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Buccaneers and Boucaniers How the buccaneers got their name is a story that has been told often. The name was originally given to the little bands of non-Spanish hunters who lived outside Spanish law and established themselves over the years on the nearly empty north coast of Spanish Hispaniola, the island shared today by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. They killed the local small horses for their tallow fat.

They hunted wild cattle for their meat and hides, as well as pigs. They dried the meat to preserve it using the boucan technique of the Arawak-speaking Taino Indians and became known as boucaniers. Given the opportunity, they also took to piracy, and the name boucanier, reworked into the English buccaneer, became applied to the crews that used— among other islands and coasts—the island of Tortuga off Hispaniola and later Port Royal, Jamaica, as bases. The crews recruited from those adrift in the multi-national Caribbean world of the s included sailors without ships, runaway slaves, log cutters from Belize, escaped convicts, political prisoners, laborers escaping from their indentures or contracts, and failed tobacco farmers from Barbados.

During the period when the buccaneers were becoming less important to Jamaica, their first chronicler, Alexandre Olivier Exquemelin, published in , in Dutch, the first edition of his best-selling account of his life with the buccaneers. It was the book that firmly fixed exotic buccaneers in the public imagination. He called them avanturiers—adventurers—in the title of the edition he arranged for his French readers. An English edition was published in , with the title Bucaniers of America. The spelling buccaneer became standard, and the book in one form or the other has been in print ever since.

Privateering was once again a big business with attractive profits to be made, and in the fictional world of Treasure Island, one year into the war Squire Trelawney was in Bristol trying to assemble a crew from sailors who had plenty of options. Trelawney was competing for sailors with four main groups: investors who outfitted governmentlicensed private man-of-war vessels also called privateers for cruises in search of enemy merchant cargo ships to capture in order to sell both cargo and vessel ; captains of armed merchant ships who obtained a similar privateering license that allowed them to capture enemy merchant ships if the opportunity arose while going about their normal business; and the Royal Navy.

Crews working for these three categories of employer shared in the money made from capturing enemy shipping, although in differing proportions. The fourth group of competitors were the ordinary merchant ship owners just trying to go about their normal business In , the year Squire Trelawney was trying to find a crew, the Royal Navy was looking for men and would end the year adding 10, new hands to its vessels. This may not sound like many people, but one estimate suggests that there were only 80, civilian seamen and fishermen in the entire British workforce at the beginning of the war.

The navy already had increased its seagoing manpower by about 30, by the time the squire arrived in Bristol. Britain and France, and later Spain targeted enemy commerce and did so at very little cost to their taxpayers. The British government expanded the number of vessels it could send into the fight by granting licenses to enable private ships to legally attack enemy trading vessels. The system had the advantage of costing the government nothing but adding greatly to its armed seagoing forces.

It was a system with roots in the Middle Ages. Introduction and one that would last until , when the more powerful governments on the planet agreed to end it. One government, the United States of America, declined to join in the ban, although it did do so later. In the s, the system found enough favor with the British government that in order to encourage privateering ventures it agreed in to forgo its share of the money made from ships captured, and France soon followed suit. Sample advertisements from a edition of the Bristol paper include Ezekiel Nash, who was looking for men for the Caesar, tons; Robert How, who sought men for the Lyon, tons; and William Burch, who needed men for the Tygress, tons.

The Caesar found the men it needed, and her men needed all their fighting skills. In one encounter, they fired cannon rounds and 8, musket shots, and threw 30 hand grenades. The Lyon returned to Bristol with two prizes. We do not know how the Tygress fared, but it did sail looking for opportunity. In addition to advertising for hands, captains dangled incentives in front of potential recruits. The year after the Hispaniola sailed, the privateer named the Hawke was offering advances of 11 guineas to get men to sign on, the equivalent of about four months of wages and food on board a Royal Navy ship.

Privateer captains also competed with merchant vessel captains, who carried a variation of the privateering license in case they came across an opportunity to take a prize; thus they could offer their crews regular wages plus a chance of a bonus. Overall, during the war, Bristol vessels re-. In wartime Bristol, captains competed for crews with advertisements like these. The Royal Navy, according to one of the leading naval historians of the period, N. Rodger, offered volunteers better odds of doing well from prize money than did a privateer. If All Else Fails: The Press Gang The navy also had another recruiting tool as a backup: shortfalls in manning navy ships could be met by forcibly drafting men into the service, a common practice in many countries in that era.

In xxi. I n t r oduc t i on Britain the legal authority to seize civilians for military service, called impressment, was used both by the army and the navy. The term was often shortened to press. In in Cardiff, 32 members of a navy press gang tried to seize 70 members of the crew of the privateer Eagle of Bristol, who were in a pub.

The crew organized itself for battle, gunfire broke out, and the press gang retreated with one dead and four men seriously wounded. Andrew, tons, which soon left with a crew of men. They returned from its cruise in November, ready to enjoy the prize money from the 15 vessels the ship had taken. Madagascar Madagascar, located miles off the Mozambique coast of east Africa, was one of several islands where, especially between the s and s, British and other pirates who attacked shipping in the Indian Ocean took on food and water. Madagascar is big. The preferred anchorage and base for pirate crews, according to a historian of piracy on Madagascar, Jan Rogozinski, was a circular, wellprotected bay on an island close to the well-watered northeastern shore of the main island.

This is St. It had been abandoned and set on fire by Condent in February , still with some residual treasure—a few gold coins—on board. Philipse would send out from New York arms, ammunition, clothing, liquor, and the supplies needed to operate sailing vessels. Robert C. Off the North American coast a returning ship might be met by another Philipse vessel that would transfer the high-value luxury items for sale in Hamburg, Germany, where prices were better than in New York. The attractions included spices, especially black pepper, popular in Europe since Roman times and worth its weight in gold because transportation was so expensive; also sought after were gems, including diamonds and pearls, and textiles.

The s and s brought traders and cargo vessels from Portugal, France, the Netherlands, and Britain to the Malabar Coast and other parts of India. The s saw the ultimate in trade competition: French and British traders recruited military forces to evict their competitors and assert political control. The Battle of Plassey gave the British control of a major portion of northeastern India the year before the Hispaniola sailed, and they expanded into southern India in the years that followed. Where Was Treasure Island? There are two known Treasure Islands in the West Indies.

It is also in the area where a Spanish ship, the San Jose, and its cargo of gold and silver bullion sank in after being ambushed by a British squadron. Then there is the third one. We are used to measuring longitude from the observatory at Greenwich, now part of London. Greenwich did not become the standard longitude 0 for British chart makers until , long after Flint was dead. Before that the starting point could be St. French chart makers used as many as five starting points for longitude 0. With a choice of seven longitudes 0 between the charts of just two countries, he could have been in one of 28 locations.

For more detail on why we are faced with these four choices, see page XXX46 for a discussion of latitude and longitude. Given the relative lack of opportunity for profitable piracy in these four chilly zones, what Billy Bones and Co. The intersections of vertical lines of longitude and horizontal lines of latitude creates a grid that helps travelers locate their position on a map.

In the s Suriname was a rich Dutch sugar colony on what had been called the Wild Coast and was known for its profitability and the opulence of its planters. It was also known, even in that tough corner of the world, for the harshness of its plantation life and, not surprisingly, for its large population of escaped slaves who had established new free lives in the deep forests. Some moved to neighboring French Guiana after a civil war in Suriname.

But how long these Suriname communities will continue to survive is an open question, according to two historians of the groups, Richard and Sally Price. Their forest areas, guaranteed by treaty in the s, have been opened to development, including logging, mining, and the creation of a lake for hydroelectric power. The place was a rendezvous for pirates until That was the year when ten were hanged.

Sanitation at Nassau during its pirate days was so bad that arriving mariners could smell the place before they saw land. New Providence Island was settled tentatively by the English in with a group of Puritans, 70 strong. But not many stayed. The island became another place where pirates could refit; an obliging governor of this privately owned English colony xxiv. Punitive attacks by Spanish and French forces did not stop Nassau from being repopulated between attacks.

When Captain Vincent Pearce arrived at Nassau , just ahead of the new governor, there were about pirates in the settlement, of whom surrendered and accepted pardons under a new piracy law. The new governor was the former privateer Woodes Rogers, who arrived with instructions to restore order and build up the little colony. He had the legal authority to try pirates using a tribunal without a jury, execute those he found guilty, and issue pardons. He was backed up by soldiers and warships.

Initially Rogers was successful, but some of the pirates escaped, Blackbeard among them, and others went back to their old ways; there were many hundreds of places in the Bahamas for them to hide. New Providence later became a refuge for British loyalists fleeing the American Revolution; a base for Confederate blockade runners during the American Civil War; and a staging area for bootleggers smuggling liquor into the United States during Prohibition.

