While Bartlett makes substantial additions to content in this new edition, he omits all images found in the earlier edition. In the preface, he states that this deci- sion is based on the fact that students can readily find relevant images on the Internet. It could also serve as a reference companion to a survey of Italian literature course.
The Sword and the Pen. Paperback This meticulously argued study presents and contextualizes the poetic production of a group of patrician women in Siena in the middle decades of the sixteenth cen- tury. The Sword and the Pen offers modern editions and English translations of 79 poems, some previously published by the author. Eisenbichler shows how Petrarchism becomes the means to engage in the poetic discourse of the larger community of male poets, and for these poets to express themselves distinctively on a wide variety of topics. The Sword and the Pen opens with two pieces that set the scene.
Women and men respond in tenzone, including six Sienese women whose responses raise questions of spirituality and the social restraints that prevent women from pilgrimages like those of the young student, among others. One of the interlocutors, Laudomia Forteguerri, assumes decidedly heterodox positions, only to be guided back to orthodoxy, inviting us to ponder why a young woman of social prominence would be portrayed in this way. Reliable historical information on the three poets is scarce, leaving the schol- ar to conjecture frequently. The surviving corpus of the second poet, Laudomia Forteguerri, c.
However, Alessandro Piccolomini found them signifi- cant enough to deliver a commentary on one sonnet at the Infiammati in Padova in , the first time that a work written by an Italian woman was accorded this distinction. Virginia Martini Salvi post , an able and innovative Petrarcan poet, is the most prolific of the three writers presented at length. The record of her interrogation for sedition in establishes biographic details. If her poetry did not move the French royal family, it did circulate among Italian literati, including Pietro Bembo.
Exiled to Rome in , Virginia Martini Salvi continued to campaign for influence, sending epistolary sonnets to a group of powerful cardinals. The Sword and the Pen is of general interest to the student of sixteenth cen- tury Italian culture, a unique lens that refracts the turbulent political history of Siena and Italy, the spread of religious ferment, the founding and functioning of academies official and virtual in various cities of Northern Italy, the practice of circulating texts among friends and prominent people of both genders, and the cultural roles of figures like Alessandro Piccolomini, Benedetto Varchi and Luca Contile.
Overture to the Opera. Italian Pastoral Drama in the Renaissance. The preface begins with a brief reflection on literary translation 5 , one of the primary concerns of the authors, who provide English translations of the two plays in the second half of the book, alongside the original Italian. Before plunging into the works themselves, the authors have included three essays and a comprehensive bibliography that students, especially those reading the plays for the first time, will find particularly useful.
Brand then gives a short history of Aminta, and its performance, plot and reception Both Salvadori and Brand conclude their essays with separate notes on the tactics used and choices made for translating the two dramas and 34, respectively. The shift away from Classical models provoked heated debates among theo- rists, while still managing to please audiences hungry for innovation Andrews observes that the pastoral drama was the most experimental theatrical form of its time.
Playwrights were soon testing new forms with musicians, spurred on by groups such as the Florentine Camerata , and the union of verse and music eventually gave birth in to the first opera, Dafne, by Ottavio Rinuccini, with music by Jacopo Peri and Jacopo Corsi Indeed, countless rifacimenti of the tale were made by others over the following two centuries and beyond, some with hap- pier endings than others The translations themselves go to great lengths to make sure that the sense, language and flow of the originals have been maintained.
There is no doubt that this volume will become an essential one for English-speaking students, either of Italian Studies or literary translation, as Salvadori suggests. Perhaps more impor- tantly, however, the verse translations will encourage the staging of the plays for English audiences. A Worlde of Wordes. This is clearly the case of a bilingual dictionary compiled by a sin- gle author, such as this one under review. The contents of this volume can be divided into 3 main parts: Part one forms Hermann W. Professor Haller, an eminent scholar in Italian linguistics and author of numerous crucial publications in the history of Italian language, is to be com- mended on making John Florio come alive through a convincingly-written biog- raphy and bibliography of this fascinating trailblazer.
