The road led through dwarf rhododendrons, bushy junipers, and prickly shrubs bearing a red fruit. The river was frozen over, except in the narrow parts. In the distance the pine-clad flanks of Juonga, through which the Yalung dashes, were seen resplendent in the rays of the setting sun. We plodded on to 6 p. Namga tsal received its name, I was told, from Lha-tsun, the great Buddhist patriarch of Sikkim, having spent a few days here to rest from his fatigue when travelling for the first time from Tibet to convert the Lhopas Southerners.
He so enjoyed his rest here that he ordered his disciples to hold the place sacred, and to celebrate their annual inaugural religious ceremonies at the cavern in which he had spent a few days. We could see the cave from where we were camped, and were told that the Buddhists of Sikkim and Eastern Nepal still resort to this place on pilgrimage. Novcmhcr In size they were larger than a domestic fowl. The predecessor of the present abbot, it is said, was able to visit Na-Pematang, the Lepcha Paradise, which has only been entered by seven families, and which lies between the Cho-kanchan and Cho-kanchanjinga.
Hooker, of. The male bird had two to five spurs on each of its legs, according to its age. Ithagenes Cruentus. Some three miles to the west of the Dechau rolpa gomba is the village of Yalimg, where twelve families live who spend their summer in tending yaks at Yalung, and their winter at Yanku tang, in the valley of the Kabili.
From Mirkan la we passed some lofty crags, called Ta-miran kukyab, the principal of which is said to be the image of the horrible deity Tamdriu, or Haryagrilia. In shape it resembles a horse's head Ta-mgrin facing towards Kanchanjinga. Descending, we found grass growing on the Pangbo la, and on the Zinan la were junipers and rhododendrons.
At about 7 p. After about a mile we reached Manda phug, a hollow between two gigantic boulders, the one inclined towards the other ; and here we took our breakfast of rice and buttered tea. The vegetation improved as we neared Manda la, and the sight of thick forest growth in the deep glens refreshed our eyes, so long tired with looking on barren rocks. From Tama la, where we saw some shep- herds tending their flocks and some yaks, one descends the Yamatari valley, the top of the slope being held sacred to the dreaded Mamo goddesses ; on the rhododendron bushes were white and red flags offered to them by wayfarers.
From tliis point I obtained a good view of the Kangpa-chan valley.
My Journey To Lhasa Study Guides
Finding that 1 was greatly exhausted, DaoNamgyal, Pliurcliung's Ijrother- in-law, took me on his back and carried me till we reached tlie north-west flank of the Tama la. Soon after this we came to a flat, grass-covered valley with tall rhododendrons and ferns growing about.
I'luircliuiig held this spot to have been a singularly lucky one for him, for it was here that his parents had met Hooker some tliirty-five year. Tlie gorge in which this river flows is singularly beautiful. Above the steep crags on either side were blue glaciers, and at their feet forests of native firs and larches, covered with pendant mosses waving like feathers in the breeze.
Just before reaching Kangpa-chan Gyunsar village, the Yamata ri river is crossed by a little bridge, and then the village with its wooden huts comes in view. Some of the houses were empty ; a few old hags with goitre sat on their thresholds basking in the sun and spinning. Phurchung had reached this, his native village, ahead of us, and he now came, much the worse for drink, to greet us, and led us into his mother's house, where a fire of rhododendron boughs and aromatic firs blazed in the middle of the room.
Chang f was ready in wooden bottles, and his mother poured some boiling water into them as soon as we were seated on the cushions placed for us.
Some dry junipers and pines were burnt as incense, and two joss-sticks smoked before us. Then two brass plates full of boiled, red-skinned potatoes were offered us, followed by rice and boiled ]nutton, the rice being served wrapped up in the broad leaves of some kind of hill plant.
When night came on we sat around the fire, each with a bottle of murwa before him ; but drowsiness soon overtook me, and I fell asleep. Several small streams empty into the Kangchan below the village, and mountains covered with snow and ice rise precipitously on either side of it, their lower slopes clad with thick forest growth of mos3-covered silver firs, deodars, and larches. Its preparation is thus described by Jaesclike, op.