The other Providence Island with a link to pirates and to Britain is sometimes for clarity called Old Providence; the modern Isla de Providencia, it is located miles off the coast of Central America. About six miles long and four miles wide and hilly, Old Providence started out in the s as a settlement for English Puritans who were part of the same movement that created the Puritan settlement in Massachusetts. However, things here did not work out well as they did in New England, and Providence became a base for privateers.

Portobello Portobello, sometimes spelled Puerto Belo, was famous as the transshipment point on the Caribbean coast of Panama for silver mined by the ton in Bo-. In other words, it was a magnet for trouble. The defenses may have discouraged some attacks, but the town was captured with some regularity. In a British vice-admiral, Edward Vernon, took the town , held it for ransom, and destroyed its fortifications. One of his officers, Lawrence Washington, renamed his Virginia estate Mount Vernon in his honor; it was later inherited by his half-brother George.

The silver was mined in modern Bolivia, then shipped up the Pacific coast before being taken overland to Portobello and finally to Spain by armed convoy. In addition to its role as a silver port, Portobello was a point of entry for illegal cargoes, ranging from soap to pots and pans, writing paper, and clothing delivered by British and other merchants. The smuggled cargoes were the basis of an informal and illegal trading system that delivered what the official system could not, and by the early s it was bigger than the official one.

One estimate is that between and some 97, slaves were delivered by Dutch merchants alone to Portobello, Cartagena in modern Colombia, and Veracruz in modern Mexico. Also active in this trade were the British, French, and Portuguese. In operation since the s, the little settlement emerged briefly from obscurity when in the freelance soldier and.

Some of the fortifications still exist. The Wrecked Plate Ships At a. One ship alone, the flagship Nuestra Senora de la Regla, carried more than tons of silver coins and bars. It was silver that gave the plate ships their name: plate is the English adaptation of the Spanish word for silver, plata. The loss sparked a financial crisis for the Spanish government, prompted a major salvage effort by the authorities, and attracted swarms of freelance looters, who at one point numbered some 3, men in 14 very crowded sloops.

Nearly years later some of the treasure from known wrecks of the convoy remains to be found. As recently as a gold jewelry box from the wrecked fleet, containing two emerald rings and a gold chain, was found in 12 feet of water. In addition, the locations of five of the wrecked ships remain unknown. The shore on which the fleet had been wrecked was a familiar one to the Spanish garrison in St. Augustine miles to the north. Sebastian Lopez de Toledo, overseer of the royal works, led the first group of rescuers, militia made up of refugee Yamassee, Guale, and Apalachee Indians, and they organized shelter for the survivors and a water supply from shallow wells that were found years later by archaeologists.

Some 1, Spanish men, women and children xxv. I n t r oduc t i on had survived the storm. The last of the women and children were rescued on September 10 by vessels sent from St. Augustine to the north and from Havana, Cuba, to the south, which allowed the officers to concentrate on the salvaging the bullion,.

The children had been so tormented by the clouds of biting insects that some parents buried their children up to their necks in the sand to reduce their misery. The officers needed all their powers of concentration. Their sailors looted dead bodies and pilfered what they could pick up. A church official from St. Augustine attempted to lay claim on the bullion for the Royal Commissary of the Holy Crusade, an organization that was an important source of income for the Spanish crown.

And then there were the pirates. The first group, men in five vessels, led by Edward Jennings, arrived in November. One often-repeated account has it that Jennings returned for a second. But most of the private shipments of valuables were still missing, and they attracted swarms of would-be treasure hunters, including the celebrity pirate Blackbeard, according to his biographer Angus Konstam. The looters at one point established their own settlement on the shore, fortified in regular military fashion with earthworks and four cannon, until driven off by the Spanish authorities.

The loss of a convoy was a catastrophe for the Spanish government. For many decades the Spanish government relied on silver—and some gold—from its mines in Latin America for 15 to 20 percent of its annual income, and that treasure was delivered to Spain in sporadic armed convoys like the fleet.

The bullion did not stay in Spain. It was used to pay the people who had lent money to the Spanish government. And Today Today pirates are still to be found where ships are vulnerable. Bureau warnings of areas in which mariners must be careful include the Malacca Straits; the Singapore Straits; the Indonesian archipelago; and the coasts of Nigeria, Benin, and Togo. Increased naval patrols reduced attacks off Somalia in As another example that some things do not change very much, the Bureau is located at 26 Wapping High Street, in London, by the River Thames, not far from the former Execution Dock where pirates by tradition were hanged.

For more on Execution Dock and its location, see the note on p. And may I And all my pirates share the grave Where these and their creations lie! I remember him looking round the cove and whistling to himself as he did so,. Vice-Admiral John Benbow of the Royal Navy was a popular hero who inspired rollicking ballads and whose name has been appropriated by the owners of countless pubs and inns.

For more, see the introduction, p. An important local landowner and former navy officer. A physician and local magistrate. The ideal sabre also spelled saber is a light cavalry weapon that has a slightly curved blade with a single edge; it functions as both a cutting and a thrusting weapon. The challenge is to find a saber, or any sword, that effectively combines both capabilities. A curved blade works best for making a slashing attack and is easier to handle instinctively in the confusion of a fight.

A straight blade is best for a thrusting attack; the point creates penetration wounds that are generally more lethal than slicing wounds. Tar was found everywhere on a ship, including on the hands and clothes of the crew. T r ea sur e I sl an d from pine tree resin, tar was used to waterproof canvas and cordage, clothing, and headgear. It was inevitably transferred accidentally onto the hair of crew members, some of whom braided their hair into pigtails. Several accounts suggest, without citing sources, that seamen intentionally used tar as a hair dressing.

How they then removed the stuff from their hair is not mentioned. A capstan is a type of winch, on an 18th-century vessel one powered by human muscle, used to raise an anchor or do other heavy lifting. The handspike was a general-purpose wooden. See the introduction, p. On many merchant ships, crew members who. For more, see the note for forecastle on p. The mate was the second-ranking officer on a. The mate was in charge of navigation and organizing the work of the crew and so was accustomed to exerting authority.

Larger vessels might have more than one mate. The word probably was borrowed in the s from the Dutch word schipper, derived from the Dutch schip. Country people often called the passenger coaches that they preferred to have carry their correspondence the mail, but sending letters this way was against the law in the s.

It was illegal to send letters by any means other than through. Much company, mate? What you mought call me? You mought call me captain. And indeed bad as his clothes were and coarsely as he spoke, he had none of the appearance of a man who sailed before the mast,9 but seemed like a mate or skipper10 accustomed to be obeyed or to strike.

The man who came with the barrow told us the mail11 had set him down the morning before at the Royal George, And that was all we could learn of our guest. He was a very silent man by custom. All day he hung round the cove or upon the cliffs with a brass telescope;13 all evening he sat in a corner of the parlour next the fire and drank rum and water very strong. Mostly he would not speak when spoken to, only look up sudden and fierce and blow through his nose like a fog-horn; and we and the people who came about our house soon learned to let him be.

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Every day when he came back from his stroll he would ask if any seafaring men had gone by along the road. At first we thought it was the want of company of his own kind that made him ask this question, but at last we began to see he was desirous to avoid them. When a seaman put up at the Admiral Benbow as now and then some did, making by the coast road for Bristol ,14 he would look in at him through the curtained door before he entered the parlour; and he was always sure to be as silent as a mouse when any such was present.

For me, at least, there was no secret about the matter, for I was, in a way, a sharer in his alarms. Often enough when the first of the month came round and I applied to him for my wage, he would only blow through his nose at me and stare me down, but before the week was out he was sure to think better of it, bring me my fourpenny.

However, many people paid coach drivers to carry their letters disguised as parcels, as parcels were legal. It was only in that a service of fast official mail coaches with armed guards was established. Another inn farther along the coast, possibly. Mahogany was common. A sea officer commonly would use a strap to sling his telescope over his shoulder before climbing to the masthead to get a better view. In the s Bristol, in the west country of.

A silver fourpenny was a coin. For more on. On stormy nights,. Now the leg would be cut off at the knee, now at the hip; now he was a monstrous kind of a creature who had never had but the one leg, and that in the middle of his body. To see him leap and run and pursue me over hedge and ditch was the worst of nightmares. And altogether I paid pretty dear for my monthly fourpenny piece, in the shape of these abominable fancies. But though I was so terrified by the idea of the seafaring man with one leg, I was far less afraid of the captain himself than anybody else who knew him.

There were nights when he took a deal more rum and water than his head would carry; and then he would sometimes sit and sing his wicked, old, wild seasongs, minding nobody; but sometimes he would call for glasses round and force all the trembling company to listen to his stories or bear a chorus to his singing. For in these fits he was the most overriding companion ever known; he would slap his hand on the table for silence all round; he would fly up in a passion of anger at a question, or sometimes because none was put, and so he judged the company was not following his story.

Nor would he allow anyone to leave the inn till he had drunk himself sleepy and reeled off to bed. His stories were what frightened people worst of all. Dreadful stories they were—about hanging, and walking the plank, and storms at sea, and the Dry Tortugas,16 and wild deeds and places on the Spanish Main. My father was always saying the inn would be ruined, for people would soon cease coming there to be tyrannized over and put down, and sent shivering to their beds; but I really believe his presence did us good.

