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Which of the following are correct regarding the effects of increased levels of growth hormone in acromegaly? Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of vasopressin from the adrenal glands. Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of insulin like growth factor one IGF1 from the adrenal glands. Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of insulin like growth factor one IGF1 from the liver. Increased levels of growth hormone stimulate increased production of vasopressin from the liver. Question 9 Explanation:.

The increased levels of growth hormone stimulate overproduction of IGF1 from the liver. Question What is the most common cause for the overproduction of growth hormone in acromegaly? Question 10 Explanation:. In very rare cases acromegaly can be caused by ectopic production of growth hormone by carcinoid tumours. Which one of the following is the main function of aldosterone? Question 11 Explanation:. Aldosterone causes reabsorption of sodium and water as well as causing excretion of potassium. This results in an increase in blood volume.

Which of the following are causes of Addison's disease? Autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Which of the following are symptoms of acromegaly? Visual changes double vision, reduced vision, tunnel vision. Question 13 Explanation:. The symptoms of acromegaly can manifest in many different and seemingly unrelated ways.

As a result patients often don't realise the link between their symptoms.


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What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism? Addison's disease involves the overproduction of androgens by the adrenal medulla. Addison's disease involves the overproduction of cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Addison's disease involves the underproduction of androgens by the adrenal medulla. Which is a more sensitive measure of thyroid function?

Question 16 Explanation:. The adequate amount of free T3 and T4 in the blood varies significantly between patients. As a result the TSH value provides a sensitive indicator of whether a patients individual thyroid hormone levels are adequate for them. However if the TSH is high or low it suggests that the level of thyroid hormones is not currently at the correct level for that patient. TSH is therefore an incredibly useful indicator when a patient has hypothyroidism and requires thyroxine. By monitoring the TSH value you can adjust the dose until TSH normalises, at which point you can be confident you are providing the patient with the correct amount of thyroid hormones.

Which of the following is the underlying problem in neurogenic diabetes insipidus? Overproduction of vasopressin antidiuretic hormone. Question 17 Explanation:. In neurogenic diabetes insipidus the underlying pathology involves the lack of vasopressin production by the posterior pituitary. Which of the following are Sertoli cells responsible for producing? Which of the following statements best describes Hashimoto's thyroiditis?

A destructive autoimmune disease caused by auto-reactive antibodies against thyroglobulin. Inflammation of the thyroid gland as the result of a virus. The disease is often preceded by an upper respiratory tract infection. Which of the following is not a symptom of Cushing's syndrome? Question 20 Explanation:. Increased pigmentation of skin is not a symptom of Cushing's syndrome. Hyperpigmentation is associated with Addison's disease.

In regard to the investigation of hyperthyroidism, which one of the following antibodies is specific to Grave's disease? Question 21 Explanation:. TSH receptor antibodies are highly specific for Grave's disease. The other two antibodies can be found in both Grave's and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Which one of the following is acromegaly caused by? Overproduction of gonadotrophin releasing hormone GnRH. Overproduction of adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH.

Question 22 Explanation:. Acromegaly occurs as a result of overproduction of growth hormone. The increased levels of this hormone causes increased proliferation of a number of tissues which results in the characteristic features of acromegaly. Which of the following statements correctly describes the pathophysiology of Cushing's disease? High levels of ACTH in turn cause increased production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. High levels of ACTH in turn causes increased production of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. Which of the following are symptoms of Addison's disease?

Question 24 Explanation:. The lack of cortisol results in significant weight loss in the majority of patients. Patients often feel very unwell and lethargic. Some patients also exhibit hyperpigmentation of their skin often mistaken as a "healthy" tan. Some patients also experience postural hypotension due to the lack of aldosterone. Which of the following are causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Mutations in the vasopressin ADH receptor gene. Question 25 Explanation:. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus involves the inability for the kidneys to respond appropriately the vasopressin ADH. Anything which impairs the kidney's ability to respond to ADH has the potential to cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

Which age group does acromegaly most commonly affect? Question 27 Explanation:. Most who develop acromegaly are between years old. Acromegaly would not develop in young children as their growth plates have not yet fused, so they would develop gigantism instead. What of the following statements best describes a toxic thyroid adenoma?

Inflammation of the thyroid gland due to lymphocytic infiltration causing stored thyroid hormones to be released into the circulation leading to hyperthyroidism. These arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid. A malignant tumour of the thyroid gland which produces excessive amounts of thyroid hormones. These arise from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland.

Which one of the following statements is true regarding the prevalence of acromegaly? Acromegaly affects twice as many men than it does women. Acromegaly affects twice as many women than men. Acromegaly effects a similar number of men and women. Question 29 Explanation:. The prevalence of acromegaly is equally distributed between sexes. Which of the following does the adrenal cortex produce? Question 30 Explanation:. The adrenal cortex is responsible for the production of both cortisol and aldosterone. Adrenaline and noradrenaline are produced by the adrenal medulla.