Having sufRciently fermented, some water is jjoured to it, and the beer is considered to be ready for use. He gives its altitude at 11, feet above sea-level. Coining back from a stroll, 1 found two men waiting to invite me to drink chang at their houses ; and having accepted their invita- tion, I went first to that of a man called Jorgya. Taking my seat on a thick mattress-like seat covered with a piece of Khamba carpet, a bamboo bottle filled with murwa, with a little piece of butter placed on top of it, was set before us.
After this, a brass plate filled with potatoes was placed before us on a little table, together with parched Indian corn, milk, and butter, of all of which we ate heartily. Our host advised me not to attempt to go by Wallung, as 1 would be sure to meet with much difficulty, but rather to enter Tibet by Yangma and the Kangla chen pass, which was still possible, he said, even at this advanced season of the year.
I next went to the house of Pemazang, Phurchung's uncle, which I found well plastered and with a tastefully painted chapel. His son and wife received me at the head of the ladder, and led me into the hous i. Pemazang had long, tliick, and tangled hair. He wore gold earrings in the shape of magnolia fiowers, and his looks and talk were grave and serious. He often sits in deep meditation for tlie purpose of arresting hail or other storms by the potency of the charms he is able to pronounce. X From this descri] tion of Pemazang, it may be inferred that he was a Khamba, a Tibetan from the north-east.
We know by Hooker, ojp. They are, as a people, famous " rain-makers; " while the people from other parts of Tibet are not much given to per- forming rain-making or rain-dispelling ceremonies. Ascending two flights of ladder-stairs, we entered the lama's house. In the present case it certainly means a nun livino; in a state of concubiunge with a lama.
It is a common practice in Tibet, and in many places lamas graba and ani live in the same convent. See ' Report on Explorations in Sikkim.
lesson plans my journey to lhasa Manual
Bhutan, etc. Whatever the loss might be, I made up my mind to bear it silently, and keep my suspicions to myself. Novemler 25, — Phurchuug's brother, Dao Namgyal, brought me a quantity of presents — potatoes, murwa, millet, butter, and last, but not least, a kid, for which I gave him a return present of five rupees.
The poor people of the village all followed with various presents, not that they had any great respect for me, but solely with an eye to return presents, which they hoped would be greater than the value of theirs. Fortunately there were but few people in the village, otherwise they would have drained me of all my cash. I had learnt from a newly engaged coolie that he had lately crossed the Kangla pass on kyar, and had reached Jongri, where he had met Captain Harman, who had been much struck by the great usefulness of this rude contrivance.
It is told of the upper Kangpa-chan valley that it was first peopled ] y Tibetans, called Sharpa Easterners , whose original home was in the mountains of Shar Khambu, or Eastern Kirata. J Lower down the valley lived the Magar tribe from Nepal, whose chief extended his sway over the Sharpa, and exacted such oppressive taxes from them that they decided to avenge themselves.
The word and the thing are unknown, I believe, in other parts of Tibet. The head and pelt are u. See Chr. Alterthumskunde,' vol. So ft". While going along the river bank, a boulder, undermined by the current, tumbled down, when a swarm of flies flew buzzing out. Attracted by this, the queen had the earth removed, and discovered the bodies of her husband and his followers. In the wine poison was mixed ; and as soon as the Magars had finished drinking, they passed it to the Kangpa-chan people, who drank deeply, and fell asleep to awake no more.
Nearly a thousand people were in this way done to death, and the babies were carried away by the queen's followers. The place where this foul deed was done became known as Tong- shong phug, " the place which witnessed a thousand murders. The queen shut herself up in one of her castles, and, though ill-prepared to stand a siege, she and her people defended it for three months. The Tibetans decided to reduce the place by famine and by cutting off the water- supply.
Then the queen, to deceive them, opened the reservoir in the castle and let the water flow towards the Tibetan camp ; and the enemy, thinking that she must have a great store of it and that their attempt was vain, raised the siege, and withdrew to a distance. The queen now attacked them in turn, but fell in the first skirmish, fighting valiantly. The Tibetans finally expelled the Magars from the Kangpa-chan and Tambur valleys, and restored them to their former possessors.
It was among the Kangpa-chan tribe that I had found Phurchung, the most devoted and faithful of all the men I ever came across in the Himalayas. Although Ugyen distrusted him, and he abhorred Ugyen, yet I placed implicit confidence in his loyalty and ability, and his devotion and fidelity to me were boundless. Pliurehiing marched aloug with my gnu as a sign of his importance, Imt its red cloth cover, its principal beauty, had been stolen the night before; his younger brother, Sonam-dorj, carried his pack.