In one way, indeed, he bade fair to ruin us, for he kept on staying week after week, and at last month after month, so that all the money had been long exhausted, and still my father never plucked up the heart to insist on having more. If ever he mentioned it, the. Sailors in need of fresh meat found turtles to be good eating, not least because they could be captured easily, loaded on board, flipped on their backs, and kept alive for a long time with minimal effort.

There is no fresh water on the Tortugas, thus they are the Dry Tortugas. They are a hazard to navigation, because they are low-lying and thus hard to spot in a storm or at night. They are the site of hundreds of shipwrecks. The Dry Tortugas are located in the area known as the Florida Straits, through which Spanish bullion convoys from Central and South America moved, and so they attracted the attention of pirates and buccaneers, as well as smugglers. From the late s to the early s the term also included the sea itself. More precisely, the Spanish Main refers to the north coast of South America bordering the Caribbean that is modern-day Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama.

In the s, s, and s, the Main was a target for commerce raiders and smugglers from France, the Netherlands, and Britain. In the early s the area began exporting its own pirates and privateers to attack cargo vessels in the Caribbean. The eastern portion of the Main included the ports of Rio de la Hacha and Santa Marta, both on the Caribbean coast of modern Colombia and both favorite targets of seaborne raiders. The western section included the towns of Portobelo in modern Panama and Cartagena in modern Colombia, both on the Caribbean coast of those countries, and both also popular with raiders.

In the early days of the exploration and colonization of the Americas, Spanish sailors called the area Tierra Firme and gave this name to one of the two fleets in the Spanish convoy system between Spain and the Americas. The other, the Tierra Firme fleet, in the. T r ea sur e I sl an d 17th century went to Cartagena and Portobelo in the western section of the Main. A hawker travels the countryside selling. Folding up part of the brim of a hat was called. Some people folded up or cocked the front of their hat; some folded one or both of the sides, while others cocked three sides.

Given the fashion of his day, Bones was most likely wearing a hat cocked on three sides. It was the fashion in the s to powder. A common powder was white flour, although fancier powders, some colored and scented, were also used. Powder also had by law to contain starch, although the law was often ignored. Livesey wore a wig that required powdering see the note for I stake my wig on p.

XXX , and keeping it powdered was a tedious process. The wig was smeared with sticky grease; the powder would have been pumped or dumped onto the wig while Livesey held a protective cone over his face so he could breath. Powdering natural hair as opposed to wigs was equally tedious. Some army regiments required their men to wear their hair in a inch long queue or pigtail. Keeping a queue in a satisfactory condition was a laborious, hour-long ritual involving a bag of white powder, a powder puff, wax or grease, and soap.

Wrote one English soldier in his memoirs of his service in the British Army: A large piece of candle grease was applied first to the sides of my head, and then to the long hair behind. After this, the same operation was gone through with nasty, stinking soap, the man who was drenching me applying his knuckles as often as the soap. I have seen him wringing his hands after such a rebuff, and I am sure the annoyance and the terror he lived in must have greatly hastened his early and unhappy death. All the time he lived with us the captain made no change whatever in his dress but to buy some stockings from a hawker.

I remember the appearance of his coat, which he patched himself upstairs in his room, and which, before the end, was nothing but patches. He never wrote or received a letter, and he never spoke with any but the neighbours, and with these, for the most part, only when drunk on rum. The great sea-chest none of us had ever seen open. He was only once crossed, and that was towards the end, when my poor father was far gone in a decline that took him off. Livesey came late one afternoon to see the patient, took a bit of dinner from my mother, and went into the parlour to smoke a pipe until his horse should come down from the hamlet, for we had no stabling at the old Benbow.

I followed him in, and I remember observing the contrast the neat, bright doctor, with his powder as white as snow20 and his bright, black eyes and pleasant manners, made with the coltish country folk, and above all, with that filthy, heavy, bleared scarecrow of a pirate of ours, sitting, far gone in rum, with his arms on the table. Suddenly he—the captain, that is—began to pipe up his eternal song:. Drink and the devil had done for the rest— Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum! But by this time we had all long ceased to pay any particular notice to the song; it was new, that night, to nobody but Dr.

Livesey, and on him I observed it did not produce an agreeable effect, for he looked up for a moment quite angrily before he went on with his talk. In the meantime, the captain gradually brightened up at his own music, and at last flapped his hand upon the table before him in a way we all knew to mean silence. The voices stopped at once, all but Dr. The system for administering law was based on visiting judges from the capital who dealt with the more serious cases not addressed by the local magistrates called justices of the peace. The judges presided over quarterly courts called Quarter Sessions.

The formal progress on foot of a visiting judge in his robes, wig, and buckled shoes from his official lodging to his court room to open the session was an event of high pageantry. The assizes system for administering the laws of England was established in and lasted until , when their jurisdiction over civil and criminal cases was shifted to other courts. The system called for some judges to preside over cases in the capital, London, while other judges traveled around the country presiding over cases in selected towns. In the s there were six circuits. The system played an important role in establishing national laws in place of local law or custom.

The doctor never so much as moved. Let that suffice.

The Annotated MST - The Incredible Melting Man

Chapter Two Black Dog Appears and Disappears It was not very long after this that there occurred the first of the mysterious events that rid us at last of the captain, though not, as you will see, of his affairs. It was a bitter cold winter,1 with long, hard frosts and heavy gales; and it was plain from the first that my poor father was little likely to see the spring.

He sank daily, and my mother and I had all the inn upon our hands, and were kept busy enough without paying much regard to our unpleasant guest. The captain had risen earlier than usual and set out down the beach, his cutlass2 swinging under the broad skirts of the old blue coat, his brass telescope under his arm, his hat tilted back upon his head. I remember his breath hanging like smoke in his wake as he strode off, and the last sound I heard of him as he.

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Europe went through what is known as the Little Ice Age between and During this time the glaciers advanced, growing seasons shortened, and harvests failed. The coldest cycle was between and Several times between and Inuit in their kayaks were seen near the coasts of the Orkney Islands off the coast of Scotland.

In most of Iceland was surrounded by ice for 30 weeks. A cutlass is a sword short enough for fighting. Blades range from 14 to 28 inches long and typically were slightly curved. Tallow was one of several substances applied in the s to the bottoms of vessels in order to deter slime-producing bacteria found in sea water. This slime is an environment that attracts seaweed, teredo worms, and barnacles, which attach themselves and can grow to the point that they slow a vessel down.

A hull in this condition is known as fouled. Tallowing a hull did not work well but was regarded as better than nothing. See also the note on careening on p. He was a pale, tallowy3 creature, wanting two fingers of the left hand, and though he wore a cutlass, he did not look much like a fighter. I had always my eye open for seafaring men, with one leg or two, and I remember this one puzzled me. He was not sailorly, and yet he had a smack of the sea about him too.

I asked him what was for his service, and he said he would take rum; but as I was going out of the room to fetch it, he sat down upon a table and motioned me to draw near. I paused where I was, with my napkin in my hand. I told him I did not know his mate Bill, and this was for a person who stayed in our house whom we called the captain. He has a cut on one cheek and a mighty pleasant way with him, particularly in drink, has my mate Bill. Ah, well! I told you. Now, is my mate Bill in this here house?

Which way is he gone? But it was no affair of mine, I thought; and besides, it was difficult to know what to do. The stranger kept hanging about just inside the inn door, peering round the corner like a cat waiting for a mouse. Once I stepped out myself into the road, but he immediately called me back, and as I did not obey quick enough for his fancy, a most horrible change came over his tallowy face, and he ordered me in with an oath that made me jump. As soon as I was back again he returned to his former manner, half fawning, half sneering, patted me on the shoulder, told me I was a good boy and he had taken quite a fancy to me.

But the great thing for boys is discipline, sonny—discipline. And here, sure enough, is my mate Bill, with a. I was very uneasy and alarmed, as you may fancy, and it rather added to my fears to observe that the stranger was certainly frightened himself. He cleared the hilt of his cutlass and loosened the blade in the sheath; and all the time we were waiting there he kept swallowing as if he felt what we used to call a lump in the throat. At last in strode the captain, slammed the door behind him, without looking to the right or left, and marched straight across the room to where his breakfast awaited him.

The captain spun round on his heel and fronted us; all the brown had gone out of his face, and even his nose was blue; he had the look of a man who sees a ghost, or the evil one, or something worse, if anything can be; and upon my word, I felt sorry to see him all in a moment turn so old and sick. The captain made a sort of gasp. He bade me go and leave the door wide open. Just at the door the captain aimed at the fugitive one last tremendous cut, which would certainly have split him to the chine4 had it not been intercepted by our big signboard of Admiral Benbow.

