If the birth of the child has been concealed from or was unknown to the husband or his heirs, the period shall be counted from the discovery or knowledge of the birth of the child or of the fact of registration of said birth, whichever is earlier. The heirs of the husband may impugn the filiation of the child within the period prescribed in the preceding article only in the following cases:. The filiation of legitimate children is established by any of the following:. In the absence of the foregoing evidence, the legitimate filiation shall be proved by:.
The action to claim legitimacy may be brought by the child during his or her lifetime and shall be transmitted to the heirs should the child die during minority or in a state of insanity. In these cases, the heirs shall have a period of five years within which to institute the action. Illegitimate children may establish their illegitimate filiation in the same way and on the same evidence as legitimate children.
The action must be brought within the same period specified in Article , except when the action is based on the second paragraph of Article , in which case the action may be brought during the lifetime of the alleged parent. Illegitimate children shall use the surname and shall be under the parental authority of their mother, and shall be entitled to support in conformity with this Code.
The legitime of each illegitimate child shall consist of one-half of the legitime of a legitimate child. Except for this modification, all other provisions in the Civil Code governing successional rights shall remain in force. Only children conceived and born outside of wedlock of parents who, at the time of the conception of the former, were not disqualified by any impediment to marry each other may be legitimated.
Legitimation shall take place by a subsequent valid marriage between parents. The annulment of a viodable marriage shall not affect the legitimation. Legitimated children shall enjoy the same rights as legitimate children. The effects of legitimation shall retroact to the time of the child's birth. The legitimation of children who died before the celebration of the marriage shall benefit their descendants. Legitimation may be impugned only by those who are prejudiced in their rights, within five years from the time their cause of action accrues. A person of age and in possession of full civil capacity and legal rights may adopt, provided he is in a position to support and care for his children, legitimate or illegitimate, in keeping with the means of the family.
Only minors may be adopted, except in the cases when the adoption of a person of majority age is allowed in this Title. In addition, the adopter must be at least sixteen years older than the person to be adopted, unless the adopter is the parent by nature of the adopted, or is the spouse of the legitimate parent of the person to be adopted. Aliens not included in the foregoing exceptions may adopt Filipino children in accordance with the rules on inter-country adoptions as may be provided by law. In case husband and wife jointly adopt or one spouse adopts the legitimate child of the other, joint parental authority shall be exercised by the spouses in accordance with this Code.
The written consent of the following to the adoption shall be necessary:. Legal or intestate succession to the estate of the adopted shall be governed by the following rules:. If the adopted is a minor or otherwise incapacitated, the adoption may be judicially rescinded upon petition of any person authorized by the court or proper government instrumental acting on his behalf, on the same grounds prescribed for loss or suspension of parental authority. If the adopted is at least eighteen years of age, he may petition for judicial rescission of the adoption on the same grounds prescribed for disinheriting an ascendant.
The adopters may petition the court for the judicial rescission of the adoption in any of the following cases:. If the adopted minor has not reached the age of majority at the time of the judicial rescission of the adoption, the court in the same proceeding shall reinstate the parental authority of the parents by nature, unless the latter are disqualified or incapacitated, in which case the court shall appoint a guardian over the person and property of the minor. If the adopted person is physically or mentally handicapped, the court shall appoint in the same proceeding a guardian over his person or property or both.
Judicial rescission of the adoption shall extinguish all reciprocal rights and obligations between the adopters and the adopted arising from the relationship of parent and child. The adopted shall likewise lose the right to use the surnames of the adopters and shall resume his surname prior to the adoption.
The court shall accordingly order the amendment of the records in the proper registries. Support compromises everything indispensable for sustenance, dwelling, clothing, medical attendance, education and transportation, in keeping with the financial capacity of the family. The education of the person entitled to be supported referred to in the preceding paragraph shall include his schooling or training for some profession, trade or vocation, even beyond the age of majority. Transportation shall include expenses in going to and from school, or to and from place of work. Subject to the provisions of the succeeding articles, the following are obliged to support each other to the whole extent set forth in the preceding article:.
Brothers and sisters not legitimately related, whether of the full or half-blood, are likewise bound to support each other to the full extent set forth in Article , except only when the need for support of the brother or sister, being of age, is due to a cause imputable to the claimant's fault or negligence.
