What we will provide, though, is a first overview on pre- to travel behavior, land use, access to mobility, car related vailing developments that can initiate a broader scientific de- industries, insurance policies, etc. This scenario has its technological roots in what is disciplines.
As these terms suggest, the respective systems for now assist the driver and 5 For example, projections for the safety potentials of fully automated do not perform independently in specific situations, which vehicles are subject to various assumptions about variables that are cur- can be categorized as too unfamiliar, too demanding or too rently unknown and therefore need to be validated and refined carefully tedious to be performed by a human—whereas the tentative .
This scenario follows the approach how the au- On the landscape level, moderate pressure can be stated—e. On the re- advantage in the market [cf. However, it is con- gime level, this already lead to increased initiatives towards sidered demanding, that the introduction of automated driving greener, less congested cities [e. An evolution of automobiles that be- One of the key elements, and challenge simultaneously, come less and less human-operated will eventually modify therefore seems to be the human-machine interface: the evo- practices of using the car, being in the car, perceiving travel lutionary steps from a scenario where the driver constantly time, etc.
Thus, the ly. When a CEO of a large vehicle manufacturer introduced a vivification of machines could increase with the advent of concept car at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas in the fully automated vehicle as lines between the human and January , that showed their vision about the future fully the nonhuman become more and more blurry. How to implement safeguards in vehicle and roadway ing it in with what seems to be a logical evolution of the systems to cope with mixed traffic will be a technical, regula- automobile.
Showcase phrases like these therefore represent tory and infrastructural challenge for the evolutionary scenario leading paradigms for the evolutionary scenario and can be towards automated driving. Even the opposite could hold true: an automated ways to this scenario could be described as either transforming driving cocoon can be read as a metaphor for a private resort or reconfiguring the existing regime, more from within the re- that enables escaping from modern life, often sensed as stress- gime itself than from landscape, niche or outside forces .
However, the business models that the- Revolution of personal mobility se players pursue currently remain rather nebulous: it is highly uncertain if companies from the information technology sec- While the evolutionary scenario seems to be relatively obvi- tor could or even plan to eventually replace the established ous as a pathway toward fully automated driving, there is OEM and take over the car manufacturing field.
This field. The goal seems to induce a fundamental change in how tentativeness currently leaves room for a lot of speculation not individuals use personal mobility—a revolution. In contrast to only on the possible scenarios but also on the potential con- the evolutionary scenario, no steps between current driving sequences . One thing seems to be certain, though: the digitalization of Besides implementing their technology solutions in other many parts of our societies does or probably will not spare fields, a key motivation for the non-automotive technology the mobility sector in general .
The key players in this field are startup While the challenges regarding the evolutionary scenario and service companies that pursue new business opportuni- are somewhat scenario inherent, i. The goal is to automate taxi and ride-sharing services, i. It does not just aim to revolutionize the way that interaction . The respective startup or very local level. Overall, this scenario might come to fruition in service companies are driven by the idea that the personally a similar time horizon as the revolutionary scenario, which is owned and operated automobile is more and more impractical well before the evolutionary example because only limited de- if not completely unsustainable in cities, but at the same time ployment areas are targeted.
Therefore, the transformative scenario could be regarded as on the edge of technological and social inno- Conclusion vation to address problems that individual motorized traffic brought to the fore, advanced by a very active startup- Obviously, the three scenarios to fully automated driving are community around shared mobility options that constantly rather complementary than competitive, they could therefore develops digital applications for connected and intermodal as well evolve parallel to each other. However, their implica- transportation options [cf.
This, at first glance, could indeed offer players are. It is therefore challenging and due to further re- new potentials to change current automobile practices as well search to evaluate the consequences that an amalgamation of as the meanings that are currently ascribed to an automobile two systems, i. The like- midterm by the end of this decade , and the evolutionary lihood of local transport authorities engaging more in cooper- scenario might only get to a level meeting the fully automated ation with private mobility providers might lead to driving definition in the very long term it does not seem renegotiating rules, regulations and access in the public trans- realistic at this point to make projections that far into the port arena, thus retroacting on Bknowledge and discourses, future, therefore a concrete date should not be stated.