You may see the notch on the lower side of the frame to this day. That blow was the last of the battle. Once out upon the road, Black Dog, in spite of his wound, showed a wonderful clean pair of heels and disappeared over the edge of the hill in half a minute. The captain, for his part, stood staring at the signboard like a bewildered man. Then he passed his hand over his eyes several times and at last turned back into the house. At the. Chine, which means spine or backbone, derives from the medieval French eschine, which in turn was modified from the Latin spina.

Between us we raised his head. He was breathing very loud and hard, but his eyes were closed and his face a horrible colour. And your poor father sick! I got the rum, to be sure, and tried to put it down his throat, but his teeth were tightly shut and his jaws as strong as iron. It was a happy relief for us when the door opened and Doctor Livesey came in, on his visit to my father.

Where is he wounded? The man has had a stroke,5 as I warned him. Now, Mrs. Hawkins, just you run upstairs to your husband and tell him, if possible, nothing about it. It was tattooed in several places. First he recognized the doctor with an unmistakable frown; then his glance fell upon me, and he looked relieved. You have been drinking rum; you have had a stroke, precisely as I told you; and I have just, very much against my own will, dragged you headforemost out of the grave.

Now, Mr. Come, now, make an effort. Lancet is an old name for what is usually called a scalpel today. Livesey is performing a phlebotomy or venesection, a procedure that was common in the s and into the middle s. One of the ailments that supposedly could be treated by opening a vein was apoplexy, better known today as stroke. Also supposedly amenable to bloodletting were fevers and headache.

Bloodletting was a popular remedy, and people sometimes requested it be done even when there was nothing wrong with them, as a sort of tune-up for the body. Drawing too much blood was, of course, dangerous: George Washington was thought by some to have been bled to death in an attempt to help him during his last illness. This was one of the names given to the mostly French and English raiders who attacked Spanish ships and settlements in the Caribbean and the Americas in the s.

Livesey would recognize the big, full-bottomed wigs used by judges in British courts today, and the small, neat wigs made from horsehair that are worn by the lawyers who appear before them. Wigs that allowed men to appear with luxuriant cascades of shoulder-length human curls became the height of fashion in the s in Britain. Bill Severn, a historian of wigs and hair, reports.

Some parents in England refused to send their children to schools taught by men who did not wear wigs. Even sailors wore wool wigs at one point. By the last decade of 18th century, wigs had started to fade from fashion, and a tax on hair powder helped speed their departure from fashionable heads. And with that he went off to see my father, taking me with him by the arm. He was lying very much as we had left him, only a little higher, and he seemed both weak and excited. But he broke in cursing the doctor, in a feeble voice but heartily.

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I been in places hot as pitch,2 and mates dropping round with Yellow Jack,3 and the blessed land aheaving like the sea with earthquakes—what do the doctor know of lands like that? A swab was a mop made from strands of old rope that had been untwisted. It is used here in the sense of a useless person, good only for mopping a deck. It is also used as a term for a drunk.

Derived from pinewood tar, pitch was used as a protective coating for hulls and for waterproofing the fiber oakum used to seal the seams of decks and hulls. Tar was extracted from short lengths of pinewood by heating them in an airtight tar kiln until only charcoal was left. Tar was used as a protective coating for cordage and for waterproofing canvas. Vessels would carry barrels of pitch and tar on board in order to maintain the ship at while at sea. Symptoms include high fever, muscle pain, vomiting, bleeding from the eyes and other body openings, kidney failure, and liver failure, which causes jaundice.

Jaundice turns the skin yellow, hence the name. More than half of the 43, troops sent from Britain to the West Indies between and died from Yellow Fever. A hulk was an old vessel without masts waiting to be demolished or altered to perform a new role. Hulks were used as places to house new navy recruits, as prisons or training facilities. Lee shore was a synonym for danger in the days of sail. It is a coastline onto which the wind is blowing in from the sea. A vessel would be destroyed if it was unable to maneuver away from the coast and was blown ashore.

A hulk without sails would be unable to maneuver. When you raise Cain you are making a serious. Cain, of course, is the biblical figure who killed his brother Abel. The origin of the phrase is obscure, but the Guinness Book of Words suggests that to raise Cain is a way of saying raise the devil without using the word devil. Lubber is an old word for, in the s, a lout. By the s it meant a landlubber, or clumsy seaman, and that meaning is still current, with additional connotations of lack of skill and laziness. And now, matey, did that doctor say how long I was to lie here in this old berth?

Is that seamanly behaviour, now, I want to know? I never wasted good money of mine, nor lost it neither; and. His words, spirited as they were in meaning, contrasted sadly with the weakness of the voice in which they were uttered. He paused when he had got into a sitting position on the edge.

Lay me back. Well, then, you get on a horse, and go to— well, yes, I will! He gave it me at Savannah,12 when he lay a-dying, like as if I was to now, you see. One way for a sailing ship to reduce speed is to reduce the sail area that is exposed to the wind. To do that, sailors bunch up a portion of the sail and tie it to its yard—a wooden pole attached to the mast—using short pieces of line sewn onto the sail called reef points. The action is called reefing, or taking in a reef. A sail typically is equipped with several parallel rows of reef points. Seamen taking in a reef to shorten a sail.

To pipe all hands was to use a special whistle to produce a set of sounds that the crew of a vessel would understand as an order to do something or to pay attention because they were going to get a spoken order. A combination of sounds can be produced by the whistle to communicate different orders. Orders piped on the whistle were also known as calls. The design of the whistle itself dates back to. T r ea sur e I sl an d medieval times and remains virtually unchanged.

The pirate Flint managed to avoid entering the public records that survive. All we know of him and his misdeeds are from the vivid descriptions by Billy Bones and the others who served with him that were recorded by Jim Hawkins. On a merchant ship, the first mate is the officer. On Royal Navy ships in the days of sail, an officer might also be mate of the lower deck, meaning he was responsible for the condition of that area and the people there. The mate of the main deck was responsible for supervising activities on that deck.

Surely Savannah was an inconvenient haven. Savannah was founded in as the capital of Georgia, a private philanthropic venture with government support, by a group of altruists in Britain led by a reform-minded army general and member of Parliament, James Edward Oglethorpe. Initially slavery was forbidden, as were rum and lawyers. The Wesley brothers, founders of Methodism, came to help. Admittedly, the town had loosened up by the s, but a tough Royal Navy captain, John Reynolds, was governor in ,.

What I should have done had all gone well I do not know. Probably I should have told the whole story to the doctor, for I was in mortal fear lest the captain should repent of his confessions and make an end of me. But as things fell out, my poor father died quite suddenly that evening, which put all other matters on one side. Our natural distress, the visits of the neighbours, the arranging of the funeral, and all the work of the inn to be carried on in the meanwhile kept me so busy that I had scarcely time to think of the captain, far less to be afraid of him.

He got downstairs next morning, to be sure, and had his meals as usual, though he ate little and had more, I am afraid, than his usual supply of rum, for he helped himself out of the bar, scowling and blowing through his nose, and no one dared to cross him. I have said the captain was weak, and indeed he seemed rather to grow weaker than regain his strength. He clambered up and down stairs,. He never particularly addressed me, and it is my belief he had as good as forgotten his confidences; but his temper was more flighty, and allowing for his bodily weakness, more violent than ever.

He had an alarming way now when he was drunk of drawing his cutlass and laying it bare before him on the table.

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But with all that, he minded people less and seemed shut up in his own thoughts and rather wandering. Once, for instance, to our extreme wonder, he piped up to a different air, a kind of country love-song that he must have learned in his youth before he had begun to follow the sea. He was plainly blind, for he tapped before him with a stick and wore a great green shade over his eyes and nose; and he was hunched, as if with age or weakness, and wore a huge old tattered seacloak with a hood that made him appear positively deformed.

I never saw in my life a more dreadful-looking figure. He stopped a little from the inn, and raising his voice in an odd sing-song, addressed the air in front of him. But maybe Flint was discreet and kept out of sight. In the s peach also meant to blow the gab, squeak, or turn stag, all variations of the modern snitch. It was a colloquialism in the 18th and 19th centuries and slang in the early 20th. Ireland historians have used language like conceited, hot-tempered, no intellectual interests; also touchy, comic, obstinate; stupid but complicated, not indolent, lacked confidence, could be bullied, and exceedingly impatient.

He also had a photographic memory. He survived. His temper was demonstrated the year before the Hispaniola sailed when Vice-Admiral John Byng was convicted of not doing his best to win a battle, a verdict that came with an automatic death penalty. T r ea sur e I sl an d In addition to the crown of England, George wore another as Hereditary Prince of Hanover, a state in modern northern Germany where he was born in , the last king of England born abroad and the last to lead his troops in battle.

His father, George I, who was also born in Hanover, never did. He had been invited to be become king of England because he was descended from King James I of England, who died in , but more important, because he was a Protestant and politically acceptable to the king killers and republicans, unlike the other claimant to the throne, James Edward Stuart. Will you give me your hand, my kind young friend, and lead me in?

