In the Middle Ages, the plague wiped out almost one half of the European population. The epidemic broke loose in the Orient, and spread throughout Europe, carried on board ships which from the port of Caffa Crimea reached Constantinople first to be hit by it and from there sailed to Genova , from which it spread to the center of Italy, and to Messina , from which it crept up the peninsula as far as Rome. But, as it is well-known, the plague hit all of Europe. Physicians were absolutely inadequate and unprepared to deal with this terrifying disease.
In the event of an epidemic, they would recommend:. Alongside practices which even today we could consider somewhat valid 3, 4, 6, 7 , most advices were of spiritual nature. In March the plague was spreading in the town of Trento, seat of the famous Council. The Council Fathers decided to suspend work and to transfer to Bologna. The formula had been inserted in a particular cross, Cross of Saint Zaccaria , Bishop of Jerusalem see images of Cross. According to legend, the Saint himself would have been written them on a sheet of parchment paper, later recovered in the Monastery of Frayles in Spain.
Each invocation begins with one of the letters transcribed on the cross. The C ross wins, the Cross reigns, the Cross governs, through the sign of the Cross save me, Lord, from this plague. G od, my God, chase the plague away from me, from this place, and save me. I n your hands, Lord, I place my spirit, my heart, and my body. G od was before Heaven and Earth and He can therefore save me from this plague.
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Who wrote this prayer is not known for sure. There are some references to the Sacred Scriptures and to the Psalms, in particular. In this case, there were Protectors against the plague. On an interesting engraving dating to the 17th century, three Saints are represented: Saint Sebastian, Saint Rosalia, and Saint Rocco see image.
Saint Sebastian was considered the most powerful protector against the plague.
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As we know, he was martyred with several arrows. Saint Rocco was struck by the plague, from which he recovered thanks to the help of his dog, Reste. Saint Rosalia became part of this cult because she saved the people of Palermo from the epidemic. There is one specific reason why prayers directly addressed to God were not considered very effective, and why the intercession of saints was deemed necessary.
Physicians could not provide an explanation for the plague. In caso di epidemia, per esempio, questi erano i consigli che i medici impartivano:. I padri conciliari decisero di sospendere i lavori e di trasferirsi a Bologna. La formula era stata inserita in una particolare croce, detta Croce di San Zaccaria , Vescovo di Gerusalemme.
Secondo la leggenda sarebbero state scritte di proprio pugno dallo stesso Santo, su una pergamena, poi ritrovata nel Monastero di Frayles in Spagna. C rux vincit, Crux regnat, Crux imperat, per signum crucis libera me, Domine, ab hac peste. D eus Deus meus: expelle pestem a me, et a loco isto, et libera me.
I n manus tuas Domine, commendo spiritum meum, cor, et corpus meum. A nte Caelum, et Terram Deus erat, et Deus potens est liberare me ab ista peste. Sono evidenti alcuni riferimenti alle Sacre Scritture e in particolare ai Salmi.
Nel caso specifico, esistevano dei Protettori contro la peste. Un concetrato di potenza si potrebbe dire. Come sappiamo, egli fu martirizzato con diverse frecce, che gli provocarono molte ferite, curategli da Santa Irene. Tali ferite erano paragonate ai bubboni provocati sulla pelle dalla peste. Grazie Mariolina per il lavoro che fai di traduzione e divulgazione del lavoro di noi collezionisti.
Sei un elemento prezioso per la filiconia. Others less so, and in need of glossing. While Saint Peter was celebrating Mass, at the moment of Consecration, trying to tempt him, the devil disguised himself in the form of Mary and Baby Jesus. But in his haste, he forgot to hide his horns.
The devil quickly vanished. The images of Madonna del Soccorso on Cartantica website startled me, but at the same time, they made me feel fiercely protected, taken care of. Here is Mary taking control of the situation, clubbing away whoever threatens her fold. Represents the Virgin Mary with a silver club in her right hand.
Her left hand holds Her Child with a little bird in His hand.
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Under Her mantle, a little girl seeks refuge. In this XVI century painting by unknown , the Madonna, armed with a thick stick, tries to chase the devil who is trying to snatch a suckling baby from his mother. Same iconography, same theme: Madonna is chasing away the devil who is seizing the Child.
As in the preceding images, the Virgin Mary impetuously chases the devil away from the child who under Her garments, seeks protection. Next to Her, a mother in prayer. The Virgin impugns a wooden stick to protect the child. Unlike other Madonne del Soccorso, She holds a scourge rather than a stick or club. Although She holds a scourge, and Her gaze encircles the child and the devil who is trying to possess him, She bears a strong resemblance to the Virgen de Guadalupe.
He points out that Saint Michael is the protector of hosiers, hatters, apothecaries, scale makers, pharmacists, merchants, judges, radiologists, gilders, grocers, parachuters, and state police. So far, so good. Nei nostri santini lo troviamo raffigurato con la spada o con la lancia mentre trafigge il suo nemico principale, Satana. Dunque, chi aderisce alla Famiglia si obbliga, con il sangue, a rispettare le regole della Famiglia.
