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To begin with, it justifies the choice of Faizabad and not Goa for the development of the plot since this dislocation avoids the confrontation between the Indian and the Portuguese and allows for Fray Francisco to become the ideal mediator between these two worlds. Os brahamanes is thus a novel that looks to Indian culture from a Portuguese rather than a purely European perspective. Hence, at the time that it sees European culture as the social paradigm to be followed and disqualifies Indian culture and the caste system, it defends Catholicism, to the detriment of Protestantism, as the best way to correct the ills of Indian culture.

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It thus attacks both the Indian caste system and British colonialism. Paradoxically, at another level, it ends up defending the caste system because its references to Goa can be understood as an attack by the Chardos, as Kshatryias are called in Goa , on Brahmin hegemony. In other words, Os brahamanes is a novel that criticizes both Hinduism and British colonialism from an explicitly colonial perspective.

It defends Catholic humanism at the same time as it ends up participating in the logic of Indian culture. It is an immemorial and all-encompassing genre that articulates the need to narrate, inherent to the human condition, and that appears well before the contemporary definition of literature, as narratives which are printed, organized in genres and form part of national literary traditions both in the East and the West.

According to Melo e Castro , p. Also, Mary Louis Pratt , p. Because they are short they can be easily published not only in books but also in newspapers and literary magazines. Kumar Sisir Das , p. The first one has to do with oral tales and fables while the second appeared in the nineteenth century with the emergence of written tales in newspapers and periodicals in the form of sketches and incident reporting.

This last stage anticipated what in the English tradition is known as short story and, in a realistic style, without gods or fabled animals, tells stories about the social environment both public and private. It could be said that in this third stage the passage from the tale to the short story takes place. While the former would have the structure of pre- colonial Indian narratives, the latter responds to the standard of the English short story. On the other hand, according to Pratt , p.

This is no less true of Goan short stories in Portuguese. An Anthology of Goan Short 4. According to Deleuze e Guattari , minor literatures are literatures from marginal communities written in local languages as is the case of Portuguese. Third, when this decree was repealed in , until the integration of Goa into India in , and its aftermath. All together, these short stories make up a historiography not only of the genre but of Goan literature in the Portuguese language. In the same fashion, the cultural background changes with the times. Likewise, opinions about integration with India start being divided.

As times and scenery change so do literary styles. Little by little, however, writers developed a style of their own. Other writers then appear on the literary scene like Laxmanrao Sardessai , who wrote mainly in Marathi, the language of the Hindu community in Goa, but also in Portuguese. Grandmother passed away" "Decline", These are just two among many other references. Although, the actions in the different stories have different historical events as a background, these references can only be read in between the lines of the short stories, since the author never identifies them directly, giving us the idea that there is a synchronic rather than diachronic relationship between the narratives.

This is why it is the place where the stories take place, Goa, that actually gives unity to the narratives rather than the historical conflicts. Sandra Zagarell , p. Thus, narratives of place, instead of being linear and leading to the resolution of conflicts, are episodic and procedural: they present the community in action, in a continuous becoming that never finds a resolution.

Goan Literature in Portuguese 33 Devi and Seabra , p. One of the feudal customs maintained in this society was that of arranged marriages, which is common to both Eastern and Western societies, helping to solidify the structure of the patriarchal hierarchy in which sexuality is the basis of woman's subordination. In Portugal and Goa this type of marriage, by family alliances, was connected to the custom according to which the properties of the family were indivisible and would be inherited by the first-born.

In this way, the fortune and the family name were maintained through generations. The marriage for love that advocated that what one should seek in marriage was a companion "virtuous, understanding, of good character, a good economic situation and a pleasant person" Stone , p. It is the story of the Fonseca sisters, the last members of a family of the old Indo-Portuguese aristocracy. Although when seen from the point of view of Goan society the Fonseca sisters were old and ugly spinsters, they were, nonetheless, very successful economically.