I was so much startled that I struggled to withdraw, but the blind man pulled me close up to him with a single action of his arm. The captain is not what he used to be. He sits with a drawn cutlass. It cowed me more than the pain, and I began to obey him at once, walking straight in at the door and towards the parlour, where our sick old buccaneer was sitting, dazed with rum. The blind man clung close to me, holding me in one iron fist and leaning almost more of his weight on me than I could carry.

Between this and that, I was so utterly terrified of the blind beggar that I forgot my terror of the captain, and as I opened the. The poor captain raised his eyes, and at one look the rum went out of him and left him staring sober. The expression of his face was not so much of terror as of mortal sickness. He made a movement to rise, but I do not believe he had enough force left in his body. Business is business. Hold out your left hand. Boy, take his left hand by the wrist and bring it near to my right. It was some time before either I or the captain seemed to gather our senses, but at length, and about at the same moment, I released his wrist, which I was still holding,.

Bleeding within an internal organ. The term is often used to describe bleeding into the brain, otherwise known as a stroke. Even as he did so, he reeled, put his hand to his throat, stood swaying for a moment, and then, with a peculiar sound, fell from his whole height face foremost to the floor. I ran to him at once, calling to my mother. But haste was all in vain. The captain had been struck dead by thundering apoplexy. It was the second death I had known, and the sorrow of the first was still fresh in my heart. Chapter Four The Sea-chest I lost no time, of course, in telling my mother all that I knew, and perhaps should have told her long before, and we saw ourselves at once in a difficult and dangerous position.

Indeed, it seemed impossible for either of us to remain much longer in the house; the fall of coals in the kitchen grate, the very ticking of the clock, filled us with alarms. The neighbourhood, to our ears, seemed haunted by ap-. Something must speedily be resolved upon, and it occurred to us at last to go forth together and seek help in the neighbouring hamlet. No sooner said than done.

Bareheaded as we were, we ran out at once in the gathering evening and the frosty fog. The hamlet lay not many hundred yards away, though out of view, on the other side of the next cove; and what greatly encouraged me, it was in an opposite direction from that whence the blind man had made his appearance and whither he had presumably returned. We were not many minutes on the In the s it typically had a foremast and a mainmast, rigged with irregular four-sided sails set on spars called lugs.

Its ability to sail more directly into the wind than many other vessels was helpful when it had to deal with tricky tidal waters. Large luggers fitted with an extra mast were used as smuggling vessels or privateers. But there was no unusual sound— nothing but the low wash of the ripple and the croaking of the inmates of the wood.

It was already candle-light when we reached the hamlet, and I shall never forget how much I was cheered to see the yellow shine in doors and windows; but that, as it proved, was the best of the help we were likely to get in that quarter. For—you would have thought men would have been ashamed of themselves—no soul would consent to return with us to the Admiral Benbow. The more we told of our troubles, the more—man, woman, and child—they clung to the shelter of their houses.

The name of Captain Flint, though it was strange to me, was well enough known to some there and carried a great weight of terror. And the short and the long of the matter was, that while we could get several who were willing enough to ride to Dr. They say cowardice is infectious; but then argument is, on the other hand, a great emboldener; and so when each had said his say, my mother made them a speech. Back we will go, the way we. Crossley, to bring back our lawful money in. My heart was beating finely when we two set forth in the cold night upon this dangerous venture.

A full moon was beginning to rise and peered redly through the upper edges of the fog, and this increased our haste, for it was plain, before we came forth again, that all would be as bright as day, and our departure exposed to the eyes of any watchers. We slipped along the hedges, noiseless and swift, nor did we see or hear anything to increase our terrors, till, to our relief, the door of the Admiral Benbow had closed behind us. I slipped the bolt at once, and we stood and panted for a moment in. He lay as we had left him, on his back, with his eyes open and one arm stretched out.

Gully is an old name for a large knife. Until recognizably modern matches became available in the s, people used to strike flint and steel together to create a spark that could be nursed into a flame to light a fire or a lamp. That could take half an hour or longer if it was wet or windy. For convenience, people carried a little kit consisting of a piece of flint, a piece of steel, and tinder, material that would eventually catch fire when exposed to sparks.

Tinder could be anything from fine wood shavings to dried tree fungus mixed with saltpeter, an ingredient used in making gunpowder. The little kit could be carried around in a small box called a tinder box. I went down on my knees at once. On the floor close to his hand there was a little round of paper, blackened on the one side. This sudden noise startled us shockingly; but the news was good, for it was only six. A few small coins, a thimble, and some thread and big needles, a piece of pigtail tobacco bitten2 away at the end, his gully with the crooked handle, a pocket compass, and a tinder box3 were all that they contained, and I began to despair.

Overcoming a strong repugnance, I tore open his shirt at the neck, and there, sure enough, hanging to a bit of tarry string, which I cut with his own gully, we found the key. At this triumph we were filled with hope and hurried upstairs without delay to the little room where he had slept so long and where his box had stood since the day of his arrival. A strong smell of tobacco and tar rose from the interior, but nothing was to be seen on the top except a suit of very good clothes, carefully brushed and folded. They had never been worn, my mother said.

Under that, the miscellany began—a quadrant,4 a tin canikin, several sticks of tobacco, two brace of very handsome pistols, a piece of bar silver,5 an old Spanish watch and some other trinkets of little value and mostly of foreign make, a pair of compasses mounted with brass, and five or six curious West Indian shells. I have often wondered since why he should have carried about these shells with him in his wandering, guilty, and hunted life.

In the meantime, we had found nothing of any value but the silver and the trinkets, and neither of these were in our way. Underneath there was an old boat-cloak, whitened with sea-salt on many a harbour-bar. My mother pulled it up with impatience, and there lay before us, the last things in the chest, a bundle tied up in oilcloth, and looking like papers, and a canvas bag that gave forth, at a touch, the jingle of gold. Hold Mrs. The guineas,. Given that Billy Bones was an old seafarer, he might have used an old-fashioned quadrant known as a backstaff or sea quadrant or English quadrant, first used in the late s and still in use into the s.

More likely, since it is clear that he had roamed around the world and his notes show positions recorded with great precision, he would have used a Hadley reflecting quadrant, also called an octant, invented in , which was in common use by the s. It allowed a navigator to measure the position of the sun or a star relative to the horizon, and also their positions relative to each other. An octant was also was easier to use than a backstaff, and mariners continued to use it well into the s.

It was accurate to within three miles. Sextant 5. A typical example of Spanish bar silver of the s is about 14 inches long, 5 inches wide and 2. Smaller bars have been found. Spanish gold coins came in denominations of half, one, two, four and eight escudos. The eightescudo coin was called a doblon, which in English became doubloon.

For information on guineas, see the introduction, p. Pieces of eight was the term in English for the. T r ea sur e I sl an d milled Spanish silver coins worth eight reales and known as Spanish dollars. They weighed almost exactly one ounce of silver. Thanks to the popularity of Spanish silver coins in colonial and newly independent America, U. The reason is that when the New York Stock Exchange opened in , changes in price were reported in shillings, which were valued at eight to the Spanish dollar, so changes in value were reported in eighths.

The habit stuck. But the decimal system is making headway. Oilskin could be made from linen, cotton, or silk that had been treated with water-repelling linseed oil to waterproof it. It drew nearer and nearer, while we sat holding our breath. Then it struck sharp on the inn door, and then we could hear the handle being turned and the bolt rattling as the wretched being tried to enter; and then there was a long time of silence both within and without.

At last the tapping recommenced, and, to our indescribable joy and gratitude, died slowly away again until it ceased to be heard. But my mother, frightened as she was, would not consent to take a fraction more than was due to her and was obstinately unwilling to be content with less. It was not yet seven, she said, by a long way; she knew her rights and she would have them; and she was still arguing with me when a little low whistle sounded a good way off upon the hill.

That was enough, and more than enough, for both of us. We had not started a moment too soon. The fog was rapidly dispersing, already the moon shone quite clear on the high ground on either side; and it was only in the exact bottom of the dell and round the tavern door that a thin veil still hung unbroken to conceal the first steps of our escape.

Far less than halfway to the hamlet, very little beyond the bottom of the hill, we must come forth into the moonlight. Nor was this all, for the sound of several footsteps running came already to our ears, and as we looked back in their direction, a light tossing to and fro and still rapidly advancing showed that one of the newcomers carried a lantern. I am going to faint.

This was certainly the end for both of us, I thought. How I cursed the cowardice of the neighbours; how I blamed my poor mother for her honesty and her greed, for her past foolhardiness and present weakness! We were just at the little bridge, by good fortune; and I helped her, tottering as she was, to the edge of the bank, where, sure enough, she gave a sigh and fell on my shoulder.