In case of legitimate ascendants; descendants, whether legitimate or illegitimate; and brothers and sisters, whether legitimately or illegitimately related, only the separate property of the person obliged to give support shall be answerable provided that in case the obligor has no separate property, the absolute community or the conjugal partnership, if financially capable, shall advance the support, which shall be deducted from the share of the spouse obliged upon the liquidation of the absolute community or of the conjugal partnership. During the proceedings for legal separation or for annulment of marriage, and for declaration of nullity of marriage, the spouses and their children shall be supported from the properties of the absolute community or the conjugal partnership.
After the final judgment granting the petition, the obligation of mutual support between the spouses ceases. However, in case of legal separation, the court may order that the guilty spouse shall give support to the innocent one, specifying the terms of such order. Whenever two or more persons are obliged to give support, the liability shall devolve upon the following persons in the order herein provided:. When the obligation to give support falls upon two or more persons, the payment of the same shall be divided between them in proportion to the resources of each.
However, in case of urgent need and by special circumstances, the judge may order only one of them to furnish the support provisionally, without prejudice to his right to claim from the other obligors the share due from them. When two or more recipients at the same time claim support from one and the same person legally obliged to give it, should the latter not have sufficient means to satisfy all claims, the order established in the preceding article shall be followed, unless the concurrent obligees should be the spouse and a child subject to parental authority, in which case the child shall be preferred.
The amount of support, in the cases referred to in Articles and , shall be in proportion to the resources or means of the giver and to the necessities of the recipient. Support in the cases referred to in the preceding article shall be reduced or increased proportionately, according to the reduction or increase of the necessities of the recipient and the resources or means of the person obliged to furnish the same. The obligation to give support shall be demandable from the time the person who has a right to receive the same needs it for maintenance, but it shall not be paid except from the date of judicial or extrajudicial demand.
Payment shall be made within the first five days of each corresponding month or when the recipient dies, his heirs shall not be obliged to return what he has received in advance. The person obliged to give support shall have the option to fulfill the obligation either by paying the allowance fixed, or by receiving and maintaining in the family dwelling the person who has a right to receive support. The latter alternative cannot be availed of in case there is a moral or legal obstacle thereto. The right to receive support under this Title as well as any money or property obtained as such support shall not be levied upon on attachment or execution.
When, without the knowledge of the person obliged to give support, it is given by a stranger, the latter shall have a right to claim the same from the former, unless it appears that he gave it without intention of being reimbursed. When the person obliged to support another unjustly refuses or fails to give support when urgently needed by the latter, any third person may furnish support to the needy individual, with right of reimbursement from the person obliged to give support.
This Article shall particularly apply when the father or mother of a child under the age of majority unjustly refuses to support or fails to give support to the child when urgently needed. In case of contractual support or that given by will, the excess in amount beyond that required for legal support shall be subject to levy on attachment or execution. Furthermore, contractual support shall be subject to adjustment whenever modification is necessary due to changes of circumstances manifestly beyond the contemplation of the parties.
Pursuant to the natural right and duty of parents over the person and property of their unemancipated children, parental authority and responsibility shall include the caring for and rearing them for civic consciousness and efficiency and the development of their moral, mental and physical character and well-being. Parental authority and responsibility may not be renounced or transferred except in the cases authorized by law.
The father and the mother shall jointly exercise parental authority over the persons of their common children. In case of disagreement, the father's decision shall prevail, unless there is a judicial order to the contrary. Children shall always observe respect and reverence towards their parents and are obliged to obey them as long as the children are under parental authority. In case of absence or death of either parent, the parent present shall continue exercising parental authority. The remarriage of the surviving parent shall not affect the parental authority over the children, unless the court appoints another person to be the guardian of the person or property of the children.
In case of separation of the parents, parental authority shall be exercised by the parent designated by the Court. The Court shall take into account all relevant considerations, especially the choice of the child over seven years of age, unless the parent chosen is unfit. In case of death, absence or unsuitability of the parents, substitute parental authority shall be exercised by the surviving grandparent. In case several survive, the one designated by the court, taking into account the same consideration mentioned in the preceding article, shall exercise the authority.
No descendant shall be compelled, in a criminal case, to testify against his parents and grandparents, except when such testimony is indispensable in a crime against the descendant or by one parent against the other. In default of parents or a judicially appointed guardian, the following person shall exercise substitute parental authority over the child in the order indicated:. Whenever the appointment or a judicial guardian over the property of the child becomes necessary, the same order of preference shall be observed. In case of foundlings, abandoned neglected or abused children and other children similarly situated, parental authority shall be entrusted in summary judicial proceedings to heads of children's homes, orphanages and similar institutions duly accredited by the proper government agency.
