An industrial powerhouse, once famous for its massive automobile factories, that was down on its luck. The city's youth craved escape — and club culture provided just that. European synth-pop had a huge influence on techno. The building blocks of a sound. The key influences on techno, played by Collier and Detroit's late-night radio DJs, were mostly European. The teutonic synth-pop of Kraftwerk , Italo-disco and European new wave was played alongside hard-edged funk by radio DJs such as The Electrifying Mojo , conjuring the idea of dancefloor-focused machine music.
At the same time, early hip-hop innovators used these same influences to create their own heavily synthesised sound: electro.
History of techno music: Discover the genre's roots
Techno was pioneered by The Belleville Three. The Belleville Three. Along with Rik Davis , Atkins, who started making music on cheap early synths such as the MiniKorgS and the Korg MS10 in his mid-teens, released industrial-sounding and hugely influential electro as Cybotron. July 5 at AM. July 4 at AM. Alexandre Kisylyczko July 4 at AM. Music Sounds Better With You.
Lholho Lashouri shared a link. Mix session by Lholho Lashouri Podcasting Radio mixcloud. Nicolas Luzurier shared a post. July 1 at AM. Ce samedi Live Club. Live Club July 1 at AM. High Frequency. In he takes the residence of the underground, techno room of the iconic disco disco "the tap too". With a record of electricity consumption, hot water and monthly air conditioning for the apartments, annual energy loads were obtained for each residential unit.
This record comprises only electricity-related loads, while the hot water and air conditioning are set out in electrical behavior. The energy system In the building Is made up of a micro-CHP micro-combined heat and power unit with a maximum power of 5.
The system also consists of a kW boiler or gas heater, and an air conditioning or heating system. The total annual electrical energy load in the building is 1. The water that is circulated by the micro-cogeneration unit is used to meet the hot water demand in the building. If at any point it does not have the right temperature for the minimum requirements i. A schematic of the system configuration Is depicted in Figure The whole system is governed by controllers with temperature signals that turn each device on and off, according to the system's needs.
It should be noted that the micro-cogeneration unit evaluated is composed of a diesel engine modified to natural gas. This whole set of units and their operation was simulated and verified using the Trnsys software, delivering fuel consumption results and efficiencies in each unit. For the verification, the same system architecture was used as for the system evaluated in the article by A. Campos-Celador et al.
The controllers were integrated with the following subsystem in each subsystem or set of Types associated in the simulation In this way, errors related to the handling or passage of flows from one to another can be avoided, with a general rule being the determination of its functions through calculation controls offered by the software. The entire set was conditioned for use or control of a year, making adjustments in the software to avoid errors in each of the components and their relation to each other.
In these records or demands, inductive loads are taken Into account due to the fact that demands from electrical appliances and energy in general required by the user at that time are included in a single 6-mlnute record, as is heating or air conditioning and the supply of domestic hot water. In order to achieve each of these energy demands, an average base load was taken from European Electrical Standard Profiles for , and was adjusted to the requirements of the city of Medellin, Figure Once the software calculates the parameters for the technical performance of the system for each of the scenarios to be compared they are taken for the calculation of C0 2 emissions.
As mentioned above, the calculations for consumption and energy production were made by evaluating energy requirements during every 6 minutes of the consumption profile coupled to the system, including inductive loads and the result In fuel consumption and electric production for the same time refer to Appendix B. We now proceed to analyse the C0 2 generation factor of this unit, taking into account that the type of fuel used was natural gas. There are several equations to determine this factor, and their use depends on the Information available.
For generation units in which fuel consumption and net energy Information relates to the grid Equation 5 is used. For the evaluation of the generation scenario in "La Sierra" thermoelectric power plant, Its consumption Is characterised taking into account the government records recorded by the Colombian Mining Planning Unit UPME [ 18 ] , bearing In mind the last year registered, then this consumption Is adjusted to the energy demand in the building. Therefore, we proceed to calculate its emission factor based on Equation 5 , the results obtained are summarised in Table 5.
