Tourism in Bario depicts how a pro-poor community-based approach to tourism can integrate with local development in a mutually reinforcing process that has delivered more than income-generating opportunities, but which also fosters a wider reinvigoration of the local economic and social life of the community Harris, This has a wider multiplier effect of sustainable practices and enrichment of sociocultural aspects together with economic development.
Homestay in Sabah is another valuable project with a wider multiplier socio-economic effect of tourism in eastern Malaysia. This initiative is a well-focused project with a great symbiosis with tourism development and sustainability. The strategically located homestays: Penangpang, Papar, Kota Belud, Kudat, Tambunan, Keningau, Kundasang, Tamparuli and Sandakan, have developed with specific tourism development objectives such as: i at tourist level, a unique opportunity to experience the authentic culture of Sabah, to experience astonishing things like ethnic food, real linkage of local people and their culture without a distance visitors are not guests but part of home ; and ii at community level, direct spending of money has higher level of direct, indirect and induced economic impact, opportunity for community conservation initiatives, and finally it is a responsible travel initiative.
In the context of resource efficiency and environmental purity, Taman Negara National Park is a good example. Conservation of the biodiversity resources within the park is given priority through a zoning system prescribed by the management plan. The high utilization zone, which is only about 0. All forms of tourism recommended under the National Ecotourism Plan aim to be sustainable tourism, but the concept of sustainable tourism is much wider than just ecotourism; all forms of tourism should aim to be sustainable.
This concept is then related to responsible tourism so as to provide a more holistic approach to the development of ecotourism, as well as instilling a sense of responsibility. The role of the Malaysian government in promoting sustainable tourism is evident in the existing legal and institutional framework. As a local initiative, Khoo noted that Sustainable Penang Initiative SPI was launched with the purpose of ensuring a more balance and holistic development in Penang with consultative partnership with the government, the business community and civil society Siti-Nabiha et al.
This programme involves the participation of the rural community in providing experiential learning activities such as rubber tapping, traditional songs, dance and crafts as well as serving local dishes. Community-based tourism principles are applied in the implementation of homestay and ecotourism programs.
The Indigenous Community Tourism Packages were formed based on the ecotourism concept. This mainly benefited the orang asli community Hong Peng, Apart from the sociocultural benefits from tourism, Malaysia has approved budget of the Ninth Malaysia Plan with an approved budget of RM To further enhance the growth of ecotourism industry there should be further collaborations between the private sectors and the public sectors in the countries concerned Abdullah, Therefore, sustainable tourism policy in Malaysia can be weighed as one of the strong implementation plan that meets the needs of national development plan of Malaysia.
But the major constraint on the practice of sustainable tourism in Malaysia is due to the macro level gap. The majority of the policies however target the tourist destination region micro level , where sustainability has to be practiced by the tourists from the tourist-generating region.
Managing Natural Wealth: Environment And Development In Malaysia
The definition of the practices regulates therefore the distribution channel. Tourism in a mega-diverse country can therefore create the brand image as a successful sustainable tourist destination, which can further strengthen the overall destination image.
Yet, since tourism in Malaysia is relatively new, tremendous increase of tourist arrival may make it difficult to practice sustainable tourism. However, managing natural sites is more complicated as it has direct adverse impact to the ecosystem and integrity of attractions. It would be a better plan in reality, if the sustainable tourism strategy could be integrated with other management functions and actions whose strategy should be implemented. Tourism has many other micro sectors, for examples local transport and car rentals. Sulaiman, From the above survey it is clear that the implementation part of sustainable tourism has still to be achieved.
There are gaps, and micro sectors sustainable tourism planning must be given as equal importance as the major destinations sustainability practices. There are excellent opportunities in extending the maximum benefits to the major areas of sustainability in Malaysia. However the practices of these opportunities must be unif ied to all sectors of tourism. David L. Roger W.
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Managing Natural Wealth: Environment and Development in Malaysia
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