In fact, thanks to Soledade, they could dispense with the male presence in the home, a fact which already defies the stereotype of the high caste Christian woman of Goan society whose main aim in life was to marry and raise a family. But the great frustration of the sisters is not so much that they were not married, which was very badly seen in this society, but the lack of an heir to perpetuate the name of the family. The connection of the Fonseca sisters with the outside world was their aunt Sacramenta for whom the marriage of one of the sisters was the way to safeguard the family honor.

Of the four sisters, only Teodolinda, the third, more beautiful than the others, was still able to marry. The only thing he brought to the Fonseca family was his family's lineage because he had neither fortune nor intelligence. It is not worth the effort. What you need is to rest. Take a rest. I was there last week He took a dhumti out and placed it pensively between his lips" Paradoxically, in her desire to continue the family tradition and to be well- seen within Goan society, Soledade subverts the patriarchal hierarchy.

Thus, the political change sweeping Goa enters the private sphere when the author criticizes an almost feudal custom and shows the way in which women have managed to use the few resources at their disposal to survive in a society that imprisons them. Translated from the Portuguese by Paul Melo e Castro.

Goan Literature in Portuguese 35 Poetry Goan poetry is very complex in its references, but, in general, it follows European literary movements. We can consider some classical Portuguese authors as belonging to Goan literature in Portuguese, because they had an important role in this poetical tradition. They saw Goan culture from a European perspective and their poems speak in a negative manner about this reality.

Than in London, Paris or Lisbon. In this poetical tradition, a Goan perspective starts to appear in the nineteenth century, when Goan writers put their own reality in verse. Among the members of the first generation Manuel Joaquim da Costa Campos? One of the most prolific poets of this time is Manuel Joaquim da Costa Campos who refers to Goa in a very different manner from that of the Portuguese classical poets mentioned above.

Enfim tu partes, Oh my God! The land of your country! Of childhood, of light, of flowers. To live in another land? The nativist movement that emerges at that time describes Goa as an idealized place where affection and the beauty of nature prevails, in the Romantic style. They, with others, began to systematically cultivate Hindu themes in a very prolific manner. It is at this moment that the aforementioned Portuguese poet Alberto Osorio de Castro, residing in Goa at the time, became aware of the admiration and dialogue that many Goan poets established with him.

A final group of poets appeared before the end of the colonial period, for example Laxmanrao Sardessai ? At this time the Hindu tradition was still cultivated, but new critical perspectives were evident. The livewire hurricane Tenho as pernas colossais, I have colossal legs Com que transponho inda os mares. And crush animals underfoot. My pointed weapons. O sun! Pouco monta I shall destroy you And let nary a flower bloom. Um mogarim, pouco importa.

A mogarim, it matters little. O burning coal. Nesse rosado oriente In the rosy East Com esses loiros punhais. With those yellow daggers. What care I of its virtue? This is a poem written in redondilha maior seven syllable verses , with intercalated and paired rhymes, after the popular tradition of Portuguese poetry.

According to the poet, these latter traits do away with his most positive side such as being pious, courageous and wise. From the beginning, the epigraph frames the reading of the poem leading the reader to interpret the mythical episode from the perspective of the historical episode. The last three stanzas even threaten preventing the sun from shining. Hanumat is therefore considered a willful and cruel God.

The Monkey- God thus stands as an allegory of the futile and cruel aims of the elite, which would wipe out the whole population of the country if they so desired it, revealing themselves as being as immature as the Monkey-God in his first years of life. The irony originates in the analogy between the behaviour of the Monkey- God in relation to the sun, and the behaviour of the Australian politicians towards the Aborigines. The irony points to the barbarism, that is implied in this act of genocide. On January 1st, the six autonomous territories of the Australian continent, then an English colony, constituted themselves as a federation and became a separate Commonwealth.

The other poems in Orientais do not carry this kind of reference; they deal, mainly, with love affairs, reflections on the human soul, the idealization of the Hindu woman, Buddha, Christ, and human suffering. This reveals a very peculiar political involvement on the part of the poet that hardly reveals itself. Final Words The oeuvre of these different authors, each in his or her own way, contributed to giving shape to a literary tradition that had its roots both in India and Portugal and, little by little, developed a character of its own.