Which of the following are common symptoms of hyperthyroidism? Question 31 Explanation:. Hyperthyroidism can present with a wide array of symptoms and these often differ considerably between patients. However symptoms such as weight loss, tremor, heat intolerance and diarrhoea are quite common. In males which hormone stimulates Leydig cells to produce testosterone?

Which of the following are common symptoms of hypothyroidism? Which of the following are not causes of neurogenic diabetes insipidus? Mutatations in the vasopressin ADH receptor gene. Question 34 Explanation:.

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Anything which effects the pituitary and its production of vasopressin can ultimately cause neurogenic diabetes insipidus. Mutations in the ADH receptor gene and polycystic kidneys are both causes of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which one of the following statements best defines dipsogenic diabetes insipidus?

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Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the hypothalamus causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary gland causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary stalk causing malfunction of the hunger mechanism. Dipsogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by a defect or damage to the pituitary stalk causing malfunction of the thirst mechanism. Question 35 Explanation:. As a result the individual is excessively thirsty regardless of their fluid status.

The individual therefore consumes large volumes of fluid which suppresses secretion of vasopressin and increases urine output. Which of the following statements best describes diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of large volumes of dilute urine. Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of small volumes of dilute urine. Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of small volumes of concentrated urine. Diabetes insipidus is a disease characterised by the passage of large volumes of concentrated urine.

Question 36 Explanation:. Which of the following causes of Cushing's syndrome does the phrase "Cushing's disease" specifically refer to? Question 37 Explanation:. Cushing's disease refers specifically to Cushing's syndrome occurring as a result of a pituitary adenoma. What is the most common cause of Cushing's syndrome? Question 38 Explanation:.

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The most common cause of Cushing's syndrome is the long term use of glucocorticoid treatments steroids. These treatments are commonly used to suppress inflammation in many diseases. If these treatments are used long term they can result in the development of Cushing's syndrome. As a result most steroid treatments are only given for short durations with the minimum dose possible. Which of the following statements best describes Cushing's syndrome?

Question 39 Explanation:. Cushing's syndrome occurs as a result of an individual having abnormally high levels of cortisol. This can be due to a number of different causes. Which of the following hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary gland? Question 40 Explanation:. The posterior pituitary gland is responsible for storing oxytocin and vasopressin. Which one of the following hormones binds to the pituitary and stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone LH and follicle stimulating hormone FSH? Question 41 Explanation:. The hypothalamus secretes GnRH 2. GnRH travels down to the anterior pituitary gland 3.

It binds to receptors in the pituitary gland 4. Once you are finished, click the button below.

Endocrinology Quiz

Any items you have not completed will be marked incorrect. Get Results. You have completed. You have not finished your quiz. Non-Kenotic Hyperosmolarity — this is caused due to extreme rise of blood sugar. This is seen in type 2 diabetics. The high blood sugar leads to excessive concentration or osmolality of blood which in turn leads to dieresis and collapse of the blood vessels and cardiovascular shock.

Naturally occurring hormones are usually active at very low doses. A healthy endocrine system is essential to the normal functioning of the human body. Only a small fraction of these has been investigated in tests capable of identifying endocrine effects in intact organisms. EDCs are present in a wide variety of products including plastics, pesticides, cosmetics, fragrances, food, kitchen cleaners, adhesives, paints, clothing, medical equipment, and toys.

The critical period of development for most organisms is between the transitions from a fertilized egg into a fully formed infant. As the cells begin to grow and differentiate, there are critical balances of hormones and protein changes that must occur. Therefore, a dose of disrupting chemicals may do substantial damage to a developing fetus. The same dose may not significantly affect adult mothers.

For the purpose of predicting type 1 diabetes, a biomarker should be present in a subset of the population, and this subset should have a bias in the proportion of people in whom type 1 diabetes develops. As described in this article, most of the biomarkers used for the prediction of type 1 diabetes are islet-specific supporting the concept that, before overt hyperglycemia, type 1 diabetes is predominantly a targeted disease rather than a systemic disease. Progresses in sub-atomic diagnostics help medicinal experts make proficient, experimentally legitimate choices.

Procedural upgrades from different fields, particularly tumor, are starting to demonstrate the way towards better models of diabetes pathogenesis and atomic biomarker revelation. People with diabetes, the small blood vessels in the body are injured. The body will retain more water and salt than it should, which can result in weight gain and ankle swelling.

Results may have protein in the urine. Also, waste materials will build up in the blood. Diabetes also may cause damage to nerves in the body. The pressure resulting from the full bladder can back up and injure the kidneys. Also, if urine remains in the bladder for a long time, it can develop an infection from the rapid growth of bacteria in urine that has a high sugar level. Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur. The blood pressure may get too high. Maintaining control of the diabetes can lower the risk of developing severe kidney disease.


