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Included patients in a database of high-risk patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome in US hospitals from November through December , totaling 89, patients from sites. The origins of the Christian Crusade to liberate the Holy Land are found in the spread of a warrior Asiatic tribe. As stories of atrocities committed against Christian pilgrims filtered back to Europe, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus appealed for help against the Seljuks.
Pope Urban II called for a crusade against the Muslims in The stated goal of this crusade was to recapture the Holy Land and ensure safety for Christian pilgrims visiting sacred sites. However, many of the crusaders saw it as the perfect opportunity to serve God and simultaneously make a fortune in looting and ransom.
By , a large army 25,, men was prepared for battle. They marched from southern France to Constantinople, where friction immediately arose between the Byzantines, who were unprepared for such an army, and the crusaders. In , the crusaders left Constantinople and marched towards Jerusalem, which fell in The goal of the Crusade had been achieved. In celebration, the crusaders ruthlessly slaughtered all of the Muslim inhabitants of the city.
The Jewish community in Palestine was forced to surrender to the new rulers, or face execution. The events of temporarily stopped the intellectual and social activity of Ashkenazic Jewry.
Introduction to the Crusades (video) | Khan Academy
Two other groups formed, both of which harmed the Jews: itinerant preachers and bands of German peasants. For the most part, the itinerant preachers were only interested in exploiting the Jews financially, demanding money for provisions. Although they constituted a decisive military "win" for Islam, the image of barbaric Christian Crusaders continues to haunt Arab Muslim perspectives of Europe and Christianity, especially when combined with the more recent history of European colonialism in the Middle East.
It is curious that an ostensibly Islamic military and political triumph could be transformed into a touchstone of Islamic defeat and despair. There is some arbitrariness to any categorization or division of the Crusades — over years of almost continual fighting on multiple fronts.
Where does one Crusade end and the next begin? Despite such problems, there is a traditional system that allows for a fair overview.
Urban gave a dramatic speech urging Christians to swarm to Jerusalem and make it safe for Christian pilgrims by taking it away from Muslims. The armies of the First Crusade left in and captured Jerusalem in Crusaders carved out small kingdoms for themselves which endured for some time, though not long enough to have a real impact on local culture.
Launched in response to the Muslim capture of Edessa in , it was accepted by European leaders primarily due to the tireless effort of St.
The Crusades: Causes & Goals
Bernard of Clairvaux who traveled across France, Germany, and Italy to exhort people to take up the cross and reassert Christian domination in the Holy Land. The kings of France and Germany answered the call but the losses to their armies were devastating, and they were easily defeated. Launched in , it was called because of the Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in and the defeat of Palestinian Knights at Hittin. It was unsuccessful. Only Richard, the Lionheart of England, stayed long. He helped capture Acre and some smaller ports, only leaving after he concluded a peace treaty with Saladin.
Launched in , it was in part instigated by Venetian leaders who saw it as a means to increase their power and influence. Crusaders who arrived in Venice expecting to be taken to Egypt were instead diverted towards their allies in Constantinople. The great city was mercilessly sacked in during Easter week, yet , leading to greater enmity between Eastern and Western Christians. They captured the city of Damietta, but after their devastating loss at the Battle of Al-Mansura, they were forced to return it.
Ironically, before their defeat, they were offered control of Jerusalem and other Christian sites in Palestine in exchange for the return of Damietta, but Cardinal Pelagius refused and turned a potential victory into a stunning defeat. Launched in , it achieved some small measure of success — though not by military might. Frederick had promised to participate in the Fifth Crusade but failed to do so.
Thus he was under a great deal of pressure to do something substantive this time. This Crusade ended with a peace treaty granting Christians control of several important holy sites, including Jerusalem. In the Seventh, Crusade Louis sailed to Egypt in and recaptured Damietta, but after he and his army had been routed, he had to return it as well as a massive ransom just to get free. In he set off on the Eighth Crusade, landing in North Africa to convert the sultan of Tunis to Christianity but died before he got far.
Edward arrived after Louis had died and moved against the Mamluk sultan Baibers.
He didn't achieve much, though, and returned home to England after he learned that his father Henry III had died. Launched against the Muslims who had taken control of the Iberian peninsula, it began in with the Battle of Covadonga when the Visigoth noble Pelayo defeated a Muslim Army at Alcama and didn't end until when Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile conquered Granada, last Muslim stronghold. Fighting lasted until when at the Battle of Tannenberg forces from Poland and Lithuania defeated the Teutonic Knights. Over the course of the conflicts, though, the pagan population was gradually converted to Christianity.
Why were the Crusades launched? Were the Crusades primarily religious, political, economic, or a combination? There is a wide variety of opinion on this matter. Some argue that they were a necessary response by Christendom to the oppression of pilgrims in Muslim-controlled Jerusalem. Others claim that it was political imperialism masked by religious piety. Still, others argue that it was a social release for a society that was becoming overburdened by landless nobles.
Christians commonly try to defend the Crusades as political or at least as politics being masked by religion, but in reality, sincere religious devotion — both Muslim and Christian — played a primary role on both sides. It's little wonder that the Crusades are so often cited as a reason to regard religion as a cause of violence in human history. The most immediate cause for the Crusades is also the most obvious: Muslim incursions into previously Christian lands.