Devy , p. In other words, the non-canonical traditions which are considered as being minor or marginalized because they are articulated in so-called minor languages. The relationship between para literature and literature, or canonical and non- canonical literature, also defined as Deshi and Marga respectively, is highly fluctuating and in the same way that languages change their status within the nation, so do literary traditions. One clear example in the state of Goa would be that of the literary tradition in Portuguese which passed from being the most important in Goa to a moribund one, and Konkani which, during Portuguese colonization was reduced to second place and today is studied as the most important literary tradition of the state.

For Devy there is a dialectical relationship between these two bodies of literary narratives that form the backbone of the history of literature of India based on the Indian epistemology of non-duality. All Indian literary narratives can be considered to be selves that do not exist independently but as part of an all encompassing Self Devy, , p. We like to think that narratives from Goa in the Portuguese language also belong among them. Texts Cited Candido, Antonio. Castro, Paul Melo e, ed.

In Lengthening Shadows. Castro, Paul Melo e. The Last Snapshots of Colonial Goa. In: Portuguese Studies vol. A History of Indian Literature. Delhi: South Asia Books. Das, Sisir Kumar. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. Deleuze, G; Guattari, F. Por uma literatura menor.

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Rio de Janeiro: Imago Editora Limitada. Devi, V; de Seabra, M. A Literatura Indo-Portuguesa. Devi, Vimala. Lisboa: Escritor, Devy, G. From Indian Literature to World Literature. A Conversation with Satya P. In Frontline. April 12th. Garcia, Francisco. Kamat, Pratima. Panaji, Goa: Institute Menezes Braganza. National curriculum framework. Newman, Robert S. Pinto, Rochelle. Between Empires — prints and politics in Goa. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Pratt, Mary Louis. The Short Story. The Long and the Short of It. Charles May, ed. Athens, Ohio: Ohio U. Stone, Lawrence. The Companionate Marriage. London: Penguin. Zagarell, Sandra A. Narrative of Community: The Identification of a Genre. History is replete with such instances. Every empire has resorted to linguistic imposition.

Antonio de Nebrija, the author of Castellan grammar, wrote sagaciously in the dedication of his book: My Illustricious Queen. Whenever I ponder over the tokens of the past that have been preserved in writing, I am forced to the very same conclusion. Language has always been the consort of empire, and forever shall remain its mate. Together they come into being, together they grow and flower, and together they decline. Clark, , p.

Language was envisioned by Nebrija as a tool for national unity and expansion of culture through colonisation — and finally for empire building. As with the Romans, the need for language policies surfaces when a government attempts to unite, more than one central authority, peoples who speak different languages. Os pregadores levam o Evangelho e os mercadores levam os pregadores.

My focus is Portuguese Goa, which intensely witnessed in the years between and varied phases of spiritual and linguistic subjugation by the Church and the Crown. Here the inhabitants, both Catholics and Hindus suffered immensely due to the imposition of Portuguese. Providing some unhistorical and romantic images about the language in colonial Goa is not my intention. With some empirical evidence such as promulgations of the Goa Councils or Holy Office about use of Portuguese during the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, I would focus on the imperial obsession of the colonial government about the use of their language in Goa among its Christian and non-Christian inhabitants.

In this context, I would also underline some reasons for the disappearance of Portuguese from Goa. He planned to transform newly conquered Goa into Lisboa by spreading his religion and culture — and with that intention initiated the teaching of Portuguese along with his mixed marriage stratagem Sanyal, , p. The importance of language as a tool for building empire had already been realised by the Portuguese authorities.

These Hindu temples were the centres for learning Sanskrit, Konkani or Marathi. The churches of Goa played a leading role in grafting Lusitanian culture on the locals, which was originally initiated by Albuquerque. Gradually Konkani was replaced with Portuguese in public domain. Schools were established by different religious orders where Portuguese was taught along with other subjects like Latin, religious songs, etc. The Jesuits did not despise the vernaculars, rather studied them and composed works on various topics.