The school, its administrators and teachers, or the individual, entity or institution engaged in child are shall have special parental authority and responsibility over the minor child while under their supervision, instruction or custody. Authority and responsibility shall apply to all authorized activities whether inside or outside the premises of the school, entity or institution.
Those given the authority and responsibility under the preceding Article shall be principally and solidarily liable for damages caused by the acts or omissions of the unemancipated minor. The parents, judicial guardians or the persons exercising substitute parental authority over said minor shall be subsidiarily liable. The respective liabilities of those referred to in the preceding paragraph shall not apply if it is proved that they exercised the proper diligence required under the particular circumstances. All other cases not covered by this and the preceding articles shall be governed by the provisions of the Civil Code on quasi-delicts.
Chapter 3. The parents and those exercising parental authority shall have with the respect to their unemancipated children on wards the following rights and duties:. Parents and other persons exercising parental authority shall be civilly liable for the injuries and damages caused by the acts or omissions of their unemancipated children living in their company and under their parental authority subject to the appropriate defenses provided by law.
The courts may appoint a guardian of the child's property or a guardian ad litem when the best interests of the child so requires. The parents or, in their absence or incapacity, the individual, entity or institution exercising parental authority, may petition the proper court of the place where the child resides, for an order providing for disciplinary measures over the child.
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The child shall be entitled to the assistance of counsel, either of his choice or appointed by the court, and a summary hearing shall be conducted wherein the petitioner and the child shall be heard. However, if in the same proceeding the court finds the petitioner at fault, irrespective of the merits of the petition, or when the circumstances so warrant, the court may also order the deprivation or suspension of parental authority or adopt such other measures as it may deem just and proper.
The measures referred to in the preceding article may include the commitment of the child for not more than thirty days in entities or institutions engaged in child care or in children's homes duly accredited by the proper government agency. The parent exercising parental authority shall not interfere with the care of the child whenever committed but shall provide for his support.
Upon proper petition or at its own instance, the court may terminate the commitment of the child whenever just and proper. Chapter 4. The father and the mother shall jointly exercise legal guardianship over the property of the unemancipated common child without the necessity of a court appointment. A verified petition for approval of the bond shall be filed in the proper court of the place where the child resides, or, if the child resides in a foreign country, in the proper court of the place where the property or any part thereof is situated.
The petition shall be docketed as a summary special proceeding in which all incidents and issues regarding the performance of the obligations referred to in the second paragraph of this Article shall be heard and resolved. The ordinary rules on guardianship shall be merely suppletory except when the child is under substitute parental authority, or the guardian is a stranger, or a parent has remarried, in which case the ordinary rules on guardianship shall apply.
The property of the unemancipated child earned or acquired with his work or industry or by onerous or gratuitous title shall belong to the child in ownership and shall be devoted exclusively to the latter's support and education, unless the title or transfer provides otherwise. The right of the parents over the fruits and income of the child's property shall be limited primarily to the child's support and secondarily to the collective daily needs of the family. If the parents entrust the management or administration of any of their properties to an unemancipated child, the net proceeds of such property shall belong to the owner.
The child shall be given a reasonable monthly allowance in an amount not less than that which the owner would have paid if the administrator were a stranger, unless the owner, grants the entire proceeds to the child. In any case, the proceeds thus give in whole or in part shall not be charged to the child's legitime. Unless subsequently revived by a final judgment, parental authority also terminates:. Parental authority is suspended upon conviction of the parent or the person exercising the same of a crime which carries with it the penalty of civil interdiction.
The authority is automatically reinstated upon service of the penalty or upon pardon or amnesty of the offender. The court in an action filed for the purpose in a related case may also suspend parental authority if the parent or the person exercising the same:. The grounds enumerated above are deemed to include cases which have resulted from culpable negligence of the parent or the person exercising parental authority. If the degree of seriousness so warrants, or the welfare of the child so demands, the court shall deprive the guilty party of parental authority or adopt such other measures as may be proper under the circumstances.
