Conformity from peer pressure generally results from identification with the group members or from compliance of some members to appease others. Minority influence takes place when a majority is influenced to accept the beliefs or behaviors of a minority. Minority influence can be affected by the sizes of majority and minority groups, the level of consistency of the minority group, and situational factors such as the affluence or social importance of the minority. A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true due to positive feedback between belief and behavior.
A prophecy declared as truth when it is actually false may sufficiently influence people, either through fear or logical confusion, so that their reactions ultimately fulfill the once-false prophecy. This term is credited to sociologist Robert K. Merton from an article he published in Reactance is the adoption of a view contrary to the view that a person is being pressured to accept, perhaps due to a perceived threat to behavioral freedoms.
"influence" in Business English
This phenomenon has also been called anticonformity. While the results are the opposite of what the influencer intended, the reactive behavior is a result of social pressure. In many studies, reactance manifests itself in a deliberate rejection of an influence, even if the influence is clearly correct. Obedience is a form of social influence that derives from an authority figure. The Milgram experiment , Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment , and the Hofling hospital experiment are three particularly well-known experiments on obedience, and they all conclude that humans are surprisingly obedient in the presence of perceived legitimate authority figures.
Persuasion is the process of guiding oneself or another toward the adoption of an attitude by rational or symbolic means. Robert Cialdini defined six "weapons of influence": reciprocity , commitment, social proof , authority , liking, and scarcity. These "weapons of influence" attempt to bring about conformity by directed means. Persuasion can occur through appeals to reason or appeals to emotion. Psychological manipulation is a type of social influence that aims to change the behavior or perception of others through abusive , deceptive , or underhanded tactics. Social influence is not necessarily negative.
Family and parent influences on pediatric chronic pain: a developmental perspective.
For example, doctors can try to persuade patients to change unhealthy habits. Social influence is generally perceived to be harmless when it respects the right of the influenced to accept or reject it, and is not unduly coercive. Depending on the context and motivations, social influence may constitute underhanded manipulation. Controlling abusers use various tactics to exert power and control over their victims. The goal of the abuser is to control and intimidate the victim or to influence them to feel that they do not have an equal voice in the relationship.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Hard power is the use of military and economic means to influence the behavior or interests of other political bodies. This theory asserts that there are three factors which increase a person's likelihood to respond to social influence: . Robert Cialdini defines six "weapons of influence" that can contribute to an individual's propensity to be influenced by a persuader:  . Social Influence is strongest when the group perpetrating it is consistent and committed. Even a single instance of dissent can greatly wane the strength of an influence.
In iterations of the Milgram experiment where three people administered shocks two of whom were confederates , once one confederate disobeyed, only ten percent of subjects administered the maximum shocks. Those perceived as experts may exert social influence as a result of their perceived expertise. This involves credibility , a tool of social influence from which one draws upon the notion of trust.
People believe an individual to be credible for a variety of reasons, such as perceived experience, attractiveness, knowledge, etc. Additionally, pressure to maintain one's reputation and not be viewed as fringe may increase the tendency to agree with the group. This phenomenon is known as groupthink.
The compliance of normal humans to authority in the famous Milgram experiment demonstrate the power of perceived authority. Those with access to the media may use this access in an attempt to influence the public. For example, a politician may use speeches to persuade the public to support issues that he or she does not have the power to impose on the public. This is often referred to as using the " bully pulpit.
Power is one of the biggest reasons an individual feels the need to follow through with the suggestions of another. A person who possesses more authority or is perceived as being more powerful than others in a group is an icon or is most "popular" within a group. This person has the most influence over others. For example, in a child's school life, people who seem to control the perceptions of the students at school are most powerful in having a social influence over other children. Culture appears to play a role in the willingness of an individual to conform to the standards of a group.
Stanley Milgram found that conformity was higher in Norway than in France. Japan likewise has a collectivist culture and thus a higher propensity to conformity. However, a Asch-style study found that when alienated, Japanese students were more susceptible to anticonformity giving answers that were incorrect even when the group had collaborated on correct answers one third of the time, significantly higher than has been seen in Asch studies in the past. While gender does not significantly affect a person's likelihood to conform, under certain conditions gender roles do affect such a likelihood.
Studies from the s and s concluded that women were more likely to conform than men. But a study found that experimenter bias was involved; all of the researchers were male, while all of the research participants were female.
Studies thereafter found that the likelihood to conform almost equal between the genders. Furthermore, men conformed more often when faced with traditionally feminine topics, and women conformed more often when presented with masculine topics. In other words, ignorance about a subject can lead a person to defer to "social proof". Emotion and disposition may affect an individual's likelihood of conformity or anticonformity.
A social network is a social structure made up of nodes representing individuals or organizations which are connected through ties , also called edges , connections , or links by one or more types of interdependency such as friendship, common interests or beliefs, sexual relations, or kinship. Social network analysis uses the lens of network theory to examine social relationships. Social network analysis as a field has become more prominent since the midth century in determining the channels and effects of social influence.
For example, Christakis and Fowler found that social networks transmit states and behaviors such as obesity,  smoking,   drinking  and happiness. Identifying the extent of social influence, based on large-scale observational data with a latent social network structure, is pertinent to a variety of collective social phenomena including crime , civil unrest , and voting behavior in elections.
For example, methodologies for disentangling social influence by peers from external influences—with latent social network structures and large-scale observational data—were applied to US presidential elections,   stock markets ,  and civil unrest.
Family and parent influences on pediatric chronic pain: a developmental perspective.
As described above, theoretical approaches are in the form of knowledge clusters. A global theory of Influence is missing for an easy understanding and an education to protect from manipulators. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Identification is when people are influenced by someone who is liked and respected, such as a famous celebrity. Internalization is when people accept a belief or behavior and agree both publicly and privately.
Main article: Compliance psychology. Main article: Identification psychology. Main article: Internalization. Main article: Conformity. Main article: Minority influence. Main article: Self-fulfilling prophecy.
- Influence | Definition of Influence at dequsyjeme.ml.
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Main article: Reactance psychology. I am not aware of other influences that can be attributed to climate. That child is enfolded in influences which ward off the touch of the grace of life. The influences which we can bring to bear upon this question are chiefly indirect. The influences of climate and soil in political history are another.
How dare you believe that money and—all the rest of it influences me in my friendships?