Such schools were founded in Old Goa, Salcete and Bardez. The members of this order were known for their ignorance of and despise for the vernaculars. They advocated the use of only Portuguese in private or public and suppression of Konkani in Goa. The year witnessed the establishment of the Inquisition in Goa. Nevertheless till , the ecclesiastical and civil powers had appreciated the study of Konkani and other vernaculars. Portuguese control over Goa was under serious threat due to the rising power of the Marathas and their repeated onslaughts during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Renewed attempts were then made to forcibly impart the inhabitants a Portuguese identity through more rigorous spiritual and cultural subjugation. Promotion of Portuguese and suppression of Konkani was an integral part of this subjugation process. The Viceroy of Goa, Francis de Tavora, Conde de Alvor , decreed on 27 June that: In order to put an end to all inconveniences, it would be suitable to set aside the use of the vernacular idiom and to insist that all apply themselves to speak Portuguese since the use of both the languages at 1.

Boletim do Instituto Menezes Braganca, No. Moreover, this language alone should be used by the people in these parts in their dealings and other contracts which they may wish to enter into, those using the vernacular being severely punished for not obeying this mandate. Rivara, , p. No threats could force the Konkani speaking community to part with their mother tongue.

The passive resistance of the Konkani speakers necessitated Amaral de Coutinho, head of the Goa Inquisition to order in that all Goan Catholics would speak only Portuguese and not their mother tongues, so that they might not return to their old faith. Lusitanising the Goans, particularly the Catholics, was a dual process — enslaving spiritually and simultaneously eliminating all vestiges of their Oriental precepts and beliefs, including their language. It was a failed attempt to cleanse the cultural memory of the people.

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Even when entire villages were converted by force or other means, villagers showed remarkable linguistic resilience and Konkani continued to be the first language of the inhabitants. One inquisitor who worked for nearly two decades in Goa wrote to the king in The first and the principal cause of such a lamentable ruin loss of souls is the disregard of the law of His Majesty, D.


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The Inquisition suspected that speaking Konkani would ultimately make the neo- Christians revert to their earlier faith. To underline the irrationality involved in such linguistic policies, the inquisitor quoted above reported that in some places, members of the village communities, including women and children, had been arrested and accused of malpractices since they could not speak any other language but their own Rivara, , p.

He also restricted marriage and priesthood to those who spoke Portuguese exclusively. Brahmins of two provinces were given six months and members of other castes one year for learning Portuguese Rivara, , p. The starkness of the situation is conveyed by the Proclamation of the Holy Office against many local usages and customs. The natives were prohibited to sing marriage songs, popularly known as vovios, even in private.

For the Goan Christians as well as the Hindus, learning Portuguese was the only option left if they wanted to live in their ancestral lands without being persecuted by the Portuguese authorities. But no major change came to the language policies of the government.


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  6. Portuguese continued to be used for integrating indigenous communities. Hence the effect of the very efficient schools of Christian doctrine in Goa as also of the other corrective and educative activities of the Inquisition was very short-lived. It is therefore necessary that the Inquisition should be functioning continuously and permanently.

    Priolkar, , p. Because of the persecution followed by expulsion of the Hindus and Muslims, the economic condition of Goa deteriorated further leading to the migration of Goan Catholics to British India Sanyal, , p. The first state-run educational institutions appeared in Goa in the s under Viceroy Dom Manuel de Portugal e Castro He expressed his surprise at the fact that though Goa belonged to the Portuguese Crown and was governed by Portuguese laws, a very small group of its inhabitants could speak Portuguese.

    He instructed the school teachers not to allow their students to speak the local language in schools Sanyal, , p. The local government took a low-key programme of teaching Marathi, Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil, but Konkani was excluded from it. The Inquisition was ultimately abolished in Goa in From to , many institutions and colleges were opened where the medium of instruction was only Portuguese. Without the knowledge of Portuguese, education remained unattainable for a large section of the society. Nineteenth century Goa imbibed western education, while the winds of liberalism were blowing in Portugal and in its overseas colonies and produced a few native literary figures in Portuguese journalism.