While ally seems to lie in establishing initial deployments of AMOD regulators have to learn how to regulate a new traffic pattern systems, coming from a niche, in public, so that the benefits and with fully automated vehicles, the general public also needs to practicality of this approach can be demonstrated. The key learn how to interact with such new concepts. That means eye contact, courtesy, intuition, over multiple deployments and can be recovered altogether. And This presents a typical startup problem, which is that innovative going forward, a new behavior needs to be established if more companies pursue a novel business idea, often involving novel and more non-human behavior is added to the mix.
In addition, similar to the and more control to machines, which is something that can other two before mentioned scenarios, infrastructure measures also be observed in other fields of robotics, such as the in terms of regulation, communication, and roadways might be manufacturing realm. The remarks on the three scenarios necessarily remain on a Certainly, focusing on the discursive formations as fragmentary base—be it technical, legal, infrastructural, behav- re productions of knowledge and their linguistic elements ioral or societal questions, challenges and measures, there cer- alone would encumber the view on what Foucault from a more tainly is more that could be discussed.
In her recent work on possible changes within the plications in a larger context, i. Based on these assumptions sectors. Yet, different scenarios—this is what we wanted to one could state that Ba broad societal learning process is need- outline—could have different implications, not only in relation ed, with a focus on the system as a whole: its spatial character- to the technical artefact the automobile and its future users but istics, the infrastructural and technologic options, individual for the system of automobility as a whole.
Technological developments blur lines between Creative Commons Attribution 4. Fagnant D, Kockelman K Preparing a nation for autono- teristics and dynamics on various levels landscape, regime, mous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations niche that lead to these changes 20, p. However, the for capitalizing on self-driven vehicles. William P. Eno Paper. Accessed 24 June namics into patterns, thereby suppressing Bhow technical sys- 2. Victoria Transport p.
Scientific American. Bullis, K. An ex- 4. Spiegel Online. Accessed 14 Mar tries to equally integrate bodies of knowledge, viewpoints and 5. Accessed 14 Mar 6. Kruse P Ein Kultobjekt wird abgewrackt. Fox WM Sociotechnical system principles and guidelines: J Appl Behav Sci — car use. Latour B Aramis, or the love of technology.
Accessed 14 March University Press, Cambridge The changing 9. Geels FW The dynamics of transitions in socio-technical travel habits of pre-driving age young people in Britain. The Royal systems: a multi-level analysis of the transition pathway from Automobile Club Foundation RAC , London horse-drawn carriages to automobiles — Tech Anal Lyons G Visions for the future and the need for a social Kent J Driving to save time or saving time to drive? The science perspective in transport studies. Sheller M Automotive emotions feeling the car. Theory Cult technical analysis of sustainable transport.
Routledge, New York Soc — et al. Kubitzki J Jung und urban. Allianz Deutschland AG, Technol Forecast Social Chang — Becker J So schnell rostet Autoliebe nicht. Accessed 14 March consumers get charged up? Accessed 14 Mar Kontext. Technische, rechtliche und gesellschaftliche transitions: the allure of the multi-level perspective and its chal- Aspekte. Modelli organizzativi e compliance aziendale.
Modellierung des Geldumlaufes in der modernen Volkswirtschaft by Bernd Vogel - - 23 pages. Modelling change in integrated economic and environmental systems by S. McAleer - - pages. Modelling economic systems by Alan Gully - - pages. Modelling for understanding by John Naughton - - 99 pages. Proops, Paul Safonov - - pages. Modelling in ecological economics by John L.
Modelling Income Distribution by John Creedy - - pages. Modelling Learning in Economics by Thomas Brenner - - pages. Modelling regional producer behaviour by Klaus Mohn - - 71 pages. Modelling the accumulation and distribution of wealth by Denis Kessler - - pages. Modelling the costs of environmental policy by Rob B. Dellink - - pages. Modelling the Structure of the Economy by M.
Ciaschini - - pages. March - - pages. Models of Capitalism - - pages. Models of Capitalism by David Coates - - pages. Models of economic growth by James A. Models of economic systems by Arnold H. Packer - - pages. Models of income determination by National Bureau of Economic Research - - pages.
Models of monetary economies - - pages. Models of monetary economies by John H. Kareken, Neil Wallace - - pages. Moderation and Revolution by Andrea Micocci - - pages. Modern Accounting Systems by William D. Gordon - - pages. Modern Australian economics by David J. Collins - - pages. Modern Capital Theory by Donald Dewey - - pages. Modern Commercial Arithmetic - by Geo H. Douglas - - pages. Flyvbjerg , and Yin 4, 51 acknowledge that a single-case study or a critical case study enables the production of the type of context dependent- knowledge based on real-life practices and explore deeper issues behind a given process or phenomenon, in contrast to the superficial analysis that can be brought about by looking at various cases.