Ugyen-gyatso and I rode ponies, hired for eight annas each, to take us halfway up the Xango la. We rode slowly on by the bounding river, into which a number of little rills empty, flowing down from behind the monastery, and over which were several prayer-wheels turned by the water. Our way lay amidst thick woods up to Daba ngonpo, where the natives used to get blue clay to make images.
This clay they held to be exceptionally good, as it came from the summit of a holy mountain. From this point we followed up the bed of a former glacier, passing Kamai phugpa, and reaching at Khama kang tung, the timber line. The ascent of the Xango la now began over deep snow, in some places its surface frozen, in others so soft that we sunk knee-deep in it. I soon became so exhausted that I had to get one of the coolies to carry me on his back, and so we reached the summit of the pass.
About two miles above the junction of the Yangma with the Lungkyong, we crossed the former stream by a wooden bridge, and finally arrived at the village of Tingugma, where we rested a while and ate a light meal. Shortly after starting again we met a party of Yangma natives driving before them a few sheep and a dozen yaks laden with blankets, yak hides, barley, and salt. They were going to a village called Chaini, in the Tambur valley, to exchange their goods for rice and Indian corn. Phurchung asked them if the Kangla chen pass was still open. Some said we could easily cross it ; others expressed doubts about it, for they said three feet of snow had fallen on it a few days previously.
Passing by Maya phug a cavern sacred to the goddess Mamo. Crossing the Djari thang, or " Plain of Gravel," and the Do la, or " Eocky pass " round the base of which the Yangma flows , I reached by dusk the monastery of Yangma, or Manding gomba, situated on a broad, shrub-covered terrace some 40 to 50 feet above the stream ; where Phurchung found me lodgings in a wretched cell, where I settled myself as best I could for the night.
The lamas were engaged in their annnal reading of the Kahgyur, which occupied them daily from. There Avere fifteen monks and seven ani in the lamasery. Xorcmhe ' After a while riiurchung and Phuntso appeared, and with much salaaming and lolling of the tongue asked me to wait here a day, the latter assuring me that he hoped to obtain, without much difficulty or the payment of custom duty called chiia in this part of Nepal , permission for us to proceed on our journey.
Shortly after the elders arrived, the richest man among them recognizable by his tamiisl-i hat, a long earring, and a deep red serge robe of purug. One came to him through the air, i'alling on the spot where the lamasery now stands. The second ]till fell a little al Ove the monastery, where the people of the village now burn tlieir dead ; and the third alighted on the spot where the 2reat chorten now stands. Phru ,' is native Tibetan clotli made in pieces usually nine or ten fatboinn ilamfxi in Tibetan long and about fourteen inches broad.
Manding possesses a fine copy of the Kahgyur in volumes. The Lha-hhang, or temple, has massive and neatly painted walls and doors, after the manner of the Sikkim donpa. The huts or cells of the monks in its immediate vicinity, all painted red with clay obtained from the adjacent mountains, are of irregular and ugly style, the doors, windows, and cornices being roughly made; each house has around it a low stone wall, inside of which the sheep and yak find shelter.
After a little while Phurchung and Puntso came back to me in high spirits over the result of their conference with the village elders. The head lama said that he knew of no order from the ISTepalese Government for stopping- pilgrims on their way to Tibet, and that he would certainly not prevent me doing so, as I spoke Tibetan with greater fluency and accuracy than many Nepalese. Phurchung also told me that the headman and head lama were coming to bid me farewell, and that I must not forget, after exchanging compliments with them, to say sangpoi ja chog, " May we meet again next year.
The headman, conspicuous by his earring, boots, and red serge robe, nodded to me slightly, and took off his hat. He asked me why I had chosen such a bad season for going to Tibet. His object in coming to see me was to find out if I spoke Tibetan and understood the Buddhist religion. My fluency in Tibetan, and the citing of one or two proverbial sayings in course of conversation, made him form a high opinion of my knowledge of the sacred texts and histories, as well as of my character and holiness.
