Guide La question homosexuelle en Afrique : le cas du Cameroun (French Edition)

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KMLA Lib. R Bh v. Press , pp. DeLancey and H. Mitchell, International Historical Statistics. Literature on the History of West Africa. Precolonial History, to In the southern, coastal areas political units were rather small and the religion practised animistic. It's dominant ethnic group were the Muslim Fulani; Islam was state religion, but they ruled over many animistic peoples.

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The northernmost stretch of Cameroon, adjacent to Lake Chad, was part of the Kotoko which were conquered by the Empire of Bornu late in the 19th century and converted to Islam. Protestant mission, by British, West Indian and American missionaries, began in at Victoria near Bimbia , in the coastal region. The chiefs of Duala offered to cede stretches along the coast to Britain as early as ; an offer which was repeated several times.

The natives hoped the British would guarantee, and at the same time respect the Dualans' monopoly in the trade with the interior. The British, however, hesitated, fearing a protectorate over Cameroons would become a financial burden. When Britain , fearing French attempts for a colonial acquisition, acted, they were surprised by a German "coup". In , Gustav Nachtigal arrived, obtained treaties from local chiefs and proclaimed Kamerun at that time only a coastal stretch of territory a German colony. Germany had trading interests in the area, second only to the British. Agreements fixing Cameroon's borders were signed with France in , with Britain in Until the colony officially was referred to as Deutsch-Westafrika and consisted of two parts, Kamerun and Togoland ; the Governor resided in Buea Kamerun ; in , Togoland was made a separate colony.

In the early years the colony lacked funding and consequently developed slowly. The geography was a major obstacle - few, short stretches of navigable rivers; mountain ranges with deep valleys - the terrain made railway construction extremely difficult and thus made the development of many hinterland resources unprofitable. In addition, the native coastal population resisted attempts by the whites to penetrate into the interior, as they regarded the trade with the interior their monopoly.

The Germans established their seat of administration at Buea, on the slopes of Mount Kamerun, in plantation country. Duala, located less excentrally, often provided the place for council meetings. At the head of the colony was the Governor, the first of whom was von Soden who arrived in In a Gouvernementsrat Advisory Council was established, consisting of planters, traders and missionaries - all whites.

In the various districts, the government was represented by the District Officials, on a lower level by Station Heads. These officials were responsible for administration and jurisdiction and even could impose the death penalty, which required the governor's countersignature.

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The colonial administration respected, with certain limitations, traditional law as applied by the chieftains. The station heads or district officials functioned as a higher instance, if applied to, For whites, the basic court was the Bezirksgericht District Court ; the highest court in the country the Obergericht in Duala.

For natives, the higher instance was the governor or a judge appointed by him. A Polizeitruppe police force was established in , recruited mainly abroad, most notably from Dahomeyans. A Schutztruppe protective troops was created in Ecclesiastically, Kamerun was seceded from the Apostolic Vicariate of Gabon in and established as a separate Apostolic Prefecture, which in was elevated to an Apostolic Vicariat. The most important export product was Natural Rubber, growing wild in the forest, collected mostly by natives who sold it to German traders; the government profitted by raising duties on exported rubber, the colony's major revenue.

Demand for African labour was great; the natives unwilling to take upon themselves regular hard work. Labor shortage was a constant complaint of plantation owners and businessmen. Almost every year the German government had to subsidize the colony in order to balance it's budget. Construction material for the railways, for administration buildings etc. The Germans did establish an infrastructure - they developed Duala into a city, built railroads, schools and hospitals. The colony's population in was 2,, The native peoples of the Cameroons were sceptical of the German colonial masters.

The coastal population long had desired a protectorate, understanding it would guarantee peace amongst themselves and protect them against other foreign powers' pressure as well as against slave raids. On the other hand they were determined to preserve their trading monopoly with the interior; they were very sceptical of Germans attempting to penetrate into what they regarded their hinterland. Many were also unwilling to work on plantations, on the railway construction lines or in mines for longer periods of time.

Guilty by Association

In the early years, the British enjoyed a high reputation and some British traders succeeded in causing coastal villages to resist German rule. Later, German attempts to penetrate into the interior were repeatedly attacked; the station at Yaunde repeatedly was cut off from communication with the coast. The colonial administration, attempting to teach the native population to focus more on agriculture, to make up for losses in trade, as well as to introduce civilisation discourage polygamy, for example , had to proceed with patience.