The suspension or deprivation may be revoked and the parental authority revived in a case filed for the purpose or in the same proceeding if the court finds that the cause therefor has ceased and will not be repeated. If the person exercising parental authority has subjected the child or allowed him to be subjected to sexual abuse, such person shall be permanently deprived by the court of such authority. The person exercising substitute parental authority shall have the same authority over the person of the child as the parents.
In no case shall the school administrator, teacher of individual engaged in child care exercising special parental authority inflict corporal punishment upon the child. Emancipation takes place by the attainment of majority. Unless otherwise provided, majority commences at the age of twenty-one years.
Such emancipation shall be irrevocable. The provisions governing emancipation by recorded agreement shall also apply to an orphan minor and the person exercising parental authority but the agreement must be approved by the court before it is recorded. Emancipation for any cause shall terminate parental authority over the person and property of the child who shall then be qualified and responsible for all acts of civil life. The annulment or declaration of nullity of the marriage of a minor or of the recorded agreement mentioned in the foregoing. Articles and shall revive the parental authority over the minor but shall not affect acts and transactions that took place prior to the recording of the final judgment in the Civil Register.
Prefatory Provisions. Until modified by the Supreme Court, the procedural rules provided for in this Title shall apply as regards separation in fact between husband and wife, abandonment by one of the other, and incidents involving parental authority. When a husband and wife are separated in fact, or one has abandoned the other and one of them seeks judicial authorization for a transaction where the consent of the other spouse is required by law but such consent is withheld or cannot be obtained, a verified petition may be filed in court alleging the foregoing facts.
The petition shall attach the proposed deed, if any, embodying the transaction, and, if none, shall describe in detail the said transaction and state the reason why the required consent thereto cannot be secured. In any case, the final deed duly executed by the parties shall be submitted to and approved by the court. Claims for damages by either spouse, except costs of the proceedings, may be litigated only in a separate action.
Jurisdiction over the petition shall, upon proof of notice to the other spouse, be exercised by the proper court authorized to hear family cases, if one exists, or in the regional trial court or its equivalent sitting in the place where either of the spouses resides. Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall notify the other spouse, whose consent to the transaction is required, of said petition, ordering said spouse to show cause why the petition should not be granted, on or before the date set in said notice for the initial conference. The notice shall be accompanied by a copy of the petition and shall be served at the last known address of the spouse concerned.
A preliminary conference shall be conducted by the judge personally without the parties being assisted by counsel. After the initial conference, if the court deems it useful, the parties may be assisted by counsel at the succeeding conferences and hearings. In case of non-appearance of the spouse whose consent is sought, the court shall inquire into the reasons for his failure to appear, and shall require such appearance, if possible.
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If, despite all efforts, the attendance of the non-consenting spouse is not secured, the court may proceed ex parte and render judgment as the facts and circumstances may warrant. In any case, the judge shall endeavor to protect the interests of the non-appearing spouse.
If the petition is not resolved at the initial conference, said petition shall be decided in a summary hearing on the basis of affidavits, documentary evidence or oral testimonies at the sound discretion of the court. If testimony is needed, the court shall specify the witnesses to be heard and the subject-matter of their testimonies, directing the parties to present said witnesses. The judgment of the court shall be immediately final and executory.
The petition for judicial authority to administer or encumber specific separate property of the abandoning spouse and to use the fruits or proceeds thereof for the support of the family shall also be governed by these rules. Petitions filed under Articles , and of this Code involving parental authority shall be verified.. Such petitions shall be verified and filed in the proper court of the place where the child resides.
Upon the filing of the petition, the court shall notify the parents or, in their absence or incapacity, the individuals, entities or institutions exercising parental authority over the child. The rules in Chapter 2 hereof shall also govern summary proceedings under this Chapter insofar as they are applicable. If any provision of this Code is held invalid, all the other provisions not affected thereby shall remain valid. This Code shall have retroactive effect insofar as it does not prejudice or impair vested or acquired rights in accordance with the Civil Code or other laws.
This Code shall take effect one year after the completion of its publication in a newspaper of general circulation, as certified by the Executive Secretary, Office of the President. Done in the City of Manila, this 6th day of July, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and eighty-seven. Requisites of Marriage Art. No marriage shall be valid, unless these essential requisites are present: 1 Legal capacity of the contracting parties who must be a male and a female; and 2 Consent freely given in the presence of the solemnizing officer.
