if the helicopters could not locate Columbia , the spacecraft, its crew, and its priceless cargo of Moon rocks might be lost. Brandli alerted Navy Captain Willard S. Houston Jr.

On their recommendation, Rear Admiral Donald C. This altered the flight plan. A different sequence of computer programs was used, one never before attempted. In a conventional entry, P64 was followed by P For a skip-out re-entry, P65 and P66 were employed to handle the exit and entry parts of the skip. In this case, because they were extending the re-entry but not actually skipping out, P66 was not invoked and instead P65 led directly to P The crew were also warned that they would not be in a full-lift heads-down attitude when they entered P Two of the E-1s were designated as "air boss" while the third acted as a communications relay aircraft.

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Two of the Sea Kings carried divers and recovery equipment. The third carried photographic equipment, and the fourth carried the decontamination swimmer and the flight surgeon. This was observed by the helicopters. The divers then passed biological isolation garments BIGs to the astronauts, and assisted them into the life raft. The possibility of bringing back pathogens from the lunar surface was considered remote, but NASA took precautions at the recovery site.

The astronauts were rubbed down with a sodium hypochlorite solution and Columbia wiped with Betadine to remove any lunar dust that might be present. The astronauts were winched on board the recovery helicopter. BIGs were worn until they reached isolation facilities on board Hornet. The raft containing decontamination materials was intentionally sunk. After touchdown on Hornet at UTC, the helicopter was lowered by the elevator into the hangar bay, where the astronauts walked the 30 feet 9.

He told them: "As a result of what you've done, the world has never been closer together before. After Nixon departed, Hornet was brought alongside the 5-short-ton 4. It was then attached to the MQF with a flexible tunnel, allowing the lunar samples, film, data tapes and other items to be removed. Columbia was taken to Ford Island for deactivation, and its pyrotechnics made safe.

In accordance with the Extra-Terrestrial Exposure Law , a set of regulations promulgated by NASA on July 16 to codify its quarantine protocol, [] the astronauts continued in quarantine. After three weeks in confinement first in the Apollo spacecraft, then in their trailer on Hornet , and finally in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory , the astronauts were given a clean bill of health. Loose equipment from the spacecraft remained in isolation until the lunar samples were released for study.

On August 13, the three astronauts rode in ticker-tape parades in their honor in New York and Chicago, with an estimated six million attendees. Nixon and Agnew honored each astronaut with a presentation of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The three astronauts spoke before a joint session of Congress on September 16, They presented two US flags, one to the House of Representatives and the other to the Senate , that had been carried to the surface of the Moon with them.

This celebration was the beginning of a day world tour that brought the astronauts to 22 foreign countries and included visits with the leaders of many countries. Humans walking on the Moon and returning safely to Earth accomplished Kennedy's goal set eight years earlier. New phrases permeated into the English language. While most celebrated the accomplishment, disenfranchised Americans saw it as a symbol of the divide in America, evidenced by protesters outside of Kennedy Space Center the day before Apollo 11 launched. Ralph Abernathy , leading a protest march, was so captivated by the spectacle of the Apollo 11 launch that he forgot what he was going to say.

A rat done bit my sister Nell. Twenty percent of the world's population watched humans walk on the Moon for the first time. While Apollo 11 sparked the interest of the world, the follow-on Apollo missions did not hold the interest of the nation. Landing someone on the Moon was an easy goal to understand; lunar geology was too abstract for the average person. Another is that Kennedy's goal of landing humans on the Moon had already been accomplished.

While most Americans were proud of their nation's achievements in space exploration, only once during the late s did the Gallup Poll indicate that a majority of Americans favored "doing more" in space as opposed to "doing less". By , 59 percent of those polled favored cutting spending on space exploration. This was also a time when inflation was rising, which put pressure on the government to reduce spending.

What saved the space program was that it was one of the few government programs that had achieved something great. Drastic cuts, warned Caspar Weinberger , the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget , might send a signal that "our best years are behind us". After the Apollo 11 mission, officials from the Soviet Union said that landing humans on the Moon was dangerous and unnecessary. At the time the Soviet Union was attempting to retrieve lunar samples robotically. The Soviets publicly denied there was a race to the Moon, and indicated that they were not making an attempt.