The lyrics tells how "the pet of the chorus" dancer went to Idaho to become a "farmerette" to support the war effort. Two different cover sheets are known. One cover presumably from the World War I years shows a a doughboy waving at the lovely farmer girl hoeing potatoes. The cover also shows potatoes with faces popping out of the ground and stereotypical hillbilly images presumably of Idaho. A second presumably later cover indicates the song was part of the musical extravaganza Tip Top and shows a photo of the leading man, Fred Stone, who started his acting in circus and minstrels and went on to star in vaudeville, Broadway shows and Hollywood films.

The director Charles Dillingham started as a reviewer for the New York Evening Post and then became a director and manager for actors. I want to see my Ida hoe in Idaho — I love her so. Out on the farm, away from harm. Lomax and Allen Lomax The book stated that the song was given to J. Lomax by J. Strickland of Idaho, who got it from Jeff Hamilton of Virginia in First lines of verse: John Harty was a desperate man.

He carried a gun and razor every day. He killed a man in Challis town. You ought to seen poor Johnny get away. Kamiah Springs unknown songwriter, s? From the lyrics, the song appears to have been written in the s from the perspective of an aging participant of the fight. Whether the song is based on an actual event is unknown.

Likewise, the precise location of Kamiah Springs is unknown. Shayne Watkins of Deary set it to music and a recording of his rendition was made in his living room. Spence and first appeared in the Wood River Times newspaper on July 6, First line of verse: Lovers of liberty and beer, we welcome you from far and near. Handwritten sheet music for this undated tribute to Idaho is in the University of Idaho Special Collections.

First lines of verse: Know and grow with Idaho, the state of the great Northwest, where the sunrise lights the valley and the pine trees reach the crest. Lewis and Clark Centennial March E. Sheet music is available through the American sheet music consortium and a recording is in the collection of the Cylinder Preservation Project at the University of California-Santa Barbara. The music was published in and was made available as a disc record at the Lewis and Clarke Centennial Exposition in Portland in October, A downloadable recording is available at www.

The music was published by the songwriter in Vancouver, Wash. The price is listed as 25 cents and the cover is light purple with blue print. Lewis and Clark Exposition A. Sheet music with a black and white cover is in the U. The sheet music was published self-published in St. Helena, California. The light tan cover has flowery green print and a photo of a young man, presumably the songwriter.

In addition to the entries in this bibliography specifically relatied to Lewis and Clark or Sacajawea, sheet music for a number of other songs dedicated to the Exposition in Portland are in the University or Oregon library. The song may have been a contribution for the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland in The cover shows a painting of the Corps of Expedition meeting with Indians at a camp on the bank of a river. The song was self-published in Great Falls, Montana. Louis with their gallant expedition for the far Pacific Ocean.

Long and wild was the trail. Lewis and Clark Indian Guide F. The song was self-published in Okeene, Oklahoma and may have been a contribution for the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland in Three verses. First lines of first verse: Queen of the Shoshone Valley — idol of all her tribe, captured by Minatareces. There was no cover for the music. Also, the final page of music was missing, so Sean composed a plausible substitute. The Sister s of the Visitation was an order of Catholic nuns who established the Visitation Academy for girls in Lewiston, Idaho around Unfortunately, we have been unable to find any additional information about the Sisters in Lewiston or find any other music by them.

First lines of verse line: There is a certain ridge near Troy they call the Little Bear and on it are some people, the same as anywhere. The music and lyrics were written by Thomas Augustine Barrett, a popular British performer who used the stage name Stuart Leslie. The song was performed in black-face stage productions with banjo and piano accompaniment. Several early theatre-style recordings are available. S o now you know and when ye go. The publisher of the song, M. The company was notable in facilitating the publication of British music in the U.

The company was acquired by Warner Brothers. The lyrics tell of a cowboys life in eastern Idaho. The style of the song suggests a late s or early s vintage. Space Spence was an early ranger in the upper Clearwater River region of Idaho. A real automobile road to Missoula was not completed across Lolo Pass in the Bitterroots until , but it is possible that motor vehicles were using the historical Indian trail before then.

In any case, the song is included here because songs of any date about this region of Idaho are very rare. Verse: This road is winding, crooked and rough. But you can make it if you are tough. God help your tire. Gold help your load. God bless the man who built this road. Long Line Skinner Idaho Jack, ca. Long Line Skinner is a classic event ballad about a runaway horse-drawn freighter on on the steep grade of Wildcat Hill.

It is unknown if the song is about specific event, but runaways were certainly a constant concern of early day freighters in the mountains of Idaho.

The structure, lyrics and song style suggest that it was composed prior to , as a takeoff on Red River Valley. First lines of verse: From this desert I know you are leaving. I have read the sad news in your eyes. Love-Lorn Lament Clarence E. Eddy, ca. The Poet-Prospector was in the Moscow area when the veterans returned and likely wrote the song at that time. Lyrics are found in his book of poems and songs Pinnacle of Parnassus. Eddy suggested the melody as that of Sweet Jenny Dear.

First lines of verse: Now Hobsonization is all the sensation. It really has grown to a craze. Just think of the kisses our cultured young misses so freely bedstowed upon Kays. A Lover, Bashful Frank S. This region at the time comprised some of the last vestiges of the American frontier. The hunting trip and song involved a love affair! An original copy of the book, published in by the Northern Pacific as an advertising ploy to get hunters to ride their trains, is at the Bonner County Historical Museum.

The book was reprinted as a paperback in by Great Northern Pacific Publications. Refrain: And her lily white hands fly over the strings. Plunkety, plunkety, plunk, plunk, plunk. Hand-written sheet music for this lovely instrumental are in the collection of the Ilo-Vollmer Historical Society. The songwriter grew up in a musical family near Cragmont, Idaho. Her sensational murder trial in Twin Falls, Idaho was in The song likely dates to that year.

Mabel Gone Away Clarence E. Mabel is the middle name of Eddy's second wife who he married in , long after the publication of his book and after his first marriage failed in Perhaps he had met Mabel much earlier than ? Or did the Poet-Prosector know another Mable when he was a young man?

Or is this another composition he wrote under contract? We shall never know. Eddy gave the melody as that of the beloved Civil War era song Lorena. All the days seem dark and dreary, since dear Mabel went away. Longing, sighing I am weary, since sweet Mabel went away. March of the Suffragettes Edmund Braham, The connection to Idaho is provided by the cover which shows a woman holding a banner "Where There is Right there is Might" with the state seals of Idaho, Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

These states were among the first to afford women the right to vote. May Arkwright Hutton ditty by political supporters of Mrs. Montgomery relates to the amazing Mrs. The song was written when she to Baltimore in as the first woman delegate to a Democratic national convention. The melody is unknown. The suffrage fight she sure did win!

No melody was suggested. Mid the Hills of Idaho William H. The music was published by the songwriter. The cover shows a sketch of a bucolic cabin scene in the mountains. Hickey The song was sung to the melody of Sidewalks of New York , which was written in the s. The song probably was written not long afterwards.

First lines of verse: Miners and muckers together-Swedes, Norwegians, and Jews. And old Cousin Jack with a hump on his back — a drink he would never refuse. Missionary's Farewell Samuel F. Because of the significance of the Whitmans to the history Idaho and the entire westward movement in the mid s, it is included in this compilation even though it does not directly speak to their experiences in Idaho. Samuel F. Smith, the composer of Missionary's Farewell, was a Baptist preacher. In , in response to the missionary fervor sweeping the American northeast, this song was published in both the popular Protestant hymnal "Southern Harmony" and the first Mormon hymnal.

The first line of verse is: Yes, my native land I love thee. All thy scenes, I love them well. Friends, connections, happy country — can I bid you well and farewell? The Monument Lloyd G. Knight, ca. It is a attribute to the founding president of the Institute, E. Paddock, who in had a huge granite boulder moved onto the Institute grounds as a dedication monument. First lines of verse: Out of the East, the cultured East, the pious East he came. He climbed the steep, rough frontier trials, then smoothed and widened the same. No copyright or date is indicated on the music. Our best guess is that it is from the s.

The songwriter died in Bonner County in but we have found no other information on him. Sunset has faded into the west, gloaming has followed in its flight. Day is reclining. Evening stars are shining. Dusk is deepening into night. The Mormon Bums unknown songwriter, Typewritten lyrics for this extremely rare song written at the time of widespread anti-Mormon sentiment in Idaho, including the infamous Idaho "loyalty oath" disavowing polygamy and groups that supported the practice, were provided by Hal Cannon from his collection.

The song nine verses with choruses appeared in a circular published on Sept. The song is from the desk of of George Reynolds , a prominent LDS leader known for taking the test case on polygamy to the U. Supreme Court. Come all ye jovial travellers and listen to my song, a story I'll relate to you about the Mormon Bums. Dennis and Harry H.

The publisher was the Majestic Music Pub. My Idaho Bernard J. Tiemann, ca. First lines of first verse: With pick and the shovel, with brain and beauty too, to make it all a fairy land, my Idaho! My Idaho Margaret L. Watts, P. The identity of the songwriter is unknown. The identity of the composer is unknown. The song is similar in nature to many Idaho tribute songs from the early s. Need to add lyrics. My Idaho Home Alice M. Need additional information. Irons was born on Nov. Here shines undimmed one blissful day, for all my cares have passed away.