Table 6 shows a comparison of the environmental and technical performance of the two power generation system scenarios. As shown In Table 6 , the use of micro-cogeneration units not only decreases the production of C0 2 , but they also reduce this type of gas to less than half when compared to the amount generated by "La Sierra" thermoelectric power plant. The reason for that Is due to the amount of fuel consumed by the micro-cogeneration system to produce the same amount of energy Is much lower, and this also Leads to lower costs. When analysing the results it can also be determined that there is a high Impact from specific fuel consumption, and therefore on the efficiency of the engines of both the micro-cogeneration unit and the thermoelectric power plant.
The specific fuel consumption In the micro-cogeneration unit is much Lower than the fuel consumption of the thermoelectric power plant at each system load point, thus demonstrating greater efficiency in the in-situ unit. Likewise, it is possible to show each system's tendency to generate emissions, showing that the thermoelectric power plant - due to its higher fuel consumption for the case scenario In this paper - also generates a higher amount of emissions in lower power percentages compared to the generation reflected by the micro-cogeneration unit.
One cause of this difference in fuel consumption Is transmission loss, as this requires replacement of the energy loss to maintain energy demand and this is only achieved with higher fuel consumption, and therefore a greater generation of C0 2 emissions. Transmission Losses are not taken into account for on-site generators since the distance that the energy must travel from the generator to its consumer is small. In analyzing the thermal performance of the micro-cogeneration unit and the thermoelectric power plant, see Figure 15 , it can be determined that the former has a good advantage in terms of the engine performance reaching its maximum power Limit, while the thermoelectric power plant exhibits relatively Low performance for the case scenario under study.
The whole micro-cogeneration system has a higher efficiency because the heat generated in the engine is used for heating water and heating systems, thus increasing its efficiency. This analysis determines the advantages of having individual systems for electricity generation that produce a small amount of energy in comparison to the large generators that distribute their large production, which exhibit losses in this process, while big generators also suffer an increase in the amount of heat that is wasted, thus decreasing their efficiency.
The generation of CO 2 is directly proportional to the amount of fossil fuel used and inversely proportional to the amount of energy generated, which defines the thermoelectric power plant as an inefficient generator for smaller and very efficient loads compared to micro-cogeneration units. Due to the amount of fuel burnt in micro-CHP units and its in-situ installation for the case study for a residential building , these units produce Less CO2 than a centralized thermoelectric power plant.
From this point of view, it is a technology that is worth starting to implement and adapt to the country's context, taking into account also that it can be used with different fuels to establish what advantages or what maximum value it could offer with the resources available in Colombia.
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The use of micro-cogeneration units is shown as an economic solution to the generation of emissions in the residential sector, because its fuel consumption is Lower, as is its production of pollutants. Countries such as Colombia, which have an extensive range of biomass, can explore their implementation with biofuels, thus making their implementation even more attractive from an environmental point of view, and would lead to an increase in the value of this biomass diversity, and decreased dependence on fossil fuels.
The use of these units also helps to make households independent of the generation of energy that's vulnerable to climate change, proving to be a very good option in times of climate phenomena. Colombia, being a country whose energy base is hydroelectric, is vulnerable to climate change or environmental phenomena that alter the water supply in dams. In addition, it would become a good option to support current generators that have to deal with the rapid increase in energy demand that the country is experiencing. The use of computational models makes it possible have advance knowledge of the results with little investment and in a short period of time, achieving quite an accurate reflection of reality, together with the information supplied by governmental entities.
It is important to keep in mind that the use of these tools can save on-site evaluation costs.
This is the story of a techno revolution
This work was sponsored by the Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia under the research project "Environmental and Techno-economic Assessment of Micro-cogeneration Systems from Biomass," providing all necessary tools and equipment, as well as providing the necessary funds to carry out this project. Our thanks also go out to the "Catalysis for Sustainable Energy Production and Environmental Protection" Group of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and to the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomics Research for their contributions and supervision during the development of this research.
Applied Energy , , , Energy , , , Applied Thermal Engineering , , , Journal Info. Thermoeconomic analysis of a micro-CHP installation n a tertiary sector building through dynamic simulation Energy , , 45 1 , SEAI, Ireland, F, Brink, R. F, Coutinho, A.