One of the main reasons that make electric mobility promotion in Munich a critical case is that Munich is the only city in Germany that decided to develop its own financial policy for the promotion of electric mobility, since in most cases electric mobility policy comes from higher levels of administration governmental or regional. At the same time, Munich, being both home of one of the most powerful automobile industries BMW worldwide and a congested European city that is attempting a transition to more sustainable modes of transport, is aspiring to become a leading force in electric mobility globally.
Therefore, it provides interesting insights into the interplay and synergies regarding electric mobility policy-making between traditional automobile industry and public authorities that promote the image of Munich as a sustainable city. The generalizability of a particular case is also an important issue.
Flyvbjerg claims that …formal generalization is overvalued as a source of scientific development, whereas the force of example is underestimated. This means that a context-dependent case study will provide knowledge as important as the aim to generalize. Given this, it is hoped that the chosen case study will be able to generate knowledge that is useful when attempting to identify the discursive strategies of electric mobility used by actors in other local policy-making arenas. However, it must be mentioned that there are some limitations regarding the deployment of the findings of the case study of Munich in other urban contexts, since there are some non-generic local and national factors that influence the policy-making, such as mobility culture and political mentality.
For this reason, the findings of the case of study of electric mobility promotion in Munich might present a greater generalizability in German urban contexts. A methodology of the argumentative discourse analysis of electric mobility in Munich As mentioned before, this thesis adopts the argumentative discourse analysis ADA , which has been operationalized by ajer.
Furthermore, although the main purpose of the thesis is to examine what factors and broader discourses shape the discourse of electric mobility in Munich, which implies a focus on how structure affects agency, the agency of the actors and the interaction among them is also taken into account, since how the discursive promotion of electric mobility contributes to sustainable mobility is also discussed which essentially means to what extent actors re shape electric mobility discourse despite the dominance of broader neo-liberal and technocratic discourses.
In this context, most of the discursive approaches focus on texts as the main source of empirical data, which neglects the reproduction of discourses between actors. On the other hand, ajer s approach explores the agency of actors through the concept of practices suggesting the use of recordings of interactions audio or video and expert interviews, which better capture the essence of agency. This serves the operationalization of this thesis for one more reason: most of the official documents and online articles about the topic were in German, which made it difficult for the author to rely the data collection primarily on textual material due to lack of proficiency in German language.
For all the above reasons, ajer s ADA was chosen as an inspiration for the methodology of this thesis. In fact, Hajer developed 10 concrete steps as an analytical approach to ADA. However, according to Hewitt 3 , truth is something that is constructed within a discourse and is relational to the knowledge and practices of this discourse , which means that the relational nature of truth means that methodological choices made in any research project are driven by the problem at the center of the research.
This implies that it is not possible to make a concrete framework for discourse analysis that fits in any research design. Therefore, this thesis was inspired by ajer s methodological approach to ADA without faithfully adopting all the steps one by one.
Sebastian Kummer (WU Research)
The following section presents the methodological framework developed for this thesis divided into two stages: data collection and data analysis. Data collection The data collection stage is comprised of four steps, which are in line with ajer s first steps of ADA: 1 desk research, 2 helicopter interviews 3 interviews with key players and 4 key documents. The interviews were conducted in the period from the 24th of March until the 2nd of May The development of the interview guides and the process of interviewing were inspired by several publications on qualitative research using expert interviews, such as Leech and Meuser and Nagel At this point, it has to be mentioned that to ensure openness during the interviews, anonymity has been suggested to the respondents.
Therefore, their names are withheld in this thesis. The institutions of the interview partners are listed in the appendix 8. At this point, it has to be mentioned that most of these local online sources provided data in German, which were translated in English by the author. Furthermore, a review in international online newspapers was conducted, such as The Guardian, and international portals about urban sustainability, such as Next City and Sense and Sustainability gave a picture about the topic of electric mobility in Munich in comparison with other cities worldwide.
Helicopter interviews In order to get a better understanding of the topic and fill in knowledge gaps due to the language barrier of the desk research, three qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted. The interviewees include a project manager who is responsible for the coordination of federal and regional electric mobility projects with the local level, an academic who conducts research about improving electric mobility technologies storage, engine efficiency etc.
