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Thus, the presumed influence of Western influence in civil society efforts in Africa emerges. In the context of globalisation, one country cannot solve these common issues alone. Civil society as a concept is entrenched in Western political thought. A further look at the history of these two concepts; Western countries played a critical role in formulating and further promoting them. Similarly, there has been an increase in multiple jurisdiction efforts by international NGOs to complement the work carried out by NGOs. This includes sharing information and encouraging transparency and accountability in democratic processes.
Civil society in Africa played a pivotal role in challenging the one-party rule in the s. In the context of changing or increasingly complex problems, there is a need for civil society to adopt and manage this change for their beneficiaries. The most critical aspect of civil society work is contingent on an enabling environment. The sustainability of civil society is a complex; varying from the regulatory environment, the manner in which the state engages with civil society and limited resources. The changing landscape in North Africa during the Arab spring presented a challenge for civil society as actions were led by people and not formal organisations.
The rapid changes in technology have enabled mobilisation for civic action. This has led to people taking action as opposed to turning to civil society for their interests to be represented.
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This is the case in North Africa. Another challenge faced by civil society organisations is the ability to scale up their work and grow. The arguments for sustainability being the result of less Western funding cannot stand with the model of a civil society organisation being non-profit.
Funds would still have to be raised on a regular basis leaving to question how civil society can define sustainability within the context of Africa. In the most basic form; sustainability for civil society organisations entails remaining operational regardless of economic climate conditions and forming diversified funding mechanisms inclusive of local funding sources. It does not guarantee that the same domestic sources would not experience challenges as is the current trends with decreasing international donor funding.
ОСНОВНЫЕ КРИТЕРИИ ПОДГОТОВКИ КАДРОВ В СССР
Given the importance of funding for civil society and in view of sustainability; funding as a challenge is further explored in the following section. In a country like Botswana that is considered higher middle income, funding is a challenge for civil society. Aside from this, civil society in some instances is merely viewed as an agent of the state or ineffective. This can be highlighted as a challenge for organisations that work for unconventional or controversial groups such as sexual minorities.
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Donor dependency remains an issue because of the operating model civil society organisations are formed in. Funding for African civil society organisations is channelled mainly through international NGOs. In instances of where funding is most needed at grass root level, the funds are absorbed through other channels that determine where to invest funding.