It was revealed in that the Soviets had tried to send people to the Moon, but were unable to due to technological difficulties. The Soviet government limited the release of information about the lunar landing, which affected the reaction. A portion of the populace did not give it any attention, and another portion was angered by it. For 40 years Armstrong's and Aldrin's space suits were displayed in the museum's Apollo to the Moon exhibit, [] until it closed for good on December 3, , to be replaced by a new gallery which was scheduled to open in A special display of Armstrong's suit is planned for the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11 in July The descent stage of the LM Eagle remains on the Moon.

In , the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter LRO imaged the various Apollo landing sites on the surface of the Moon, for the first time with sufficient resolution to see the descent stages of the lunar modules, scientific instruments, and foot trails made by the astronauts. The location is uncertain because Eagle ascent stage was not tracked after it was jettisoned, and the lunar gravity field is sufficiently non-uniform to make the orbit of the spacecraft unpredictable after a short time. They were found on the Atlantic seabed using advanced sonar scanning. In July , a conservator discovered a serial number under the rust on one of the engines raised from the Atlantic, which NASA confirmed was from Apollo Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.

Most of the rocks are stored in nitrogen to keep them free of moisture. They are handled only indirectly, using special tools. Over research laboratories around the world conduct studies of the samples, and approximately samples are prepared and sent to investigators every year. Each display included Moon dust from Apollo This acrylic button magnified the grains of lunar dust. The Apollo 11 lunar sample displays were given out as goodwill gifts by Nixon in The Passive Seismic Experiment ran until the command uplink failed on August 25, The downlink failed on December 14, On July 15, , Life.

Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum set up an Adobe Flash website that rebroadcasts the transmissions of Apollo 11 from launch to landing on the Moon. President Barack Obama at the White House. A group of British scientists interviewed as part of the anniversary events reflected on the significance of the Moon landing:. It was carried out in a technically brilliant way with risks taken The Apollo programme is arguably the greatest technical achievement of mankind to date On January 24, , the Mint released the Apollo 11 Fiftieth Anniversary commemorative coins to the public on its website.

A documentary film, Apollo 11 , with restored footage of the event, premiered in IMAX on March 1, , and broadly in theaters on March 8.

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In some of the following sources, times are shown in the format hours:minutes:seconds e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the manned lunar mission. For other uses, see Apollo 11 disambiguation. First crewed space mission to land on the Moon. Buzz Aldrin poses on the Moon, allowing Neil Armstrong to photograph both of them using the visor's reflection. Neil A. Armstrong Michael Collins Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr.

Apollo program. Play media. That's one small step Further information: Apollo 11 50th Anniversary commemorative coins. Retrieved September 22, The Apollo Program. National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on August 29, Retrieved September 7, Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal. Retrieved June 13, December 11, Archived from the original on June 6, Retrieved December 30, Retrieved June 17, September 12, The Atlantic. May 25, Retrieved September 16, December Retrieved December 26, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Retrieved October 4, The Independent. Retrieved January 10, Swanson, ed. August 5, Apollo 11 flight directors pose for a group photo in the Mission Control Center. Pictured left to right, and the shifts that they served during the mission, are in front and sitting Clifford E. Charlesworth Shift 1 , Gerald D. Griffin Shift 1 , Eugene F. Kranz Shift 2 , Milton L. Windler Shift 4 , and Glynn S. Lunney Shift 3. Apollo, the race to the moon. Retrieved June 9, Retrieved July 20, Anthony Dollar — —".

United States Mint. Archived from the original on August 11, Retrieved August 12, Retrieved October 11, Space flown collectible artifacts. Retrieved December 24, February 8, Richard Nixon Presidential Library. July 16, Retrieved September 3, Washington, D. July 6, Release No: K. March 1, Datamation Letter. July Breckenridge, Colorado: American Astronautical Society. Retrieved March 29, The History Channel. August 24, BBC Archives. Retrieved June 7, Retrieved September 23, The Washington Post.

Retrieved May 25, The Sydney Morning Herald. July 15, NASA Education. Includes the "a" article as intended.