There were not more than a hundred houses in the village, and the fields round about were enclosed within low stone walls. Buckwheat, barley, turnips, radishes, and potatoes are grown here, and rice Ijrought from Yang-ku tang and other villages in the warmer valleys is procuraljle. The village was founded by Tibetans from Tashi-rabka, one of them having discovered the valley and its comparative fertility M-hile hunting for a lost yak calf. The name Yangma was given it on account of tlie Ijroadth of the valley. X Alao visitid by Hooker.
He says that it was in a miserable collection of 2U0 to stone huts. Its altitude is about 13, feet above sen-level.
See Hooker, ip. After an hour's march we reached Ki phug, where we found, under an overhanging rock, a bit of ground free from snow on which to camp; but Pliurchung remained behind in Yangma, in a helplessly drunken condition. There was nothing to give life to the scenery ; the river flowed in a deep gorge, or else opened out into lake- like expanses ; on either side the mountains seemed to reach to the sky ; not a bird, not even a cloud in the heaven, not a sound save that of our feet crushing the light dry snow. It was 11 a. Po phug was reached after a march of three miles through the snow, then the ascent became steeper and freer from snow, and we came to Luma goma, " Fountain head," the source of the Yangma river ; and after an easy ascent of half an hour we arrived at Tsa- tsam, the limit of vegetation.
The fog added to the obscurity of the night, our feet were benumbed by the cold, and we frequently slipped into crevasses or between the clefts of rocks. Finding it impossible to reach the cavern, we scraped away the snow from between some rocks, and there I sat, my knees drawn up, hugging myself during the long night. How exhausted we were witli tlie fatigue of the day's journey, how overcome by the rarefication of the air, the intensity of the cold , and liow completely i.
The very remembrance of the sufferings of that dreadful night makes me shudder even now, but I quickly recover under the inexpressible delight I feel at the consciousness of my great success. This was the most trying night I ever passed in my life. There was a light breeze blowing, attended with sleet, which fortunately weighed my blankets down and made them cover mc closer than they other- wise would have done.
And so witli neither food nor drink, placed as if in the grim jaws of death in the l: leak and dreary regions of snow, where death alone dwells, we spent this most dismal night. Xovcrnhn- Tlie morning was gloriously radiant, and the great Kangla chen glittered before us, bathed in a glory of golden light. Fortunately for us, there was no fresh snow on the ground ; for, liad there been any, we could not possibly have advanced. Our guide, leaving his load in charge of his brother, took the lead, driving his long stick into the snow at each step, and digging footholds in the soft snow.
From the White Cavern the top of the pass bore due east, and was distant about two miles. I steadily followed in tlie footsteps of the guide, and would not let him take me on his l ack ; for if I succeeded in ascending to the highest summit of Kangla chen without any help, I could look to the achievement with greater pride.
Ugyen here gave out, and it was with diflicully that I persuaded Phurchung to carry him on his back, ior they Merc far from being on the best of terms. An hour's hard climliing brought us t j the summit of the pass. The sky was eloudless and of the deepest blue ; against it a snow-clad world of mountains stood out in bold relief. The summit of Kangla chen is a plateau, some two miles from east to west, and one mile and a quarter from north-west to north-east ; it inclines towards the west, while to the north-west it is bounded by a mountain of considerable height.
Our snowshoes hjar now stood us in good need ; unfortunately we had but three pairs, so Phurchung and I had to wade through the. On all sides there was nothing visible but an ocean of snow. Innumerable snowy peaks touched with their white heads the pale leaden skies, where stars were shining.
The rattling roar of distant avalanches was frequently heard ; but, after having succeeded in crossing the loftiest of snowy passes, I felt too trans- ported with joy to be frightened by their thunder. These splendid scenes of wonderland, the grandest, the most sublime my eyes have ever beheld, which bewildered me so that even now my pen finds no words to describe them, inspired me with feelings of deep gratitude to Heaven, by whose mercy my life had been spared thus far. We camped on a rock bare of snow, and passed another miserable night with nothing to drink, and Init a couple of dry biscuits to stave off our hunger.
To add to my misery, Ugyen was still suffering, and I had to give him half my covering, for he had none of his own ; and so, with not even enough room to lie down, we passed the night huddled together, the loads placed on the lower side of the rock so as to prevent our falling off in our sleep. Dcccmher 1. The track was hardly visible ; below our path lay the great glacier, extending for miles, which feeds the Tashi-rabka river.