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  8. The retina detects light and converts it to signals sent through the optic nerve to the brain. Risk increases the longer a person has diabetes. The next most common problem is growth disorders, especially those amenable to growth hormone treatment. The specialty also deals with hypoglycemia and other forms of hyperglycemia in childhood, variations of puberty, as well other adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary problems. A toxic goiter is associated with hyperthyroidism , and a non-toxic goiter, also known as a simple or endemic goiter, is caused by iodine deficiency. People with hyperthyroidism are often sensitive to heat, hyperactive, and eat excessively.

    Goiter is sometimes a side effect of hyperthyroidism.

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    This is due to an over-stimulated thyroid and inflamed tissues, respectively. In infants, the condition is known as cretinism. Cretinism has very serious side effects, including abnormal bone formation and mental retardation. If you have hypothyroidism as an adult, you may experience sensitivity to cold, little appetite, and overall sluggishness. Hypothyroidism often goes unnoticed, sometimes for years, before being diagnosed. The great majority of nodules are benign. Occasionally, symptoms such as hoarseness, neck pain, and enlarged lymph nodes occur in people with thyroid cancer.

    Thyroid cancer can affect anyone at any age, though women and people over thirty are most likely to develop the condition. There are five types of thyroiditis , and the treatment is specific to each. Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments. Medications can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.

    Metabolic disorders can take many forms i. Nutritional deficiencies. Metabolic disorders can be present at birth, and many can be identified by routine screening. Specific blood and DNA tests can be done to diagnose genetic metabolic disorders. The gut microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms that live in the human digestive system, also has an important part in metabolism and generally has a positive function for its host. They are trained to evaluate and treat malfunctioning in females and males outside infertility.

    Related issues that the endocrinologist may help evaluate and provide care for include:. For some men, lower than normal testosterone produces no apparent effects; for others, effects of this condition may include:. Program - a free Victorian lifestyle modification program that helps you reduce your risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.


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    Manage your weight. This can lead to type 2 diabetes. Exercise regularly. Eat a balanced, healthy diet. Eat more fruit, vegetables and high-fiber foods. Cut back on salt. Limit takeaway and processed foods. Limit your alcohol intake. Men should have no more than two standard drinks a day and women should have no more than one. Quit smoking. Control your blood pressure. In some cases, it might need medication prescribed by the doctor.

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    Reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease. Call for proposals are open for oral papers, panel presentations and scientific posters across the list of tracks highlighted in our website and papers on other topics not listed are also welcome if they meet the objectives of the conference. We hope and expect World Endocrinology theme to inspire a number of research avenues, and look forward to discussing ideas, findings and synergies, in this International Academic Forum. Growing incidences of endocrine disorders such as hyperthyroidism and adrenal insufficiency is predicted to boost the demand for endocrine testing.

    The growing diabetic, geriatric and obese population worldwide is expected to promote the market growth. Furthermore, growing healthcare awareness among individuals coupled with increasing government support is expected to increase the diagnosis at an early, thereby contributing to the growth of the endocrine testing market. Owing to increasing health awareness around the world, there have been advancement in home health care along with easy operating home diagnostic kits which are cost effective and designed with precision.

    Many new mass spectrometric technologies have been introduced which deliver accurate results in less time and they are highly sensitive. Mass Spectrometry is now coupled with liquid chromatography for more precision. Telehealth services have also been introduced by some commercial laboratories and stand-alone clinics.

    Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH test accounted for a lucrative share in , This can be attributed to the increasing incidences of TSH-related disorders and the growing awareness regarding correlation between variations in the thyroid hormones levels and cardiovascular disorders.

    Insulin test is anticipated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. The substantial rise in the diabetic population and the growing awareness about diagnosis are anticipated to contribute towards the demand for insulin test over the forecast period. The tandem mass spectrometry is expected to dominate the market during the forecast period.

    This can be attributed to growing use of tandem mass spectrometry in combination with liquid chromatography which helps in overcoming the challenges associated with traditional techniques used for endocrine testing. Sensor Technology is expected to show the fastest growth among all the segments owing to growing use of biosensors in glucose monitoring for diabetes which is used on routine basis by the individuals to monitor their blood sugar level in undiluted blood samples. The players are actively involved in launching technologically advanced products and initiate collaborative developments to sustain themselves in the competition.

    For instance, LabCorp offers all-embracing solutions on clinical trials pertaining to diabetes and all other hormonal diseases. In addition, the company also provides liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry to yield specific results even with minimal amounts of the hormonal sample. Thanks to all our momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference. World Endocrinology witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various new-fangled topics related to the fields of Healthcare.

    The meeting was carried out through various sessions, in which the discussions were held on the following major scientific tracks:.