These interviewees provided an overview about the factors that led to the uptake of electric mobility in Munich both external and internal.
- Contact information of Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI);
- Passwort vergessen?.
- SHARED MOBILITY?
They also provided a picture about electric mobility history and development, the policy initiatives and projects in the early stages of the electric mobility promotion in Munich as well as the general perception regarding electric mobility amongst politicians, public officers and private sector. For these semi-structured talk-like interviews an interview guide was used, which is the same with the general interview guide used in the interviews with key-players appendix 8.
However, in some moments during the interviews, the interviewees went deeper into topics and provided important information.
Interviews with key players In order to obtain more focused knowledge about the topic, interviews with key players were conducted Hajer, The aim was to get at least one interview partner from every actors group, in order to gain knowledge about the causal chain of events, employment of storylines and metaphors as well as further uncover the site-specific discourse of electric mobility and the practices that reproduce it Hajer, Most importantly, the interviews helped in understanding how different actors perceive and interpret certain events and practices in different ways such as the appropriateness of electric mobility to reducing emissions in Munich , while sharing the same storylines.
Therefore, the information derived from theses interviews consist the core part of collected data and is the main source of first-hand knowledge for the analysis of the discursive strategies of different actors.
As mentioned before, there was a general interview guide for all the interview partners both helicopter interviewees and key players. However, there was an additional more specific interview guide for the key players. The interview guides can be found in the appendices 8. As in the case of the helicopter interviews, the type of semi-structured interview was chosen as an interviewing method, primarily because this type of interview stimulates the fluidity of a conversation and does not restrict what one can or cannot say Yin, Therefore, during the interviews, questions previously not included in the interview guides were sometimes asked, as new topics were brought up by the interviewees.
The document gathering was conducted through an online research on the relevant websites of the departments of the City of Munich and the City Council. These documents were not analyzed using a specific methodology, but were used to inform the analysis and research process and back-up the information derived from the expert interviews.
Here again the vast majority of local official documents were written in German, and a translation in English was necessary. Apart from the local official documents, documents on an international and national level, such as AGENDA 21, Germany s Integrated Energy and Climate Program IEKP , and National Development Plan for Electric Mobility were collected in order to identify the institutionalization of broader discourses in the local level that affect the structuration of the electric mobility discourse in Munich.
Data analysis After collecting the research material mentioned in the previous section, the data analysis process took place. For this reason, the analysis of the interviews was based on the analysis of expert interviews described by Meuser and Nagel First, the recorded interviews were transcribed and some small parts of text were paraphrased for cohesion reasons. Next, an initial coding scheme was developed by structuring the interviews content according to topics, themes, categories and theoretical considerations.
This coding includes a thematic comparison between the interviews, which means that thematically comparable passages from different interviews were tied together, but still remained close to the interview s direct written content Meuser and Nagel, Furthermore, the coding included direct quotes, exemplifying the codes and topics. The codified data were used as first drafts within the write-up process for both the analysis and discussion.
The thematic comparison and categorization was also inspired by a combination of ajer s next four steps of ADA, namely sites of argumentation, identification of key incidents, analysis of practices in particular cases of argumentation and interpretation, while the steps of analysis of positioning effects and second visit to key actors were omitted. The analysis of positioning effects is out of the scope of this thesis, as the focus is not on who exercises power to whom, while there was no second visit to key actors, because of time limitations.
In particular, the research material coming from the expert interviews and backed-up by online articles and official documents was organized around the key incidents during the policy-making process of electric mobility, the sites of argumentation between the different actors and the practices in particular cases of argumentation.
At this point, it has to be mentioned that there was no intense debate about the topic of electric mobility in Munich. Therefore, the sites of argumentation were not about being against the idea of electric mobility, but mostly about how it is promoted and what purpose it serves. The interpretation of the discourse analysis took place in the discussion, where the broader discourses that are reflected through the storylines of the site-specific discourse of electric mobility in Munich were discussed and how the discursive promotion of electric mobility in Munich contributes to sustainable mobility.
Analysis This chapter presents the analysis of the institutional and policy framework that led to the uptake of electric mobility in Munich and the storylines surrounding the electric mobility discourse. The former represents the internal and external factors that influenced the development of electric mobility in Munich and is comprised of the institutional and legislative framework coming from the federal government, the initial promotional initiatives of electric mobility in Munich and how they have been influenced by the federal policy, and the current promotional activities since and the political- administrative landscape in Munich.