In the early years of the 20th century, the colony was pacified, civilian district officers had replaced military commanders almost everywhere. Armed resistance had ceased. The policy as regards treatment of the natives differed from governor to governor. Acting governor Leist was accused of cruelty; under him the Dahomeyan soldiers of the Polizeitruppe rebelled. Governor Seitz aimed at protecting the rights of the natives and integrating them in the lower levels of the administration.

In in the Second Moroccan Crisis, Germany finally gave up it's claim for the Moroccan port of Agadir in exchange for a large stretch of territory in northern Gabon and Northern Moyen Congo , ceded by France Germany also ceded a stretch of Cameroonese territory in the North, which extended far east.

The newly acquired territory - , square km - was of limited value, most of it overgrown by the jungle. Germany had little time to either develop or exploit it. In , World War I broke out and the colony of Kamerun was surrounded by enemy territory - British Nigeria in the west, French Equatorial Africa in the east and south. In , the colony was invaded by British, Belgian and French troops, which established their respective military administrations; the lion's share fell to the French.

In , Kamerun was occupied by British, Belgian and French troops. The British took two stretches of territory along the Nigerian border under military administration; the area, called Cameroons, was for decades treated as an annex to Nigeria.

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The lions share of Cameroon was occupied by French troops. France reintegrated the territories ceded to Germany in and took the remainder, as Cameroun Colony, under military administration, in officially granted to France as a League of Nations Mandate.

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In , the capital of Cameroun was moved from Duala to Yaounde. The French extended the railway system, established more plantations, developed the colony's economy. In the early es, Germans had repurchased some property in British Cameroons; in the es, German interest groups lobbied for the return of Germany's ex-colonies, a matter which was diplomatically discussed during the Appeasement years.

In , in Cameroun the Jeucafra movement was founded, being vehemently opposed to the return of German rule. In , the capital of French Cameroun was moved back from Yaounde to Douala; in again to Yaounde. From to , Cameroun was administrated by governors. However, the political tendency favoured independence over integration. The status of the country was elevated from a colony to an overseas territory, the administration now laid in the hands of a high commissioner.

In fact, the countries administration continued to be dominated by whites. In , the UPC Union des populations du Cameroun was founded; dissatisfied with the progress of democratization, it went underground in and took up armed struggle. In , French Equatorial Africa was dissolved. The country's assembly was given legislative powers; the office of prime minister was introduced, to be filled by Camerounians. Cameroun declared independence in , as did neighbouring British Nigeria.

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In British Cameroons, a plebiscite was held regarding the areas future The northern part voted for integration into Nigeria , the southern part for reintegration into Cameroun. Independence, In , Cameroun became an independent republic, and Ahmadou Ahidjo the country's first president. Government was dominated by the Union Camerounaise, which represented the Northerners; Southerners felt ill-represented and the country soon was in rebellion, which was put down with French military assistance. Ahidjo transferred Cameroun into a One-Party-State.

In , a federal constitution was passed, which was replaced by a unified, centralized state in In the es, oil was found, boosting the economy. Country Profiles. Links, Portals. Accounts of History. Military History. Economic History. Social History. History of Religion. Regional History.

Local History. Historical Data. National Symbols. Online Libraries. Online Journals. General Accounts. Specific Topics. Historical Dictionaries. The Open Budget Survey measures the state of budget transparency, participation and oversight in countries. The OBI is a list of multi-stakeholder choice questions that are completed through a consultative and verified process. Once completed, a composite score is calculated for each country, with being the highest score possible. The OBI undertakes the survey every two years; the first took place in The Middle East and North Africa grouping has an average score of These performances mask varied scores within the continent.

Encouragingly, on average, the scores from the surveyed countries from Francophone West Africa doubled since from 8 to Amongst this group, Burkina Faso is one of the two greatest improvers in Africa over the period. Some countries however registered dramatic declines in scores between and The scores of Egypt and Zambia fell by 36 and 32 points respectively over the period see the table below, which plots OBI scores for those countries which have been surveyed since