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BBC News. October 2, The Attic. Retrieved October 1, American Originals. March Retrieved April 13, The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara. Retrieved October 26, Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved December 28, Retrieved September 24, December 10, The Smoking Gun. New York. August 8, Scanned copy of the "In Event of Moon Disaster" memo. Los Angeles Times. The New York Times. July 13, Release No: F.

Retrieved June 14, The Daily Telegraph. June 30, Archived from the original on October 1, David; MacTaggart, Kenneth D. Apollo 11 Flight Journal.

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Retrieved September 27, Apollo to the Moon. Archived from the original on August 15, Retrieved August 15, July 24, Retrieved November 19, Archived from the original on March 19, August 13, Retrieved October 24, The Evening Sun. Baltimore, Maryland. Associated Press. August 14, The Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu, Hawaii. United States House of Representatives.

Retrieved March 3, Haydon Museum". Fodor's Travel. Retrieved March 5, Logan Daily News. Logan, Ohio. September 29, Los Angeles, California. November 5, Sydney, New South Wales. November 1, Lunar Hall of Fame.

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Archived from the original on October 24, Retrieved January 2, Washington Post. Retrieved January 4, May 28, Retrieved January 3, Huffington Post. August 23, Scientific American. Retrieved January 7, Retrieved November 9, May 3, Retrieved September 25, March 21, Retrieved August 27, Air and Space Magazine. March 20, Retrieved December 16, Retrieved September 30, September 15, July 17, March 28, Retrieved February 13, Albuquerque Journal.

Albuquerque, New Mexico. July 21, Archived from the original on February 19, Retrieved November 2, Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on May 21, Apollo 40th Anniversary. July 26, March 16, The Guardian. Retrieved July 11, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on June 17, Retrieved July 19, While the results indicated that analyzing the social uses of theory of mind of possible candidates for a PMI program is invaluable, it may not be a good predictor of a candidate's performance as a role model.

Individuals with the diagnosis of schizophrenia can show deficits in theory of mind. Mirjam Sprong and colleagues investigated the impairment by examining 29 different studies, with a total of over participants. They performed poorly on false-belief tasks, which test the ability to understand that others can hold false beliefs about events in the world, and also on intention-inference tasks, which assess the ability to infer a character's intention from reading a short story. Schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms , such as lack of emotion, motivation, or speech, have the most impairment in theory of mind and are unable to represent the mental states of themselves and of others.

Paranoid schizophrenic patients also perform poorly because they have difficulty accurately interpreting others' intentions. The meta-analysis additionally showed that IQ, gender, and age of the participants does not significantly affect the performance of theory of mind tasks.

Current research suggests that impairment in theory of mind negatively affects clinical insight, the patient's awareness of their mental illness. Therapies that teach patients perspective-taking and self-reflection skills can improve abilities in reading social cues and taking the perspective of another person.

The majority of the current literature supports the argument that the theory of mind deficit is a stable trait-characteristic rather than a state-characteristic of schizophrenia. The results indicate that the deficit is not merely a consequence of the active phase of schizophrenia. Schizophrenic patients' deficit in theory of mind impairs their daily interactions with others. An example of a disrupted interaction is one between a schizophrenic parent and a child.

Theory of mind is particularly important for parents, who must understand the thoughts and behaviors of their children and react accordingly. Dysfunctional parenting is associated with deficits in the first-order theory of mind, the ability to understand another person's thoughts, and the second-order theory of mind, the ability to infer what one person thinks about another person's thoughts. Impairments in theory of mind, as well as other social-cognitive deficits are commonly found in people suffering from alcoholism , due to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the brain, particularly the prefrontal cortex.

Individuals in a current major depressive episode , a disorder characterized by social impairment, show deficits in theory of mind decoding. The opposite pattern, enhanced theory of mind, is observed in individuals vulnerable to depression, including those individuals with past major depressive disorder MDD , [ citation needed ] dysphoric individuals, [89] and individuals with a maternal history of MDD. Children diagnosed with developmental language disorder DLD exhibit much lower scores on reading and writing sections of standardized tests, yet have a normal nonverbal IQ.

These language deficits can be any specific deficits in lexical semantics, syntax, or pragmatics, or a combination of multiple problems. They often exhibit poorer social skills than normally developing children, and seem to have problems decoding beliefs in others. A recent meta-analysis confirmed that children with DLD have substantially lower scores on theory of mind tasks compared to typically developing children.