The formal requisites of marriage are: 1 Authority of the solemnizing officer; 2 A valid marriage license except in the cases provided for in Chapter 2 of this Title; and 3 A marriage ceremony which takes place with the appearance of the contracting parties before the solemnizing officer and their personal declaration that they take each other as husband and wife in the presence of not less than two witnesses of legal age.
Marriage may be solemnized by: 1 Any incumbent member of the judiciary within the court's jurisdiction; 2 Any priest, rabbi, imam, or minister of any church or religious sect duly authorized by his church or religious sect and registered with the civil registrar general, acting within the limits of the written authority granted by his church or religious sect and provided that at least one of the contracting parties belongs to the solemnizing officer's church or religious sect; 3 Any ship captain or airplane chief only in the case mentioned in Article 31; 4 Any military commander of a unit to which a chaplain is assigned, in the absence of the latter, during a military operation, likewise only in the cases mentioned in Article 32; 5 Any consul-general, consul or vice-consul in the case provided in Article A marriage license shall be issued by the local civil registrar of the city or municipality where either contracting party habitually resides, except in marriages where no license is required in accordance with Chapter 2 of this Title 58a Art.
Where a marriage license is required, each of the contracting parties shall file separately a sworn application for such license with the proper local civil registrar which shall specify the following: 1 Full name of the contracting party; 2 Place of birth; 3 Age and date of birth; 4 Civil status; 5 If previously married, how, when and where the previous marriage was dissolved or annulled; 6 Present residence and citizenship; 7 Degree of relationship of the contracting parties; 8 Full name, residence and citizenship of the father; 9 Full name, residence and citizenship of the mother; and 10 Full name, residence and citizenship of the guardian or person having charge, in case the contracting party has neither father nor mother and is under the age of twenty-one years.
The marriage certificate, in which the parties shall declare that they take each other as husband and wife, shall also state: 1 The full name, sex and age of each contracting party; 2 Their citizenship, religion and habitual residence; 3 The date and precise time of the celebration of the marriage; 4 That the proper marriage license has been issued according to law, except in marriage provided for in Chapter 2 of this Title; 5 That either or both of the contracting parties have secured the parental consent in appropriate cases; 6 That either or both of the contracting parties have complied with the legal requirement regarding parental advice in appropriate cases; and 7 That the parties have entered into marriage settlement, if any, attaching a copy thereof.
As amended by Executive Order Chapter 2. Marriages Exempted from License Requirement Art. Void and Voidable Marriages Art. The following marriages shall be void from the beginning: 1 Those contracted by any party below eighteen years of age even with the consent of parents or guardians; 2 Those solemnized by any person not legally authorized to perform marriages unless such marriages were contracted with either or both parties believing in good faith that the solemnizing officer had the legal authority to do so; 3 Those solemnized without license, except those covered the preceding Chapter; 4 Those bigamous or polygamous marriages not failing under Article 41; 5 Those contracted through mistake of one contracting party as to the identity of the other; and 6 Those subsequent marriages that are void under Article As amended by Executive Order Art.
Marriages between the following are incestuous and void from the beginning, whether relationship between the parties be legitimate or illegitimate: 1 Between ascendants and descendants of any degree; and 2 Between brothers and sisters, whether of the full or half blood. The following marriages shall be void from the beginning for reasons of public policy: 1 Between collateral blood relatives whether legitimate or illegitimate, up to the fourth civil degree; 2 Between step-parents and step-children; 3 Between parents-in-law and children-in-law; 4 Between the adopting parent and the adopted child; 5 Between the surviving spouse of the adopting parent and the adopted child; 6 Between the surviving spouse of the adopted child and the adopter; 7 Between an adopted child and a legitimate child of the adopter; 8 Between adopted children of the same adopter; and 9 Between parties where one, with the intention to marry the other, killed that other person's spouse, or his or her own spouse.
As amended by Executive Order n Art. Any of the following circumstances shall constitute fraud referred to in Number 3 of the preceding Article: 1 Non-disclosure of a previous conviction by final judgment of the other party of a crime involving moral turpitude; 2 Concealment by the wife of the fact that at the time of the marriage, she was pregnant by a man other than her husband; 3 Concealment of sexually transmissible disease, regardless of its nature, existing at the time of the marriage; or 4 Concealment of drug addiction, habitual alcoholism or homosexuality or lesbianism existing at the time of the marriage.