The snowy sides of the mountains beyond this were furrowed by glacial streams, very noticeable in their varied shades of blue and green, and on the surface of the glacier itself rose huge rounded surfaces, or hummocks, evidently produced by boulders concealed under the ice. Following carefully in the footsteps of Phurchung, we crossed some six spurs of the Dorjetagh range, and then came to an easy path down the central moraine of a former glacier, now only a huge heap of boulders and dehris. Here we stopped at the foot of a great rock, and enjoyed, after our long fast of two days, a meal of rice and buttered tea.
This part of the valley is frequently visited by packs of wolves, which kill large numbers of yaks, but the bulls are able to drive them off with their long sharp horns. This was formerly a stage-house used by the Sikkim Kaja's people, when the Yangma and Wallung districts still belonged to him, wdien going to or returning from Tibet. A little way beyond this point we met some herdsmen, who made inquiries as to whence we came and where we were going. Near by were their tents, where I noticed two swarthy women and a fierce Tibetan mastiff.
Phurchung entered one of the tents, sat down to chat and drink a cup of fara, a sort of thin curd. At about 6 o'clock we were close to the village, and so we hid till dusk in a gully, where we boiled our tea and ate some tsamha. The moon shone out lirightly when we resumed our march and passed along a portion of a high stone wall, erected by the Tibetans during the Nepalese war, when, it is said, they put up five miles of it in a day under orders of their general, the Shape Shata.
It is si favourite dish throughout Tibet and Western Mongolia, in which latter country it is also known as tarah. It is generally eaten just before meals. In Eastern Tibet and the Kokonor it is called djo pr. It is the same as the yaurt of the Turks and the people of the Ilalkanic States. See infra, p. It crosses the whole valley, its ends being high up on the sides of the mountains. On the farther side of the wall is the village. Ugyen and Phurchung stood trembling, not knowing whether to turn back towards the Kangia chen pass or to proceed onward towards the cliorten, near which the headman resides.
Phuntso alone was equal to the occasion. Before we had reached the chorten, a voice from a yak-hair tent cried out, " Whence are you, and where are you going? About 30 yards beyond the house we came to the bridge, a rough structure of logs and stone slabs. The Tashi-rabka river was partly frozen, and its swift current was sweeping down blocks of ice. We crossed over unnoticed, and I then broke the silence with thanks to merciful God who had enabled us to overcome this the most dreaded of all difficulties, one which had frightened rny staunch friend Phurchung, that the snows of the Kangia chen had not daunted.
Then we came to Pti-u, where is a large Nyingmaj monastery, and three miles further on to a bridge over the two branches of the river. See p. Their chief stronghold is Ulterior Tibet, Sikkim, and Bhutan. There was not a soul to be seen on the vast table-land we were traversing, only a few little birds like swallows twittered on the hillsides by the way, and some kites were soaring in the sky near Guma Shara.
From the summit we could see due north, perched on a lofty peak, the Lhakha of Sakya. While I'hurchung talked to one of them, a former acc uaintance, I slipped by without attracting tlieir attention ; for had they spoken to me, they would certainly have detected my nationality by my appearance and speech.
Their dirt-covered faces, their white teeth and eyeballs, made them look exceedingly wild. Crossing the rivulet by a bridge made of two stone slabs, the valley broadened as we advanced, till we found ourselves on a plateau several miles broad, where the rivulet turned to the west, to empty probably farther on into the great Arun.
Tag: Himalayan Journey from Lhasa to Kashgar
It was about a. Padma Sambhava is said to have hvtd in It. See ' RejKirt ou L. There are twenty inmates to this lamasery, and the church furniture and images are said to be of great antiquity. Fording the little Tibgyu chu, said to rise in the Chabug la, we proceeded in an easterly direction, and passed the little village of Wena, a mile from which stands the village of Chani, where lives the Chyugpo niepang family, or the " rich men who never reply nay.
One day, in the month of August, a traveller who had heard the story concerning this family came to test its truth, and asked the housewife to give him a piece of ice, when she at once produced a piece from the butter- cask. On another occasion a traveller asked for a chile pepper in February, and the mistress of the house gave it to him at once. December 3. We selected a shallow part of it, across which Phurchung waded, carrying me on his back. Irrigation ditches led the water of this stream on to the neighbouring barley-fields. There were several sheep-folds with walls of sun-dried bricks six or seven feet high and two feet thick ; in the corners of tliese folds were turret-like houses, in which the shepherds sought shelter from the severity of the weather.