Research on theory of mind in autism led to the view that mentalizing abilities are subserved by dedicated mechanisms that can - in some cases - be impaired while general cognitive function remains largely intact. Neuroimaging research has supported this view, demonstrating specific brain regions consistently engaged during theory of mind tasks. Studies from Rebecca Saxe 's lab at MIT, using a false-belief versus false-photograph task contrast aimed at isolating the mentalizing component of the false-belief task, have very consistently found activation in mPFC, precuneus, and temporo-parietal junction TPJ , right-lateralized.

However, it is possible that the observation of overlapping regions for representing beliefs and attentional reorienting may simply be due to adjacent, but distinct, neuronal populations that code for each. In a study following Decety and Mitchell, Saxe and colleagues used higher-resolution fMRI and showed that the peak of activation for attentional reorienting is approximately mm above the peak for representing beliefs.

Further corroborating that differing populations of neurons may code for each process, they found no similarity in the patterning of fMRI response across space. Functional imaging has also been used to study the detection of mental state information in Heider-Simmel-esque animations of moving geometric shapes, which typical humans automatically perceive as social interactions laden with intention and emotion. Three studies found remarkably similar patterns of activation during the perception of such animations versus a random or deterministic motion control: mPFC, pSTS, fusiform face area FFA , and amygdala were selectively engaged during the Theory of Mind condition.

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A separate body of research has implicated the posterior superior temporal sulcus in the perception of intentionality in human action; this area is also involved in perceiving biological motion, including body, eye, mouth, and point-light display motion. Examples would be: a human performing a reach-to-grasp motion on empty space next to an object, versus grasping the object; [] a human shifting eye gaze toward empty space next to a checkerboard target versus shifting gaze toward the target; [] an unladen human turning on a light with his knee, versus turning on a light with his knee while carrying a pile of books; [] and a walking human pausing as he passes behind a bookshelf, versus walking at a constant speed.

The incongruent actions, on the other hand, require further explanation why would someone twist empty space next to a gear? Note that this region is distinct from the temporo-parietal area activated during false belief tasks. Neuropsychological evidence has provided support for neuroimaging results regarding the neural basis of theory of mind.

Studies with patients suffering from a lesion of the frontal lobes and the temporoparietal junction of the brain between the temporal lobe and parietal lobe reported that they have difficulty with some theory of mind tasks. However, the fact that the medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction are necessary for theory of mind tasks does not imply that these regions are specific to that function. Research by Vittorio Gallese , Luciano Fadiga and Giacomo Rizzolatti reviewed in [] has shown that some sensorimotor neurons , which are referred to as mirror neurons , first discovered in the premotor cortex of rhesus monkeys , may be involved in action understanding.

Single-electrode recording revealed that these neurons fired when a monkey performed an action, as well as when the monkey viewed another agent carrying out the same task. Similarly, fMRI studies with human participants have shown brain regions assumed to contain mirror neurons that are active when one person sees another person's goal-directed action. There is also evidence against the link between mirror neurons and theory of mind. First, macaque monkeys have mirror neurons but do not seem to have a 'human-like' capacity to understand theory of mind and belief.

Some investigators, like developmental psychologist Andrew Meltzoff and neuroscientist Jean Decety , believe that mirror neurons merely facilitate learning through imitation and may provide a precursor to the development of Theory of Mind. In a recent paper, Keren Haroush and Ziv Williams outlined the case for a group of neurons in primates' brains that uniquely predicted the choice selection of their interacting partner.

These primates' neurons, located in the anterior cingulate cortex of rhesus monkeys, were observed using single-unit recording while the monkeys played a variant of the iterative prisoner's dilemma game. Several neuroimaging studies have looked at the neural basis theory of mind impairment in subjects with Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autism HFA. The first PET study of theory of mind in autism also the first neuroimaging study using a task-induced activation paradigm in autism replicated a prior study in normal individuals, which employed a story-comprehension task.