The petition for legal separation shall be denied on any of the following grounds: 1 Where the aggrieved party has condoned the offense or act complained of; 2 Where the aggrieved party has consented to the commission of the offense or act complained of; 3 Where there is connivance between the parties in the commission of the offense or act constituting the ground for legal separation; 4 Where both parties have given ground for legal separation; 5 Where there is collusion between the parties to obtain decree of legal separation; or 6 Where the action is barred by prescription.
The decree of legal separation shall have the following effects: 1 The spouses shall be entitled to live separately from each other, but the marriage bonds shall not be severed; 2 The absolute community or the conjugal partnership shall be dissolved and liquidated but the offending spouse shall have no right to any share of the net profits earned by the absolute community or the conjugal partnership, which shall be forfeited in accordance with the provisions of Article 43 2 ; 3 The custody of the minor children shall be awarded to the innocent spouse, subject to the provisions of Article of this Code; and 4 The offending spouse shall be disqualified from inheriting from the innocent spouse by intestate succession.
The reconciliation referred to in the preceding Articles shall have the following consequences: 1 The legal separation proceedings, if still pending, shall thereby be terminated at whatever stage; and 2 The final decree of legal separation shall be set aside, but the separation of property and any forfeiture of the share of the guilty spouse already effected shall subsist, unless the spouses agree to revive their former property regime.
The agreement to revive the former property regime referred to in the preceding Article shall be executed under oath and shall specify: 1 The properties to be contributed anew to the restored regime; 2 Those to be retained as separated properties of each spouse; and 3 The names of all their known creditors, their addresses and the amounts owing to each. In case of disagreement, the court shall decide whether or not: 1 The objection is proper, and 2 Benefit has occurred to the family prior to the objection or thereafter.
The property relationship between husband and wife shall be governed in the following order: 1 By marriage settlements executed before the marriage; 2 By the provisions of this Code; and 3 By the local custom. This rule shall not apply: 1 Where both spouses are aliens; 2 With respect to the extrinsic validity of contracts affecting property not situated in the Philippines and executed in the country where the property is located; and 3 With respect to the extrinsic validity of contracts entered into in the Philippines but affecting property situated in a foreign country whose laws require different formalities for its extrinsic validity.
Donations by Reason of Marriage Art. A donation by reason of marriage may be revoked by the donor in the following cases: 1 If the marriage is not celebrated or judicially declared void ab initio except donations made in the marriage settlements, which shall be governed by Article 81; 2 When the marriage takes place without the consent of the parents or guardian, as required by law; 3 When the marriage is annulled, and the donee acted in bad faith; 4 Upon legal separation, the donee being the guilty spouse; 5 If it is with a resolutory condition and the condition is complied with; 6 When the donee has committed an act of ingratitude as specified by the provisions of the Civil Code on donations in general.
System of Absolute Community Section 1. What Constitutes Community Property Art. The following shall be excluded from the community property: 1 Property acquired during the marriage by gratuitous title by either spouse, and the fruits as well as the income thereof, if any, unless it is expressly provided by the donor, testator or grantor that they shall form part of the community property; 2 Property for personal and exclusive use of either spouse.
However, jewelry shall form part of the community property; 3 Property acquired before the marriage by either spouse who has legitimate descendants by a former marriage, and the fruits as well as the income, if any, of such property. Charges and Obligations of the Absolute Community Art. Dissolution of Absolute Community Regime Art. The absolute community terminates: 1 Upon the death of either spouse; 2 When there is a decree of legal separation; 3 When the marriage is annulled or declared void; or 4 In case of judicial separation of property during the marriage under Article to The separation in fact between husband and wife shall not affect the regime of absolute community except that: 1 The spouse who leaves the conjugal home or refuses to live therein, without just cause, shall not have the right to be supported; 2 When the consent of one spouse to any transaction of the other is required by law, judicial authorization shall be obtained in a summary proceeding; 3 In the absence of sufficient community property, the separate property of both spouses shall be solidarily liable for the support of the family.
Explore Now. Buy As Gift. In The Disinherited we learned that We Are Not Alone, but share this galaxy with the most loathe-somely aggressive communal aliens imaginable. Thank God for the U. Space Force. In Legacy we learned that time-travel is not only possible for the humans of the far future, it's easy. But meddling in time can have awful consequences for mere mortals: Thank God for King Arthur.