Here we hired two yaks for a tanha a-piece to carry us to the village of Tebong, about six or seven miles away. This whole plateau was covered with a species of briar, amidst which grew long fine grass, on which cows and jo half-bred yaks were feeding, and whence innu- merable hares and foxes ran, startled by our approach.
Med from me , "no. The name dopa or drvpa applies equally to all pastoral tribes, and they, when speaking, use it with the accepta- tion of " house, dwelling, tent, home. X Three Tibetan tankas are the equivalent of one rupee. There were four varieties of tankas then current in Tibet, two of Nepalese minting, two made at Lhasa, the best being that known as Gadan tanka, and made at tlie Castle of Gadaii.
Once on Tashilhunpo territory, all my fears of being arrested were over, and I walked on to the village of Tanglungf with a light heart. An hour's walk brought us to the door of my old acquaintance, Xabu I "W'anga, who led me with much ceremony into the best room of his home, apologizing for his not being able to lodge me in his chapel, which was filled with carcasses of sheep and goats drying for winter use. December 4. He also undertook to procure us three ponies, for which I was to pay Us. While we were breakfasting a number of old acc[uaintances came in, bringing me presents of tmmha mutton, butter, and cliang.
One man, a doctor amcJd , brought a fox-skin cap of ingenious make, which he offered to sell me. It was so contrived that it protected every part of the head, leaving only the eyes and nose exposed, or it could be turned up and used as an ordinary hat. It was to the effect that he must hold himself and force in readiness to proceed at once to the Lachan boundary, fully equipped with matchlocks, lances, swords, slings, etc. He followed the Chorten uyima river from its source in the mouutaiu of the same name to near its mouth at Tebong, where his route ioined the one described in the present narrative.
X Nahii, or, more correctly, Naho, means " host, landlord. This word is also found in Georgii, ' Alpha- betum Tibetanum ' 17 j'2 , j. II This is the ordinary style of Mongol fur cap, very generally used in Tibet. This information was communicated by the frontier guards, in consequence of which necessary precautions were urgently needed. December 5. From the sheep- pen close by the house we saw some fifty sheep led to the slaughtering- place behind the village.
The butchers mutter some mantras over each one before killing it, and they receive as their perquisite the heads. He put us up in his storehouse, amidst his barley, yak-hair bags, farming implements, etc. He had manufactured some rugs, and I bought one from him for a couple of rupees. The villagers, hearing of my pur- chase, brought me a number of their choicest carpets, but the price asked was larger than I cared to give, December 6.
My host and his wife came and begged some medicine, and I prepared for him an effervescent draught, which the old man swallowed with much difficulty. I never took such a drink in my life, nor heard of its like before I " And the spectators all said, in amazement, " This amchi is a miracle- worker tidpa ; his medicine boils in cold water.
Facing the village is a flower-garden, in which are also dwarf willows, stunted birch and juniper trees. Taya tsang-po is probably Targye tsaug-po, "the river of the Tar-gye. Crossing the Yara la, we made for Kurma, before reaching which place we experienced some difficulty in crossing the broad bed of the frozen river. At Kurma we j-ut up in the house of a doctor, an acquaintance of Phurchung, who liad brought him a quantity of medicines the amchi had the year past commissioned him to buy at Darjiling.
When the sheep get very fat, the people, for fear of losing any jf the fat by skinning them, roast the whole as they would a pig. Kurma, the author tells us in iiis journal of All supplie. This must be a mi. I never heard of meat being roasted in Tiljet. He evidently means that the slieepare cooked without the skin being removed. The Mongols do the same thing, throwing tiie carcass some say the live sheep in boiling water.
I had been feeling very badly all day, but Phurchuug whispered to me to let no one know I was ill, as sick men are not admitted into people's dwellings in this country. Decemler 8. Numerous flocks of pigeons and swallows were picking worms and grain in the fields, and Ugyen told me that the pigeons were a serious nuisance to the people, for they are not allowed to kill them, animal life being held sacred. December 9. Travellers were more numerous now ; we met several parties of traders with yaks and donkeys or laden sheep going to or coming from Shigatse.