However, because the study used only six subjects with autism, and because the spatial resolution of PET imaging is relatively poor, these results should be considered preliminary. A subsequent fMRI study scanned normally developing adults and adults with HFA while performing a "reading the mind in the eyes" task: viewing a photo of a human's eyes and choosing which of two adjectives better describes the person's mental state, versus a gender discrimination control.

A more recent PET study looked at brain activity in individuals with HFA and Asperger syndrome while viewing Heider-Simmel animations see above versus a random motion control. Activity in extrastriate regions V3 and LO was identical across the two groups, suggesting intact lower-level visual processing in the subjects with autism. The study also reported significantly less functional connectivity between STS and V3 in the autism group. Note, however, that decreased temporal correlation between activity in STS and V3 would be expected simply from the lack of an evoked response in STS to intent-laden animations in subjects with autism.

A more informative analysis would be to compute functional connectivity after regressing out evoked responses from all-time series. Both explanations involve an impairment in the ability to link eye gaze shifts with intentional explanations. This study also found a significant anticorrelation between STS activation in the incongruent-congruent contrast and social subscale score on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised , but not scores on the other subscales.

In , an fMRI study demonstrated that the right temporoparietal junction rTPJ of higher-functioning adults with autism was not more selectively activated for mentalizing judgments when compared to physical judgments about self and other. This evidence builds on work in typical development that suggests rTPJ is critical for representing mental state information, irrespective of whether it is about oneself or others. It also points to an explanation at the neural level for the pervasive mind-blindness difficulties in autism that are evident throughout the lifespan.

The brain regions associated with theory of mind include the superior temporal gyrus STS , the temporoparietal junction TPJ , the medial prefrontal cortex MPFC , the precuneus, and the amygdala. Group member average scores of theory of mind abilities, measured with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test [] RME , are suggested as drivers of successful group performance.

RME is a Theory of Mind test for adults [] that shows sufficient test-retest reliability [] and constantly differentiates control groups from individuals with functional autism or Asperger syndrome. The evolutionary origin of theory of mind remains obscure. While many theories make claims about its role in the development of human language and social cognition few of them specify in detail any evolutionary neurophysiological precursors. A recent theory claims that Theory of Mind has its roots in two defensive reactions, namely immobilization stress and tonic immobility, which are implicated in the handling of stressful encounters and also figure prominently in mammalian childrearing practices Tsoukalas, An open question is whether other animals besides humans have a genetic endowment and social environment that allows them to acquire a theory of mind in the same way that human children do.

One difficulty with non-human studies of theory of mind is the lack of sufficient numbers of naturalistic observations, giving insight into what the evolutionary pressures might be on a species' development of theory of mind. Non-human research still has a major place in this field, however, and is especially useful in illuminating which nonverbal behaviors signify components of theory of mind, and in pointing to possible stepping points in the evolution of what many claim to be a uniquely human aspect of social cognition.

While it is difficult to study human-like theory of mind and mental states in species whose potential mental states we have an incomplete understanding, researchers can focus on simpler components of more complex capabilities. For example, many researchers focus on animals' understanding of intention, gaze, perspective, or knowledge or rather, what another being has seen. A study that looked at understanding of intention in orangutans, chimpanzees and children showed that all three species understood the difference between accidental and intentional acts.

Recently, most non-human theory of mind research has focused on monkeys and great apes, who are of most interest in the study of the evolution of human social cognition. Other studies relevant to attributions theory of mind have been conducted using plovers [] and dogs, [] and have shown preliminary evidence of understanding attention—one precursor of theory of mind—in others. There has been some controversy over the interpretation of evidence purporting to show theory of mind ability—or inability—in animals.

They found that the animals failed in most cases to differentially request food from the "knower". By contrast, Hare, Call, and Tomasello found that subordinate chimpanzees were able to use the knowledge state of dominant rival chimpanzees to determine which container of hidden food they approached. In a experiment, ravens Corvus corax were shown to take into account visual access of unseen conspecifics.

The researchers argued that "ravens can generalize from their own perceptual experience to infer the possibility of being seen". A study published by evolutionary anthropologist Christopher Krupenye brings new light to the existence of Theory of Mind, and particularly false beliefs, in non-human primates. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others. Main article: Collective intelligence. See also: Animal consciousness and Theory of mind in animals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.

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