And now. But now that he has saved the universes, who shall save the King? Product Details About the Author. In addition to the Starfire series with David Weber, he has written several popular science fiction adventure novels for Baen. They include the trilogy comprising The Disinherited, Legacy and Debt of Ages, which combine fast-paced space opera with Arthurian mythology. He has also written the galaxy-spanning adventure Prince of Sunset, and its sequel Emperor of Dawn. His latest is Eagle Against the Stars.
He currently works for a legal publishing company in Charlottesville, Virginia. He is married and has three daughters. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Carpe Diem. Robb Stark , declared King in the North by his bannermen, invades the Westerlands.
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Robert's youngest brother Renly Baratheon declares himself king ahead of middle brother Stannis , and marries Margaery Tyrell to gain the support of her powerful family. Renly is assassinated by a magical Shadow -creature sent by Stannis and Melisandre. House Greyjoy declares its independence once again, and opportunistically attacks the North while its army is away south. Most of Stannis's fleet assaulting King's Landing is destroyed in a huge wildfire explosion at the massive Battle of the Blackwater. After Renly's death, House Tyrell shifts its massive support to the Lannisters, in exchange for a royal betrothal.
Robb Stark realizes that due to his various political blunders, he has functionally lost the war already.
The Stark army is massacred at the Red Wedding. Catelyn and Robb are killed in the main hall by the Freys , breaking sacred Guest right. King Robb is stabbed through the heart by Roose Bolton , then the Freys horrifically mutilate his corpse. Like his father Roose, Ramsay Snow betrayed the Starks by taking Winterfell under a flag of truce, then burning the castle.
Daenerys Targaryen steals and frees an army of 8, Unsullied with her dragons, then sacks Astapor. With her new Unsullied army and her young dragons, Daenerys begins a campaign of liberation in Slaver's Bay. King Joffrey marries Margaery Tyrell to secure the Lannister-Tyrell alliance, and celebrate the Lannister victory ending the war.
Joffrey ends up assassinated, poisoned at his own wedding feast - and the war enters into a new, more chaotic phase. Littlefinger , the secret architect of the entire war, tricking the Starks and Lannisters into fighting each other to exhaust them both. Despite their victory, the Lannisters are bankrupted by the war, leading to a crippling debt crisis with the Iron Bank of Braavos. Oberyn Martell fights Gregor Clegane in a trial by combat , which leaves Oberyn dead and Gregor fatally poisoned. Tywin Lannister is shot dead with a crossbow while on the privy by his own son, Tyrion, who then flees Westeros.
Daenerys Targaryen captures Meereen , but facing continued resistance from the local slave-masters, decides to stay and rule as the city's queen until she can stabilize it. Stannis Baratheon 's surviving army makes a surprise arrival at the Battle of Castle Black to save the Night's Watch and crush the wildling horde led by Mance Rayder. With Tywin dead and Tyrion fleeing into exile, Cersei becomes the new head of House Lannister - and disastrously mishandles both the war and the debt crisis.
The debt crisis with the Iron Bank of Braavos reaches a breaking point: with far less confidence in Cersei than Tywin, the bank starts calling in its loans - which the Iron Throne cannot possibly repay. Cersei's younger son Tommen is crowned king, and marries Margaery Tyrell to secure their alliance. A popular-disgust religious protest movement known as the Sparrows spreads throughout Westeros. Cersei tries to win their support by naming the High Sparrow as the new High Septon. The Faith Militant turns against Cersei, arrests her, and forces her to perform a humiliating walk of atonement.
Jon Snow is elected the new Lord Commander of the Night's Watch , and cements his position by personally executing Janos Slynt for treason. The White Walkers slaughter thousands of wildlings in the Massacre at Hardhome , and the Night King revives them as wights in their army of the undead. An insurgency grips Meereen of former slave-masters calling themselves the Sons of the Harpy , who refuse to accept Daenerys's rule.
Stannis Baratheon marches south from the Wall to fight the Boltons, leading to the Battle of Winterfell. Jon Snow is stabbed and left for dead in the Mutiny at Castle Black. Jon Snow is miraculously resurrected by the red priestess Melisandre at the behest of Ser Davos Seaworth. The sept of Baelor is destroyed with wildfire, killing most of the Sparrows and the Tyrells.