This section has been informed by a document analysis of national and local policy documents, a review of online articles and academic literature regarding the uptake of electric mobility in Germany and Munich, and to a certain extent by the expert interviews especially the helicopter interviews. The latter is mainly based on the analysis of expert interviews. The institutional and policy framework of electric mobility promotion in Munich 4. The uptake of electric mobility in the federal level The electric mobility concept emerged in Germany in the early s for the first time, when a global automobile crisis appeared together with the prevalence of the environmental debate about ecological modernization Schwedes et al, At that moment, electric mobility was seen by the Federal Government as a possible means to align environmental concerns with economic development through the electrification of the private car and was described almost entirely in terms of the private car Tschoerner, The topic lost relevance in the later s, when the automobile industry overcame its crisis and improved its technology.
The traditional automobile industry managed to dominate against power industry by raising concerns about the low efficiency of batteries for the electric car as well as the low environmental benefits of vehicles. The government decided to stop the funding for the development of electric mobility, following the most dominant actor automobile industry , as it constituted an important sector of the German economy Schwedes et al, The more recent debate on electric mobility in Germany began around , when the financial and economic crisis influenced the automobile sector again.
Furthermore, environmental concerns about climate change together with the peak oil became hot issues. Although the automobile industry managed to overcome the crisis again and counter-arguments about the negative impact of conventional cars on climate change were raised i.
All these factors with the peak oil issue being the main driver led the Federal Government to pass the National Development Plan for Electric Mobility along with Economic Stimulus Package as a catalyst for the crisis in and resume funding for electric mobility Federal Government of Germany, ; Schwedes et al, In particular, it supports Germany s ambitious goal to release one million electric cars on German roads by Academics, The government and the public consumers are placed as key actors in the market roll-out of the electric vehicle Tschoerner, The purpose of the initiative is to direct and shape the road map for the realization of the objectives laid out in the National Development Plan for Electric Mobility GTAI, In particular, NPE is an advisory panel for the government, which describes the measures proposed in the National Plan in greater detail and promotes direct dialogue between research, businesses, the government and the public Academics, Among others, the National Development Plan for Electric Mobility proposes financial incentives for research funding in order to enhance the production and efficiency of electric vehicles.
This infrastructure, which was created without the presence of cars in the first place, enabled the dominance of cars as a transport mode after World War II Interview 5, ll. Subsequently, in the s and s car utopia, private car was seen as the future of individual transport and promised unprecedented growth for the German economy, rendering Germany an automobile industry-based economy and German cities including Munich automobile-dependent. Around that time, the tariff union MVV was founded , the electrified suburban railways were connected through a tunnel crossing the city east to west S-bahn , the electric subway U- bahn opened in and the tram network reached its biggest extension, while more recently in Munich released its first hybrid buses MVG, MVG operates U-bahns, trams and various buses there are several smaller companies, which operate buses as well , while S-bahns are operated by Deutsche Bahn DB.
Since , when the Transport Development Plan of Munich was released, the City tries to achieve sustainable mobility through improvements in public transport and multimodality. Consequently, the public transport network in Munich is generally considered to be efficient and appreciated compared to other European cities Interview 8, ll.
However, some experts claim that public transport has reached its limits recently due to the rapid population growth in Munich in the last decade and transport planners emphasize the urgent need for more investments in infrastructure for public transport and slower modes of transport, like cycling and walking Interview 4, ll.
Although the biggest part of public transport was already electrified in Munich, the topic of electric mobility was officially picked up around the time of the release of the National Development Plan for Electric Mobility through the State of Bavaria s interest in the city s cooperation on federally-funded projects. The Christian Socialists were primarily interested in the potential of electric mobility to contribute to market growth and to establish the automobile sector which is strongly represented in the state as a secure long-term provider of green mobility services Tschoerner, The City of Munich including the city s public electricity provider — Stadtwerke SWM - and public transport authority MVG, which is daughter company of Stadtwerke along with researchers and the private sector began testing how electric vehicles could be introduced, integrated and installed in the current transport system along with building and operation of charging infrastructure Interview 6, ll.
Specifically, Munich was designated as one of the Electro-mobility Model Regions for the time period by the Federal Government in order to participate in a federal funding initiative promoting and supporting electric mobility. The Electro-mobility Model Regions promotional program was a key element of the National Development Plan for Electro- mobility for realizing the promotion of research and development, market preparation and introduction of electric cars.