Povero San Michele! Non bastava che schermitori, commercianti, speziali, farmacisti, radiologi, cappellai, magliai, produttori di bilance, doratori, giudici, paracadutisti e poliziotti, lo avessero eletto protettore delle rispettive categorie. Negli anni Trenta del Novecento i fascisti della Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale , meglio conosciuti come camicie nere , lo scelsero come loro protettore. Sul verso, la preghiera riportata ne chiarisce bene i motivi:. Chiaro no? Ebbene, chi pensate che avessero scelto come loro protettore? La preghiera dei Partigiani a San Michele Arcangelo, protettore.
The coronation of sacred images, of Madonnas in particular, a rite that began around , was performed with special solemn liturgies approved by Capitolo Vaticano. The Benedizionale makes clear that the decision so to honor an image of the Virgin Mary is the responsibility of the diocesan bishop and local community. However such honor is bestowed only on images of the Virgin Mary that have inspired and sustain genuine and widespread devotion.
Maria Maggiore, contributed to its coronation. In , the coronation of the Black Madonna of Oropa followed. This rite, subsequently incorporated in Pontificale Romano, was greatly promoted by Count Alessandro Sforza Piacentini who paid for the coronation of a good number of images, among which Madonna della Vittoria and S. Maria in Portico. When Baby Jesus was part of the image, he too was crowned. Successivamente, nel , venne incoronata la Madonna Nera di Oropa. Tra le prime immagini che beneficiarono di questa pratica, la Madonna della Vittoria, e S.
In Spagna le prime immagini mariane coronate canonicamente sono state, a Barcellona, la Virgen del Monserrat, e poi a Siviglia la Virgen de los Reyes. The Catholic Church has always used images to indoctrinate and catechize its fold. In the Middle Ages, images of the devil, juxtaposed to images of the Guardian Angel, were produced and distributed to frighten sinners about the consequences of their transgressions. Since the IX century, the devil was represented as a small, deformed, old, or large variation of the human body.
To indoctrinate the faithful about its tricks, the devil was represented as a seductive libidinous woman, or as a saint, in which case the deception was visualized through bestial details—horns, hoofs, bat wings, goat ears. Representations of the devil as an animal or monster were remnants of the pagan imaginary satyrs, chimeras, harpies, gargoyles as well as of the medieval imaginary snakes, dragons, monkeys, lions, wolves, cats, gryphons, centaurs, reptiles.
Most animal features had to do with the head goat horns, pointed ears, wolf, dog or lion muzzles, and bird beaks , the extremities nails, claws, hooves , and the body usually represented as hairy or scaly and with a pointed tail. A reminder of its divine origin, the devil sports feather wings, similar to those of angels, and in the XII century, bat wings. On the other hand, representations of the devil on antique prayer cards recall its role in Christian history and philosophy. Here are two examples:.
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The Fallen Angel. In the IV century, its fall was attributed to excessive pride. In this engraving on background decorated with punch-marks Dopter, Publisher , Lucifer looks like an angel except for his bull horns, his wings, half-way between those of a crow and a bat, and his angered gaze.
In the first book of the Bible, Lucifer, the seducer, convinces Eve to eat and make Adam eat the forbidden fruit. In this engraving Durand, Publisher , the devil is represented as he tries to seduce a female figure, identified as Mary, Mother of Jesus. The devil is insidious and relentless: its left hand offers gold jewels, symbols of riches and power, its right hand tries to shift Her gaze from the Cross to the opposite of heaven.
Posted by Mariolina Salvatori on pm in Blog 1 comment. La Chiesa cattolica ha fatto sempre uso delle immagini per indottrinare e catechizzare i fedeli.
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Solo nel tardo medioevo il colore rosso divenne diabolico, associato al sangue e alle fiamme infernali. When my grandmother and my father came to America, they brought along an etching of San Paride. He was the patron saint of their town, Teano, Italy. I can still see the sacrificial eggplant as Mother Grandmother had retired from the kitchen prepared the meal, slicing the eggplant into wafer-thin slivers which were fried crisp, drained and placed in tomato gravy flavored with grated parmesan and sweet basil.
An August day in Llanerch was hot as an August day in Teano. After Dad set up the fan in the kitchen near Mother, he went to the State Store a couple miles away to buy wine, a white handkerchief tied around his neck to catch his sweat. He walked instead of driving his bedraggled car. I grew up in a large family in a small town. Everyone knew everyone else and people we knew died regularly. My mother was Irish, so going to wakes and funerals was just a part of everyday life, and we were indoctrinated into that culture from a young age.
One of the conventions of those occasions was the prayer card, which any attendee could pick up near the door. These had an image on the front—Jesus or a saint, say—a prayer on the back, along with the name of the deceased. I never wondered, until just now, how they got those cards printed so fast.
But they were always there. I used to have a small stack of them, mostly relatives, but they disappeared somewhere along the way. Register for FREE 1st month. Download your desired books 3. Easy to cancel your membership. Joint with more than Markus Jensen I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! Michael Strebensen wtf this great ebook for free?! Hun Tsu My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not!
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