The Targaryen fleet sails to Westeros at last, having defeated the slave masters, conquering the Dothraki, and forming an alliance with the Reach, the Iron Islands, and Dorne. After Ramsay is killed, Jon Snow is declared the King in the North by the lords of the North and the Vale, the latter of which helped defeat the Bolton army and return Stark rule to the North. Arya Stark, on her quest for vengeance, oversees the extinguishing of the male line of House Frey in retaliation for the Red Wedding before returning to Winterfell.
Jon and Daenerys first meet at Dragonstone, with Melisandre crediting herself as bringing ice and fire together to Varys. Euron Greyjoy destroys a large portion of the Targaryen fleet and captures his niece Yara, solidifying his alliance with Cersei Lannister. Her Unsullied trapped at Casterly Rock and Highgarden sacked with the Tyrells dead, Daenerys Targaryen leads the Dothraki atop Drogon against the combined Lannister and Tarly army and destroys their loot train at the Battle of the Goldroad.
Jon Snow embarks on a Wight Hunt with his allies to capture a wight as proof for the rest of Westeros. They are rescued by Daenerys, but the Night King kills Viserion and raises it as an ice dragon. The Parley in King's Landing is held at the Dragonpit, where the captured wight is presented and Westeros agrees to come together for the Great War, setting aside their enmities and differences. After learning that Cersei and Euron plan to betray their vows using the Golden Company, Jaime at last abandons his sister and rides north as snow falls on King's Landing. With his crimes against the realm and its noble families uncovered, Petyr Baelish is executed by the combined efforts of Sansa, Arya, and Bran Stark.
Theon Greyjoy, forgiven by Jon Snow and overpowering Harrag, wins over Yara's remaining followers and persuades them to join him in his mission to rescue his sister from his uncle Euron. The Wall is breached where Eastwatch stands after attacks made by the Night King, nullifying its magic and allowing for the crossing of the White Walkers and wights into the North.
At the time of the novels, Westeros has been using a calendar system based on the year of Aegon's Landing, which occurred three centuries before. As explained above, calling it "Aegon's Landing" AL is somewhat anachronistic given that the "landing" happened at the beginning of the conquest but the calendar system only begins two years later, at the end of the conquest - more recent in-universe historical texts have been shifting to the alternate name "After Conquest" AC. The difference is purely one of nomenclature: "the year AL" and "the year AC" are exactly the same.
The known world that Westeros and Essos are set in has variable seasons that can last for years, sometimes a decade each though such long seasons only come once every century or two. On the average, it seems that one season can last for about two to three years or so the full four season cycle therefore taking about a decade. There are hints that the seasons may not always have been this way: characters still define "a year" as a twelve month period, not a full cycle of summer to winter.
Months are the same as in real-life, roughly a thirty day period. The term "moon-turn" is commonly used for "month". When the in-universe history text from the novellas about the Dance of the Dragons give specific dates, they are usually just in the format "on the fifth day of the third moon of the year AL" etc. While they seem to just refer to each month by number, keep in mind that this is essentially what the real-life Gregorian calendar does, inherited from the Romans, and their names often just stem from Latin numbers: "Sept-ember" is the seventh month, "Oct-ober" is the eighth month, etc.
Westeros also doesn't use an "o'clock" system of measuring hours in a day they also don't have mechanical clocks. Not every culture throughout real life history has measured the first hour of a given day starting at midnight the exact opposite of noon ; some start at sunrise, others at sunset.
It isn't clear at what hour one day officially becomes the next in Westeros though given that they are an agrarian society, they probably measure by each sunrise. Each "day" apparently consists of a 24 hour period - simply so that Martin would not confuse readers when he referred to a certain amount of hours in the narrative. People in Westeros apparently just apply colloquial names to each hour of the day, i. A few other hour names have been mentioned in passing:.
The timeline of the books is broadly similar to that of the TV series, with several minor differences. Several younger characters - most notably Jon Snow, all of the Stark children and Daenerys Targaryen - are two to three years older than their book equivalents, which has required the date of Robert's Rebellion to be pushed back from fifteen to seventeen years before the events of the series begin. Other characters are older Eddard Stark and Robert Baratheon are ten years older than their book counterparts or younger Ser Vardis Egen is decades younger than in the book, while Theon is two years younger , though for the most part this has no bearing on the timeline.
In the book chronology, roughly two years pass between the beginning of A Game of Thrones and the end of the third novel, A Storm of Swords.