Some of the programs implemented as a part of the project included Munich public transport experimenting with hybrid buses, and most notably, automakers BMW and Audi launching fleet tests of their prototype BMW Mini E and Audi A1 e-tron vehicles Interview 6, ll. The project, which ran from March to June , aimed at expediting the market introduction of electric battery-powered cars and the corresponding charging infrastructure in Munich — the electric car user is placed as the focal point for the development of marketable electro-mobility concepts-, primarily for the purpose of reducing traffic emissions.
Another project, called e-flott , started in spring and was also supported by the Federal Ministry of Transport. ON installed charging stations in and around Munich and enhanced communications with the grid operator SWM. Here again, the consumer was at the center of e-mobility promotion E. ON, ; Interview 1, ll. The core actors in the initial promotion of electric mobility in Munich was the Federal Government and private sector auto-mobility industries , who related electric mobility in Munich with the Federal Government s strategy about green growth, particularly framing electric mobility as the electrification of the private car Tshoerner, The role of private sector is dominant in the initial promotion of electric mobility in Munich, while planning had the coordinating role of integrating electric mobility in the existing transport carriers, modes and in the form of concepts in particular ibid.
Munich will make its mark globally, just as it has done with traditional combustion engine automobiles Swancott, The emphasis on the electrification of the private car is also illustrated in MVG s report Sustainable Mobility for Munich, where it is claimed that an improvement of CO2 result in Munich is possible mainly through the reduction of fossil fuels for motorized individual transport, because potentials for savings in energy consumption for public transport in Munich turn out to be lower because the tram and underground are already electric. Overall, electric mobility in Munich was initially driven by the Federal Government and was positioned as an urban policy issue promoting the electric car for short trips and neighborhood traffic Tschoerner,.
The key point of the initial promotion was the merging of economic interests of the automobile interests with the state s ambitions to improve air pollution. However, this initial promotion had little to do with addressing policy issues related to mobility at the local level, as it failed to articulate key problems in the transport sector, something that can be further elaborated by its weak articulation at the local level in Munich Tschoerner, In other words, the period was an experimentation phase with federally funded pilot projects, while there was no actual formulation of electric mobility policy at the local level, since the concept of electric mobility was very new for the local authorities.
The allocation of the responsibility for the coordination of the topic to SWM plays also an important role, as although SWM is owned by the City of Munich, it is also a company with its own interests. For this reason, the local authorities of the City of Munich were not really familiar with the topic. It was then in , when the local administration took over coordination of the topic that the City of Munich began more actively defining a local policy for electric mobility and local actors began questioning to what extent the electric mobility debate actually reflected local practices Tschoerner, As a result, the local administration - particularly its transport planners and other administrative officials, who had played more of a coordinative than a planning role in the initial years of federally-funded projects — along with SMW-MVG, automobile industry and research institutions developed the Municipal Sustainable Electric Mobility Concept in , as an attempt of fundamentally reviewing and redesigning the given mobility structures, including the transport infrastructure through electric mobility.
Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research (ISI)
The discussion was about how electrification of the urban transport system can promote specific infrastructure and technologies to address urban transport problems. At that stage, the promotion of both private and commercial electric vehicles was discussed Interview 3, ll. E-plan Munich In the meanwhile, the uptake of federal-funded programs continued. As all the interviewees stated, the most important federal financed pilot program was E-plan Munich, which started in March and finished in February , as it focused on a study about how electric mobility will affect future urban development, infrastructure and transport system planning.
In particular, in the Germany government selected four regions in the country to act as Showcase Regions for Electric Mobility , which is a demonstration project included in the measures of the Government Program for Electric Mobility The aim was to design an operating concept tailored to electric vehicles, study charging behavior on public roads, and find ways to forecast demand at the respective locations and to make e-car-sharing vehicles available where needed Interview 6, ll. The findings of the three demonstration programs were used for the development of a master plan called E-mobility infrastructure of the state capital Munich" project in order to plan and implement the charging infrastructure required for promoting electric mobility in the city through an infrastructure planning process ibid.
The Military University of Munich along with the Department of Planning developed a system to estimate the demand of charging stations. The results demonstrated the problems that people have e. According to all the interviewees, IHEFM is the first concrete initiative of the City to promote electric mobility and the most important one, since it includes direct financial measures.
