Cuban kyu. An adjective is a word that describes a noun e. Los puros cubanos son los mejores del mundo. A noun is a word referring to a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea e. Spanish nouns have a gender, which is either feminine like la mujer or la luna or masculine like el hombre or el sol.
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Cuban in Spanish | English to Spanish Translation - SpanishDict
Read preview Overview. Rollins; John E. Mark Gong, James J.
Van Der Stede, Wim A. Laws were put in force which prohibited the sale of alcoholic drinks to natives, their purchase of property and most importantly, the native population still lacked any legal status or rights as Spanish citizens upon the outbreak of hostilities in Spain in July, and the onset of the Spanish Civil War. At the outbreak of the Civil War, there was only one political party in Equatorial Guinea, the Frente Popular with only about members and as could be expected, it was a much diluted version of the peninsular Frente Popular.
Ideologically, it was much closer to social democracy than communism and it was dominated by a group of middle-class intellectuals who were an integral part of the colony's elite. As bank accounts were frozen in the colony and shipments failed to arrive from Spain, the political temperature rose throughout the summer until the 19 th of September when Lt. This ship was the ironically named Fernando Poo which was converted in into a prison for missionary priests and nuns along with other clerical conspirators.
Many of the prisoners died on board during the shelling and after an expedition of Moorish nationalists soldiers disembarked in Bata, most of the remaining Republicans fled into the interior from where they reached the Gabonese border.
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Those that remained were deported to the Canary Islands in November, As would be expected, the sector of the population which suffered most from this struggle was the native population who had been caught in the crossfire between both sides and who had endured great privation as the colony experienced a shortage in medical supplies, etc. The defeat of the Republic was not looked on with great regret on the part of most of the native population and their tribal leaders and their hopes now rested on the colonial policy of the Spanish nationalists which would not bring them closer to self-determination or independence but would establish almost immediately a stronger and less tenuous link between the native population and the Spanish metropolis.
The first step in this policy was the immediate renaming and granting of legal staus to the native districts so by , Kogo had become Puerto Iradier, Niefang, Sevilla and Bimbiles, Valladolid. The emancipation process was undoubtedly the most important and it was not instituted in full until a decree of September 30 th , which set the conditions for the classification of the natives in two categories, " emancipados " y " no-emancipados ".
Within the " emancipados ", there was a further sub-division into those who were fully emancipated and those who were only partially so. Full emancipation would lead to a native having Spanish citizenship and practically all the same legal rights and obligations as a peninsular Spaniard. Importantly, his wife and children would also enjoy the same rights. The only exception was the ban on mixed marriages but this also existed for white Spaniards.
However, white Spaniards could have natives as " concubinas, queridas o amigas ocasionales ". For a native to be emancipated, he had to be twenty-one years old, have the necessary maturity to be an adult in the metropolis, possess a professional or academic qualification from a secondary school and he had to have been employed for two years in a Spanish concern.
On the other hand, it was also possible to be emancipated for those in the service of the Spanish state with a rank not less than indigenous auxiliary. As aforementioned, emancipation brought to the natives Spanish citizenship rights, etc but on a practical level, it permitted them to act as witnesses in court, receive loans to the value of 10, pesetas, buy and consume olive oil, buy and consume wheat bread and to drink alcohol in public and in the same establishments as white Europeans.
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Partially emancipated natives enjoyed most of these benefits also but were not allowed buy or consume alcohol. Of course, a whole new legal system and code had to be introduced to give a legal character to these changes and its composition was based on a framework which allowed appeal in the first instance to Territorial High Court in Madrid and in the final instance to the Supreme Court in Madrid.
Such changes may seem today to be nothing more than a system of watered-down apartheid and it is clear from archival material that political, economic and cultural hegemony continued to lie in the hands of the Spanish colonists. However, although it would be an exaggeration to call Francoist colonial policy enlightened, it did offer an initial chink of light for the native population as for the first time, they now enjoyed a legal status and could buy and sell property, etc.
In conclusion, from a native point of view, one could state that the Spanish Civil War had little real ideological resonance in Equatorial Guinea as under the Second Republic and Frente Popular as under the Francoist regime, there still existed a clear division of masters and servants. However, the Francoist regime did have a definite colonial policy albeit one based on an idea of benevolent racial superiority and one must comment upon the absence of any type of policy of native advancement on the part of the Second Republic.
On a practical level, it was the native population which suffered the privations and casualties of the Civil War as both sides forcefully recruited them into their respective factions as their foot-soldiers and the food shortages affected primarily the native population and in particular, native children.
That said, it is possible that a progressive colonial policy could have been followed by a Frente Popular government if it had had the opportunity but the military uprising prevented this government from embarking on any long-term programme. However, it is pertinent to point out that the situation of Equatorial Guinea outside its economic benefits to Spain were not mentioned in any Frente Popular manifestos, etc and the Second Republic which was so active on the question of granting autonomy to the historic nationalities in Spain was inactive during its life on the question of native rights and the development of the colonies.
The unfortunate legacy of this reality is the distrust in Equatorial Guinea for left-wing movements and the terrible relationship between the Socialist Government of Felipe Gonzalez from to and the regime of Teodoro Obiang in Equatorial Guinea is testament to this. It is this nostalgia and distaste in many ways for the democracy of the Second Republic which brought Obiang to power in and has maintained him there since despite repeated opposition attempts to overthrow him, many with foreign help.
Indeed, Equatorial Guinea has been referred to by some commentators as "the new Kuwait".
About the Author
Obiang came to power after killing his uncle in a coup. Born in , the President for life is referred to as "God" by his subjects. He received his military training in Spain at the elite Zaragoza academy which was also attended by the current Spanish King, Juan Carlos I. For a comprehensive account of this period in Spain, see the recent Ross, C.
Spain London: Arnold, Throughout the course of this article, place names except where explicitly stated shall be referred to in the context of the time-frame being discussed i. Spanish colonial names e. However, the new name for Santa Isabel, Malabo is used when discussing Equatorial Guinea in a contemporary context.
There is a dearth of objective or independent academic studies on the Spanish colonial experience in Equatorial Guinea but some excellent studies are Liniger-Goumaz, M. Guinea Ecuatorial, historia en blanco y negro hombres blancos y mujeres negras en Guinea Ecuatorial; Carrero Blanco was a close associate and intimate confidante of Franco Franco throughout the period of his dictatorship in Spain Appointed prime minister by Franco in June , he was killed by a car bomb on December 20 th of the same year.