    The presence of Indo-Portuguese literature was visible with its abundantly conspicuous nativism. The early nineteenth-century linguistic situation of Goa is described by Denis Lousis L. Cottineau Kloguen who visited the colony in in the following words: Pure Portuguese language is spoken and known grammatically by all the clergy, lawyers, physicians, magistrates and all those who can afford to receive any kind of education, all speak likewise a corrupt dialect, formed of the Portuguese; and the Concanee, or Mahratha language, which has been however, reduced to grammatical rules; the poorest, and those who cannot read chiefly the woman, speak only this language.

    Kloguen, , pp. Burton , p. He actually blames the government for providing the citizens very poor cultural atmosphere. It needs to be mentioned here that like Albuquerque, Sir Burton observes among the Goans a natural aptitude for languages Burton , p. Even the necessities of the knowledge of vernaculars for commercial interaction were incautiously neglected.

    Journalism in Goa offered an opportunity for reduction of the animosity developed over the centuries between the colonial government and the Konkani speakers, and for a healthy growth of Portuguese with the local languages. During the Constitutional Period as many as 12 laws were enacted solely for regulating the Press. The number of Portuguese periodicals in Goa had a sharp increase after when private printing press was allowed. Between and , the number of Portuguese periodicals was 18 and between and it was 48 Sanyal, Konkani newspapers appeared only in the last decade of the nineteenth century.

    The triumph of the Republicans and separating the Church and the State brought to Goa English education, not supported by the government before. Schools were opened for both Christians and Hindus where Portuguese was a compulsory subject, but the provision of English was included. The middle-class Goans thoroughly capitalised this opportunity of acquiring the knowledge of English. Restrictions on the Hindu Goan students studying in Portuguese government schools were removed after nearly three and a half centuries Couto, , pp. Though for another half a century, Portugal held Goa politically and Portuguese continued to enjoy official status, the future of the language became more and more precarious as it lacked popular support.

    The repressive language policies devised by the colonial authorities for denationalisation and inculturation of the colonised during their four-and-a- half-century rule are primarily responsible for the present state of Portuguese language in Goa. Just before Liberation, the number of students who opted for the Portuguese language in school was barely 30, The census report of reveals that there were 7, Urdu speakers while the number of Portuguese speakers was only 5,! Two facts emerge from this report. First, the Lusitanisation or assimilation of the Goan people failed miserably. Second, the upper classes who accepted Portuguese were really tiny compared to the size of the population.

    Nevertheless, for their language, the members of this class enjoyed preferment as well as some social power and prestige and later became the face of the Portuguese power in India. He was candid in commenting that Catholicism was assimilated and Portuguese was not spoken by the common people. He had not heard Portuguese spoken on the streets and found inculturation of the Goans to be exaggerated.

    Only a small elite section was Lusitanised Pereira, July, In reality, inculturation attempts were abortive; it fostered linguistic antagonism between the Portuguese and the Konkani speaking communities. The same discriminatory language policies were responsible for the slow growth of Konkani. Nevertheless, Konkani resolutely played a positive role in this linguistic atmosphere by offering cultural cohesiveness. The Catholic middle class received Portuguese education while the same was denied to the Hindu middle class till the advent of the Republic. The atmosphere was not conducive to the promotion of Portuguese.

    Even when the Hindu students received Portuguese education, they did not barter Konkani for Portuguese. The people of Goa had already begun to realise the power and advantages of English. As a consequence, the majority of the students turned back from Portuguese education and went to study in British India. The social segregation created by the Portuguese government deeply vitiated the linguistic atmosphere of the colony. The tiny Portuguese elite considered Konkani as a language of the illiterate and the servants, even though it was spoken by the majority of the Goans.

    After Liberation, the knowledge of Portuguese turned into a liability for the speakers. If English was imposed on India, it was imposed with support from within. Indians were desirous of learning English, as English did not come to them as a cultural threat. The use of vernaculars was not prohibited in British India; rather vernaculars got enriched in the contact of English. Neither multiculturalism nor multilingualism was perceived by the British as a serious challenge to their endeavours of empire building.