As an interviewee said: now they are doing the promotion, before it was just pilot programs from the government nterview , ll. According to the interviewees, Munich is the first city in Germany, which is committed in such a financial policy of direct subsidies Interview 6, ll. The program is supported by almost all parties in the city council and there was no great debate about its implementation Landhauptstadt Muenchen, , author s translation.
The objective of the initiative is to promote and increase the number of electric vehicles in Munich significantly in order to reach the goal of Furthermore, it aims to promote electric mobility through multimodality. In particular, the subsidies are the following: o Four-wheeled electric vehicles either passenger or trucks and taxis up to euros o Three-wheeled vehicles e. This is because there was a lot of criticism that electric vehicles would be used as symbolic status by affluent people, who would use them as second cars Interview 8, ll.
Another reason is that there is already policy from the Federal Government which determines the motor vehicle tax by the amount of CO2 emissions Interview 8, ll. The act aims to provide the legal framework for the promotion of both electric and hybrid cars at the local level, while it is up to each municipality how and whether they will localize the law and to what degree Kuhr, , author s translation; Interview 6, ll.
The city of Munich along with a lot of other Germany cities, local transport companies and the Germany Association of Cities submitted its rejection to the release of bus lanes along with other German cities, since Munich does not have a lot of km of bus lanes and wants to keep them only for buses to support the public transport Zeit, , author s translation; Interview 3, ll. As a result, the congestion in those bus lanes, being used by buses, trams and e-cars at the same time will get much worse and the driving too slow. Therefore, such busy bus lanes will not be attractive for e-car owners and potential buyers and users.
In this sense, it would be counterproductive, if the bus lanes that are created to speed up the transport flow are mixed Kuhr, ; author s translation. MVG also brought as an example Oslo, that has already implemented such a scheme and is facing a couple of transport problems, namely, the buses departure times and connecting trips cannot be achieved while bus lanes are shared with conventionally powered vehicles Kuhr, , author s translation.
The city decided to keep the part of the act that gives the opportunity to reserve parking spaces for electric cars next to the charging stations. In particular, around each of the charging stations that will be built from the subsidies of the city of Munich 2 parking spaces for electric cars will be reserved Interview 6, ll. The main reason that there is so much fragmentation of responsibilities between different Departments is that there is not a Department of Transport in the City.
In other words, the topic of electric mobility goes through different fields and authorities without any of them being in lead and nobody being expertized in the topic. Although there are a lot of negotiations and discussions between the Departments, their communication is impeded by bureaucracy and misunderstandings Interview 8, ll. Furthermore, some interviewees expressed concerns about the low effectiveness and delay of the administrative authorities regarding the uptake of electric mobility, which can be attributed on the one hand to the fragmentation of responsibilities, on the other hand to weak political intervention to the administration Interview 4, ll.
Regarding the political situation, a Red-Green Coalition used to be in charge since in Munich. Thus, it was the only city in Germany, where the Green party, which is quite open to sustainable topics, was in power. However, this changed two years ago, when the Greens lost the local elections and the social democrats SPD and the conservatives CSU resumed office instead.
The two big parties, especially the conservatives, are in favor of car- oriented policies, which means that it is easier for them to change mobility technology than to change mobility behavior: The reason they like the electric mobility topic so much is because they think that it solves all problems using clean technology Interview 5, ll. Another example is that both CSU and SPD supported the measure of release of bus lanes for electric vehicles in Munich included in the federal electro-mobility act in the beginning, taking as an example Oslo.
However, they realized that if they finance private cars and release the bus lanes, it would be difficult to communicate such a strategy without facing any opposition. Therefore, the two big parties decided that it is better to finance infrastructure and develop the legal framework, instead of directly giving money to private households, which would cause reactions regarding transport problems Interview 5, ll.
Within the bigger picture of urban development and transport planning in Munich, electric mobility is included in the updated version of the city s urban development concept Perspektive Muenchen Perspective Munich , which foresees the development of Munich as compact, urban and green , as an element that contributes to sustainable mobility Department of Urban Planning and Building Regulation, The Transport Development Plan of the City, which was published in and is part of Perspektive Muenchen , does not contain the term electric mobility and the city officials are preparing an updated version of it, where the role of electric mobility in urban mobility will be analyzed Interview 8, ll.