My Idaho, My Idaho unknown songwriter, or earlier? My Indian Queen - Sacajawea H. The cover suggests that this piece may have been part of a larger production "Louisiana", perhaps in connection with the Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition in Portland in This connection also is suggested by the logo on the music pages and the following sentence: "The story of this song pertains to "Sacajawea, the Indian girl, who showed Lewis and Clark the way to the Pacific Coast in the year McComas, This book consists of writings by E.

McComas, who traveled west from Iowa in on the Oregon Trail in an attempt to make his fortune in the Salmon River mining area.

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Instead, he spent the rest of his life in eastern Oregon as a miner, entrepreneur and newspaper editor in the towns of Union and Grande Ronde. It is one of the earliest songs directly related to Idaho and the Oregon Trail. It is the only known song about prospective miners headed west rather than north and east to the early Idaho mines. And the song is rare in mentioning the Civil War in conjunction with traveling to the Idaho mines. Without question, many men went to Idaho during the initial gold rush as much to avoid fighting in the great war as to find their fortune in gold.

McComas credits himself for writing this song, probably during or shortly after his travel west from Iowa in First lines of verse: Come ye jolly miners. Come listen to my song. My Mollyo from Idaho Chas. Friels and Harry L. Newman, Sheet music for this whimsical song found in the Auburn University library was published by the Sunlight Opera House of Chicago. The song tells of meeting sweet girls all over the United States including "sweet gals from Idaho. Native American Songs. As stated earlier, the scope of this compilation is restricted to English-language songs.

A large body of Idaho-related songs in other languages, of course, exists. In particular, many historically-based songs are to be found in Native American tongues. Nevada, Our Home Clarence E. Eddy and Paul Valtinke, Sheet music for this song are in the March 13, issue of the Manhattan Magnet newspaper California. The song is claimed as the state anthem, although it never was officially adopted by the state of Nevada. Although nominally related to Nevada rather than Idaho, it is included in this compiliation because of the significance of the Poet-Prospector to Idaho.

Hail fair hills and plains,Golden land of Eldorado. Where bright Freedom reigns, where the starry flag enrolled Thee. Nez Perce Square Dance ca. Hines, S. Hines, J. Morris, C. Hobson The song likely was written much than and updated through the years. The song obviously was popular in the area at one time.

Whether the song is pure lighthearted fantasy or relates to personal acquaintances is unknown. She graduated from the University of Minnesota in with a degree in drama. She married E. Hoover in and moved to Boise in , where her husband was general manager of the Payette Lumber and Manufacturing. No other songs from thepen of Jane Redfield Hoover are known.

The identity of cowriter Jessie Merrill Tukey is unknown. First lines of chorus: O Idaho you sunny fascination. The Old Bull Pen Mrs. Mary Cleopatra Robinson? Auntie Rhodes? Most likely this is the song of this name that is mentioned in an aside in Rosalie Sorrels' book Way Out in Idaho. In other places, there is a suggestion that it was written by Mrs.

First lines of verse: The old bull pen is empty now. There are prisoners no more. Old Deserted Claim Clarence E. Eddy suggested the melody of Sunny Tennessee for the song. First lines of verse: By the old deserted claim, still the landscape is the same, though all about is strangely still and lone.

Toelken indicated that he got the song from retired logger Henry Tams of Moscow and that, whether or not the event actually happened, the song illustrates attitudes towards Chinese in the s. First lines of verse: Old John Martin Duffy was a judge in a court ,in a small mining town in the West. Although he knew nothing about rules of the law, for judge he was one of the best. The song is an event ballad about a prospector who murdered his partner and blamed it on a bear, and then spent the rest of his life in remorse.

Nothing specifically ties this song to Idaho except for the general flavor of the song and the place where it was located. Woolley Burt suggests a date of the late s for the song. First lines of verse: Gather round me people, while I speak this one last word.

On the Trail to Idaho pre ? This song is about driving herds of cattle to Idaho and thus likely dates to the period between the late s and early s when the completion of the Oregon Shortline ended major cattle drives in Idaho. No melody is known for this song. Lomax and Alan Lomax John Lomax originally got the song in from Texan J. First lines of verse…to be added. Onward Idaho Geo. First lines of verse: Onward Idaho, march on to victory, to thine own, heed naught of yesterday.

Glorious land of promise, Idaho! First lines of verse: Away down yonder in the Wahee Mountains. There lived Zeke — an old galoot. And all he knew was how to shoot. Otto Hussa ditty Mrs. This short humorous short ditty is about the confrontation on Latour Creek between the Finn farmer Otto Hussa, who had a log jam flooding his property, and the logger Old Man Higbee who was wrongly accused by Hussa of owning the logs.

Our Captain Old Blue Unknown songwriter, late s? Partial lyrics without melody for this rare song about the massacre of 32 Chinese placer miners in Hells Canyon in the mid s are in the Ph. Attebery obtained the song from Blaine Stubblefield, who got it from his father. Wahl also provided much information on the background of this historically important song.

A similar version was found by R. Gregory Nokes during his comprehensivel research of the massacre, culminating in his authoritative book Massacred for Gold - The Chinese in Hells Canyon. Also see the entry in this bibliography for Get Out Yellowskins. Library of Congress sheet music collection. First lines of chorus: Thy mountain spires our souls desires, and thy sun-kissed hills of snow, Thy brooks and fens, thy shady glens, our own darling Idaho.

Our Idaho arr. Sheet music are in Silver and Gold — 37 , a set of University of Idaho songs. First lines of verse: A pioneer state built a college to share its youth and its rigorous life, That flourished and grew from year to year, beset by political strife. First lines of chorus: Sing we then a song of Idaho, our own home state of Idaho.

Land of mighty hills and valleys, living waters flowing free. Our Sunny Idaho A. The song was published in Boise. Yes, we love our sunny Idaho! The song no doubt was sung by drivers while they were making the run to pass the time and amuse riders. First lines of verse: I sing to everybody in the country and the town, a song about a subject that is worthy of renown.

The song tells the woes of the misfortune of an investors in gold mines and mentions many actual mines in the Silver City mining district. Your mining operations have got to emigrate. First lines of verse: Give me back my pinto pony and the range of Idaho, Where the quaken asps and cedars and the service berries grow.

Pay Streak that Went off into the Wall H. The humorous song is a miner's take off on the popular song The Picture That is Turned to the Wall that appeared in the February 25, issue of the Idaho World newspaper. Thompson was a noted fiddler and songwriter of the Boise Basin mining camps and his lyrics spoke about the all-too-common experience of seeing a vein of gold peter out into the surrounding rock. It was both lauded and severely criticized for its grandiosity and has been cited as a last gross example of gilded-age excess. First lines of verse: Far away beyond the glamor of the city and its strife, There was once a little quartz mine rich and free.

Other songs were collected in the following two decades. First lines of verse: My mother and father were very poor people; They lived by a church which had a high steeple. They raised apples but sold them so low they made no fortune in Idaho. Pioneer Song Thomas B. Steunenberg, ca. This wonderful and once beloved tribute to the College of Idaho by the nephew of assassinated Idaho ex-governer Steunenberg once was popularly known as "The Rattlesnake Song" because of the lyrical reference to "Cowboys, Indians, and Rattlesnakes.

Sheet music for the song is at the College of Idaho library's special collection. First line of verse: There's a school in the dusty west - College of Idaho. Pioneer on a golden quest - College of Idaho. Jan Brunvand collection at the University of Idaho. The song was collected in the spring of from the scrapbook of Mrs. First lines of verse: A large and lonely school is ours. Pleasant Plains, Oh, Pleasant Plains. Of good behavior in Golden Stars.

Pocatello words by Dr. Howard and music by Weldon Lawrence One page of handwritten sheet music with three verses of lyrics paying tribute to Pocatello are in the Marshall Public Library in Pocatello. No copyright or date are indicated on the music, but the song is typical of Idaho tribute songs from the early s. Howard and his wife Minnie were medical doctors who came to Pocatello in and practiced medicine until they retired. Both were very active in Pocatello civic affairs and Minnie became a noted historian on Fort Hall.

The identity of Weldon Lawrence is unknown. Need to add fiirst words of verse. The Raging Plains Amasa Coggeshall, The song describes the trip up the river "Columbie" and up the Snake to "the Boss" Boise , and then to Salmon Falls to seek lumps of gold so large that are too big for one man to raise from the ground. This song places gold mining around Salmon Falls many years earlier than previously believed. The meaning of the the title "raging plains" is unknown, but could be related to conflict with Native Americans in southern Idaho in the early s. Now listen unto me, my friends, and I will tell you plain,the wonders that I saw myself upon the raging plains;.