The day was cold, and there was a light wind blowing. I alternately rode and walked, and though I was by this time greatly reduced in flesh by the hardships I had had to encounter, I was in high spirits at the success which had so far attended me. Not so Ugyen : he was ill, and fretted fearfully, his appearance was repulsive, and his language to the Tang-lung men, whose ponies we rode, was most abusive, but they bore patiently with him.
At 9 o'clock we passed through Chuta, and an hour later came to the village of Jong Luguri, where I was carcasses are sold in a frozen state by the Mongols in Peking in winter, and are known as Tang-yang, or " scalded sheep," in Chiuese. Markham's ' Narrative of the Mission of Geo. Bogle,' The writer says elsewhere that it has about two hundred houses.
X The Bra-gyin pa gomba of the maps. The descent on the north side, he adds, is very steep.
II Or Luguri jong, as he calls it elsewhere. We entered the monastery of Tashilhunpo by the little western gate, in front of which stand two cliortens — one very large with a gilt spire, the other smaller but neatly constructed. I walked along the narrow lane, lined on either side by lofty buildings, with the measured steps and grave demeanour which all wearers of the sacred costume are supposed to have.
The rays of the setting sun shone on the gilded spires of the houses and tombs in the monastery, and made a most enchanting picture. Though the news of tlie absence of my friend Phendi Khang-sar somewhat damped my spirits, yet the pleasing thought of having been able for the second time to visit Tashilhunpo was a source of infinite gratification. It presented a view wonderfully beauti- ful and brilliant ; the effect was little short of magic, and it made an impression which no time will ever efface from ray mind. X Or rather, " Please walk in, Mr.
Tlie third story, though it looked snug, was exposed to the wind, and therefore un- inhaliitable. Having made up my mind to occupy it, he had the rooms dusted, and removed some two hundred volumes, a pile of printing- blocks, boards, and tallies with whicli the rooms were encumbered; and tlien, some thickly stuffed cushions having been spread, on which our carpets and rugs were placed, he begged us to be seated. Cups were placed on some small tables before us, and tea was brought from the minister's kitchen and served us by the head cook. Tibet Highland Tours.
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With your support and aid I shall become an author of renown. She had been gone two years and was beginning to see a real conflict between her marriage and her spiritual ideals. In fact, though Sidkeong was committed to marrying another woman, she could probably have had that kind of relationship with him, and it would not have been entirely unusual for her to live at the palace in Sikkhim as his friend. In she made the decision to move to the summer retreat of the Gomchen of Lachen.
This was the famous hermitage at 13, feet that she described in Magic and Mystery in Tibet. There she was attended by the year-old Aphur Yongden, who would be her companion for the next 40 years. But during the early months of her retreat she heard of the death of Sidkeong, who had finally taken the throne in Sikkim and may have been poisoned by rivals. She was devastated, as was the Gomchen, who had seen Sidkeong as the only hope for religious reform in Sikkim.
She spent two years with him in all, studying tantric mysteries and the Tibetan language. She traveled to Japan in , hoping vaguely that he might join her there and also interested in learning about Zen Buddhism. Yongden accompanied her, which effectively meant that his family would disown him and that he had devoted himself to her.
It was in China that she met a Westerner who had made the forbidden journey to Lhasa and who told her of his adventures. But civil war broke out in China, forcing her to flee to Mongolia, where she lived in the monastery of Kumbum, the birthplace of the famous Tibetan teacher Tsong-khapa. There were some 3, lamas there, and she describes the remarkable spectacle of their silent progress to the meditation hall before dawn for the morning chanting.
She meditated a great deal at Kumbum and studied in the library, copying the works of Nagarjuna and translating the Prajnaparamita Sutra. In particular, she wanted to be the first Western woman to enter Lhasa. She and Yongden traveled alone, posing as a lama and his aging mother. She was fluent in Tibetan, familiar with the city they were claiming to have come from, and disguised herself carefully. They journeyed on foot, often at night. There were countless occasions when they barely escaped detection.
Once she became stuck halfway across a raging river, suspended by a rope. Twice she and Yongden were accosted by robbers, and she had to fire her pistol to scare them away. They took a treacherous route between two mountain passes, where an untimely snowfall might have left them to starve.