    Boxer, C. Clark, Steven H. Travel Writing and Empire. New York, Zed Books, Kloguen, Denis Louis Cottineau de. Publishing Corporation. La Rosa, Zhenja. Language and Empire: The Vision of Nebrija. Cartas de Afonso de Albuquerque. Pereira, A. Philipson, Robert. Priolkar, A. Unfortunately, this extremely powerful feature of Delphi is still widely underused and in many cases misused by developers. This session describes, in detail, how actions and action lists can help a developer manage the user interface for an application.

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    We'll explore the use of generics, anonymous methods, and new RTL types while introducing concepts from functional programming. Migrating your Applications to the Latest Delphi Many developers use Delphi 5, 6, 7, , or This session describes how to get from there to more recent Delphi versions. It will cover the building of logical and physical models based on information extracted from database and script files, aimed to help developers design, model, and better understand their databases. Desenvolvimento Web 2. As usual, the talk features development of custom VCL components, property and component editors, OTA extensions, and stand-alone Windows applications all full of Unicode and from a funny perspective.

    Take control of JBuilder and push it to the maximum. Generics and Closures This presentation focuses on the new features of the Object Pascal language, specifically generics and closures or anonymous methods. Rather than covering the theory, this talk delves into the details of these new features working on many practical examples. Migrating Delphi ASP. NET, as well as the widest array of third-party. NET components. This session shows you how to convert your existing Delphi for ASP.

    NET application to Delphi Prism in order to benefit from the new features. The main focus will be shifting to DBX, although the techniques will be relevant to other technologies. Will he succeed? Come and see. What's New in Ruby, Rails, and 3rdRail This session will lead you through all of the exciting developments in the Ruby on Rails community over the last year. Along the way, we'll explore many of the new features in Ruby on Rails by using them in 3rdRail. We'll also take a look at the major new features that have been added to 3rdRail, including those to be released in the near future.

    Are there any pitfalls? Working with ASP. NET Web sites. Learn what it is and what it is not using Delphi Prism. You were eager to see more. In this session, we will dive deeper into working with PDF documents as we explore the vast capabilities and possibilities with Gnostice PDF tools to transform plain PDF documents to rich, user-friendly repositories of information. In the past you had to use variants, but not any more! With the introduction of operator overloading, you can do this with record types, too. This session shows you how.

    It starts with a brief introduction to the use of grids in web applications. This is followed by a tour of the capabilities of the new grid, including demos from the grid showcase. The presentation concludes with a live demo of PlatinumGrid, as part of a real-world Ajax-based task tracking application. This session will go over the recommended UML diagrams for developers. JBuilder R2 Technology Preview, Part I This session will introduce the theme behind the R2 release and give an early glimpse of the various features planned.

    During the course of the session, you will have the opportunity to learn about IDE customization, Model filters, JBuilder feature navigation and enablement, UI profiles, Tagging, Application Factory module for Content Management system, workspace configuration sharing and others. Come learn from the JBuilder development team! Part I of a 2-part session. Software Archeology with Delphi You have just inherited 1,, lines of code… now what?

    Few developers sit on the fence on this topic, but the truth is that both have advantages and dis-advantages. Ruby and Rails developers already know the benefits of a dynamically-typed language, but they also bump into the disadvantages. But, what if you could get all the benefits of a dynamically-typed language and many of the benefits of a statically-typed language without the overhead? Tools can and are bridging the gap and even bringing new ideas to the table for dynamic languages.

    This session discusses the state-of-the-art and what the future holds for how tools are bringing the safety and API clarity of static languages to the expressiveness of dynamic languages. NET database applications. Towards Data Model Interchange and Traceability In this session, we'll take a look at examples of each of these kinds of data models and explore how they are supported by specifications from the OMG, projects at Eclipse, and products from Embarcadero Technologies.

    Delayed Exception Handling This is a more robust way of handling exceptions. Learn to prevent memory leaks and simplify code when dealing with multiple objects. This is an advanced session taking advantage of some of the latest Delphi features.