Aburey Angelo. Sacajawea George A. First lines of verse…. Sheet music is in the digital collection of the University of Oregon. First lines of verse: Shu shu shu shu, little papoose go to sleep. Shu shu shu shu, Sacajawea sings to you. Warner, ca. Sheet music is in the University of Oregon digital sheet music collection.

While part of the song was collected by Jan Brunvand in thes, special thanks go to Herm Ronnenberg for finding the full set of lyrics for Trip to Salmon in the Yreka Semi-Weekly Journal California newspaper on April 4, McIntyre found Salmon River in an edition of the Lewiston Golden Age newspaper of , making its one of the earliest known surviving songs of the region. The song was performed to the tune of Dixie. Get away!

Way up north to Salmon. The identity of the lyricist Mary Edmonson spelling uncertain and the date she composed the poem is unknown. It is likely that the poem was written about an actual Native American somewhere along the Salmon River, but we have been unable to verify this as fact. Salmon River Song A. It originally was published on February 13, in the Portland Oregonian newspaper. The melody is given as that of Oh Susannah , a popular song of the time.

Chorus: I am a jolly — my heart is light and free. A hardy forty-niner with washpan on my knee.

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Sawtooth Mountains Ditty unknown songwriter, s or s? Dances were social highlights in these camps and two-steps, polkas, waltzes, quadrilles and Virginia reels were danced deep into the night. First line of verse: Oh…chase the possum. Chase the squirrel. Examples are shown on the next page. Foote was well known for her wonderful writings and illustrations about the American West, which she made while traveling with her mining engineer husband in the late s.

First line of verse: The Coxeyites they gathered. They Coxeyites they gathered. And stole a train of freight-cars in the morn. Seven Devils Song Hannibal F. In , Johnson published the lyrics to this song and numerous other songs and poems in his book of poems and songs Poems of Idaho.

The melody is given as that of Oh Susanna. Chorus: Then dig boys dig, let us the rich ore find. And open up in handsome style, the Seven Devils mines. This is the earliest known song of Idaho. A melody is not known for this song, but it could very plausibly have been sung as a dirge. Note: a subsequent search of that newspaper issue failed to find the song. First lines of verse: A cruel massacre took place of late upon the plains. Song of the Miner E.

Cooke and Bert Simms, early s? Venn collected it from Mrs. Song of Idaho Rev. Ruddock This four stanza song with chorus is from the A. Olsen and N. Ruddock papers at the Idaho State Historical Society. The song is a tribute to the rich farmland around Nampa, made arable by irrigation from canals completed in the early s.

First lines of verse: Kind Providence our lot may cast, and yet we have to chooses at last. Are you inquiring where to go? Come down to southern Idaho. Song of the Teton B. Smith and David E. Driggs , on Sept. The song celebrates both the beauty of the Teton Valley and the arrival of the railroad. Also see Driggs Railroad Song. First lines of verse: There is not in this world a valley so sweet, as this vale of the Tetons in beauty complete.

The sheet music cover shows a photo of a marching band musician above "E. Carey — Music House — Moscow, Idaho. Sheet music for this song found in the Oakland, California public library was published by the Head Music Publishing Co. The silly story line tells of an Irish cowboy singing Wearing of the Green to "a litle Indian maiden.

Star Valley Rose unknown so ngwriter, late s? Dwelt a lovely Rose Morgan, the sweetest girl I know. Stump Rancher Blues unknown songwriter, s? Basically, the old timer would simply "sit me down and whittle. This rare song about sheepherding is in the University of Idaho Special Collections. The song likely is from the late s or early s when there were large herd of sheep in the area.

On the bank of old Snake River in the state of Idaho. First set of lyrics: For we are loyal to Tammany School. We ever try not to break the rules. Teton Ditchdiggers Song songwriter unknown, ca. Carter and Clara B. Steele A rendition by E. Teton Peaks George Smith, ca. President Driggs was the founder of the town named after him and a senior Mormon leader.

Although the song post-dates , it is included in this bibliography because it is such a wonderful parody on the state song and life in the Teton Basin of Idaho. The identity of George Smith is unknown. Sheet music is in the University of California - Los Angeles library. The song is a rant against the alleged theft of his song In Nineteen Hundred and Ninety Nine see song entry in this song bibliography by Broadway songwriters.

First line of song:. A Westerner had worked and worked for many a weary year upon a great inention and he thought success was near. Thunder Mountain Melody Clarence E. The Absent Minded Beggar reference is to an poem that Rudyard Kipling wrote and the noted fellow Englishman Arthur Sullivan set to music, to raise money for dependents of soldiers of the second Boer War The song copyrighted in is a complicated, stiff composition typical of British music of the Victorian era. Somehow, the song found its way from the British Isles to the most remote mining camp in Idaho, in time for a local variation to be composed and published in Salt Lake City in a book within a few years.

Lyrics about dynamite blasts, braying mules and drunken miners in a wild Idaho mining camp set to a formal Victorian song add a wonderful element of absurdity to the song. Chamberlain and Karl Pomeroy Harrington No songwriter or date is indicated, but since the University opened in , the song must have been written in the mid or late s. This book and its later editions are found in numerous libraries. Let none the toast decline, toast decline! To Be a Buckaroo unknown songwriter, late s? Lyrics but no melody for this song about a bucking horse and cowboy rider around Victor and Pine Creek Canyon of Eastern Idaho was published in the University of Idaho masters thesis by Thomas Cheney.

Cheney later became a noted folklore professor at Brigham Young University and the University of Utah. Cheney obtained the song from Cornelius Campbell of Swan Valley. First lines of verse: To be a buckaroo I left Victor town. I camped in Pine Creek Canyon. They called me hand me down. Trail to Idaho unknown songwriter, s? Grigsby of Comanche, Texas in An authoritative article by John Harrington Cox discusses the etiology of this very early American folksong. First lines of verse: I met the boss. He wanted me to go help drive his herd to Idaho. I told the boss it was out of my range, but if he had the price I was about to change.

Trip to Rapid River Hannibal F. The song appeared in several later publications. Johnson was a colorful character who prospected, wrote, preached and politicked for many years in the Seven Devils region. First lines of verse: It was on the twenty-fifth of March, eighteen hundred and ninety-two. There met in Council Valley a jolly mining crew. Varley First lines of verse: I want to be a farmer and with the farmers stand. A pitchfork on my shoulder and a shovel in my hand.

Unfurl Your Banners Bernard J. First lines of verse: Unfurl your banners high over all. Gird on your armour and let all people know — that we belong to the U. Walgamott in Six Decades Back Walgamott arrived in Rock Creek, Idaho on Aug. Road and a rover over the rolling plain; We are going out to Idaho and intend there to remain. They have a habit of taking your scalp unless your hair is red. Cogswell, Three verses and a chorus no music given for this tribute to the University of Idaho are in the Class of Commencement Program. Florence Corbett was one of four students two men and two women in the first graduating class of the University.

Now the veil of time is closing round our happy Senior year, a nd the hour has come for leaving School and friends to us so dear. Nevada Slim was a western singer who was active in approximately the late s or early s, but the song likely is much older. The song is a takeoff on the prior song Up in Arkansaw.

Up in Idyho. I loaned her to my brother Ben. Beal and Merle W. Wells Later in the chapter, two verses similar in form and tone are found, and perhaps they are part of the same song. While the melody is not given, the lyrics and meter strongly suggest the air of Wabash Cannonball traceable to sheet music in We put in twenty thousand a quite a lot beside. Josephy, Jr. For it is high time, for it is almost day. Come along, get out of the Wallowas, before Old Joseph kicks up a row. The price was listed on the cover as 50 cents. In , Alan Lomax at the U.

This is the earliest known English-language recording of an Idaho-specific song by an Idahoan some Nez Perce recordings predate the Stubblefield recording. Way Out in Idaho lightheartedly tells of the trials and tribulations of laborers pushing the Oregon Short Line railroad from Pocatello, Idaho to Ontario, Oregon in A recording by Rosalie Sorrels also has been issued.

Most versions use a melody similar to that of the well known cowboy ballad Sam Bass. Lyrics and melody lines for various versions have been published in many places. The variation in Westward to Paradise by Charles J. Of the trials and troubles of a guileless railroad man. This book extracted the song from the April 3, issue of the Weiser Leader newspaper. The song is a takeoff on the well known cowboy song The Girl I Left Behind Me , which in turn is an American adaptation of the classic Irish song of the same name.

The lyrics are not specifically adapted to Idaho but the song is included because it was published in the Weiser paper and the Barbours were early ranchers in Indian Valley. First lines of verse: We will swing the whip and dash the spur, and be a gallant rover. Western Federation of Miners John F.

Foner Foner found it in a set of ballads published in Miners Magazine , the official organ of the radical Western Federation of Miners union in the March, April and July, issues. The miners have a Federation, the grandest ever known, and it gives emancipation to slaves the rich men own. No written music is known for this piece. Sheet music is in the Lester S. First lines of verse: A young man came down from old Idaho to Crestline a month for to spend.