Furthermore, charging infrastructure for electric mobility is one of the topics of interest in the Vision Mobility , which is a concept based on the discussions of the public-private cooperation nzell nitiative , which has been founded for the discussion and elaboration of urban mobility in Munich Innovationsmanufaktur, ; Kesselring, Recently, there has also been created the pre-political platform for electric mobility E-Allianz E-Alliance , which is also a part of nzell nitiative , where all the important stakeholders can discuss strategic issues about technology, stakeholder networks, laws, what actions are needed and develop strategies for the promotion of electric mobility Interview 5, ll.
Overall, since the topic of electric mobility is still new for the local authorities, its presence in local official documents about urban development and transport planning is still limited. Storylines In this section the main storylines surrounding the discourse of electric mobility in Munich will be analyzed by identifying the metaphors, arguments and practices that the main actors use in their discursive strategies.
The focus is on the current discourse from until now and the point of departure of this discursive analysis is the fact that electric mobility is promoted as a panacea for sustainable mobility problems and urban development in Munich. For instance, Joachim Lorenz, director at the Department for Health and Environment, stated: "Electro-mobility means for transport and energy a paradigm shift. It has to be mentioned that the bold marks in the text are used to highlight the metaphors used by the actors. At the end of each analytical chapter that presents a storyline, there is a short concluding section, where the metaphors, arguments and practices employed by the actors as well as the discourse coalitions that are being formed around the storylines are discussed.
Electric mobility as a means to support multimodality storyline As mentioned before, since there has been a discussion in Munich about the potential electric mobility has to support multimodality and new concepts and services of mobility, such as car-sharing and bike-sharing in order to reduce traffic congestion and car- ownership as well as integrate electric mobility to the public transport system.
The following session identifies which actors surround the storyline of electric mobility as a means to support multimodality and analyzes their arguments, the metaphors they use and the practices through which this storyline is being reproduced. Transport planners of the Department of Public Order The Department of Public Order supports multimodality through electric car-sharing, because the transport planners believe that electric mobility and car-sharing are mutually beneficial: if we have to do electric mobility, the best idea is to start with car-sharing … because car-sharing is positive, because of the sharing effect … even the new full flexible free floaters … we did a big evaluation and we recognized that one free floating car substitutes three private cars, if you take the parking lots away … if not the others will buy new cars again … So we said car-sharing is positive and if we make electric car-sharing is more positive … because it combines two good innovations Interview 5, ll.
Furthermore, a transport planner from the Department of public order emphasized the importance of smart technologies in multimodality: To me, smart integration would mean to use all modes and all vehicle technologies in a smart way with my smart phone … physical, virtual and tariff integration ibid. The aforementioned quote emphasizes the flexibility multimodality entails and electric mobility is perceived as a good way to promote alternative ways of commuting, but it does not really articulate the contribution of electric mobility through multimodality to the mitigation of transport problems.
E-mobility cannot solve all problems in terms of space, for example … Electric car motion is like taking the same space as with a normal car and parking as well. The above quote denotes that electric mobility is perceived as a distinct policy in relation to traffic policy and it is primarily useful as a third stage in the transport policy for the reduction of emissions.
A charging station run by SWM ensures that these cars are always ready to roll, while a central information pillar informs users about the different mobility options available with real- time data. The basic goal of the station is to provide sustainable solutions for individual transport without car ownership, which will lead to a reduced need for parking space, more attractive public spaces and higher quality of life. Furthermore, there are new ongoing E. Local Politicians Regarding the local politicians, one major point is that we have more and more traffic and if you say electric mobility, they also think about new mobility concepts, such as car-sharing Interview 2, ll.
In other words, they mostly see electric mobility as an opportunity for new ideas and possibilities that would be nice to have in order to promote the image of the city towards multi-modality. However, their main concern is not that much to promote electric car-sharing, but mostly to support the small and medium sized companies by financing them to buy electric cars, and also develop charging infrastructure. The only political party that highlighted the importance of electric car-sharing from the beginning was the Green party, while the other parties were holding back Interview 3, ll.
The reason is that most local politicians, especially the conservatives CSU , have a more conservative mindset and they do not want to do anything against the dominance of cars Interview 5, ll.
However, now they are convinced by transport planners and BMW that through electric car-sharing, there will still be cars on the streets with the advantage that users will not have the commitments a private car entails taxes, insurance, regular service , while at the same time the City can show that promotes multi-modality. For this reason, the financing of car-sharing providers is included in the financial measures about electric mobility IHEFM of the City.