Although apparently never setting foot on Italian soil, John Florio, son of Italian immigrants his father was a converted Jew to England, was not simply passionate about Italian and other languages. His love resulted in a number of concrete efforts, such as his didactic works in the form of dialogues intended for students with previous knowledge of Italian Firste Fruites , and Second Fruites which are dialogues based on daily activities of an English gentleman, accompanied by a collection of some Italian proverbs.
But it is the dictionaries which set Florio apart both by for the era astounding number of entries and the sources used. The edition of Worlde of Wordes contains some 74, entries drawn from sources. It is these sources which are striking: Florio chose to lemmatize not only words from limit- ed literary sources but also works of practical nature falconry, etc. Furthermore, oral sources allow him to include words which form a part of regional varieties. His is a semi-diplomatic edition based on the original printed version and the anastatic edition of The corrections introduced in this volume are listed separately.
At the end of his note to the reader, he hints at a possible addition to the dictionary, that of English-Italian equivalents. Then follow four poetic compositions to the patrons, and a list of his sources. Part three, the dictionary itself , is arranged alphabetically. Capitals indicate the Italian entry, and, as Florio says in his Note to the Reader, grammar is also present: specifically, he assumes that the first conjugation verbs, being reg- ular, do not need separate lists of forms, and therefore only the infinitive appears.
Irregular verbs are shown in forms of the first person present indicative, passato remoto and past participle, for ex. The definitions are rich, creative and will keep researchers busy for a long time. Entries include, among others, collocations, idioms, frequently used phrases, classical anthroponyms, Latinate spellings, exclamations. There is no doubt that this volume offers a close and fascinating look at one of the fundamental sources for our knowledge of English-Italian relations during the Elizabethan era which saw Italian culture and language as quintessential ele- ments of sophistication.
This is, after all, the main aim of the publications from the Lorenzo da Ponte Italian Library Series. It is a real pity that the general editors did not consider using the most up-to-date on-line technology for making this work available to a much wider public, since it has been digitized. In conclusion, this volume, a fascinating source of evidence not only about English-Italian relations, but also about English, learning and teaching vocabulary, individual linguistic creativity, encyclopedic and lexicographic interest.
Con leggerezza ed esattezza. Studi su Leopardi. Lexis: Biblioteca delle Lettere, 2. Torino: Bollati Boringhieri, Quasi unico punto di riferimento, anche materiale, fu la casa del suo editore, Stella, che pure ebbe il merito, fino ad approfittarsene a proprio vantaggio, almeno in prin- cipio, di scoprire nel giovane Giacomo non solo un autore promettente ma anche un consulente affidabile.
Modern Philosophy in Italy Edited and translated with an introduction by Brian Copenhaver and Rebecca Copenhaver. This comprehensive, and yet compact study collects, collates and concentrates in a single volume excerpts by the most eminent thinkers of modern-time Italy. Compiled with the intent to acquaint the anglophone readership with a selective and systema- tic panorama of Italian philosophers less known outside of their national confines, this conspicuous anthology presents an idiosyncratic corpus of text sorts and genres which, in their diversity, reproduce a complete picture of the era with its historical, cultural and ideological premises and prospects, its climaxes and conclusions.
The first part opens with a suc- cint afterthought on the late figure of Norberto Bobbio, in which the Copenhavers articulate the rationale behind their study, and outline the route along which their survey will unfold. With Benedetto Croce and Giovanni Gentile, the Nineteenhundreds feature the two by far most compelling and charismatic representatives of Italian idealism. As the scholars expound the development of their thoughts, they elicit their increasing disagreements which culminated in the irreconcilable discord that fol- lowed the rise of Fascism, and contributed to their ultimate schism.
From their prolific oeuvre, the scholars excerpted those writings that most strikingly exempli- fy their divergency of perspectives on the liberal and conservative front. Upon initiating the reader into the theories that the Italian philosophers ela- borate at length in their writings, the subsequent segment gathers the primary lite- rature thus far addressed and analyzed, whose exceptional translations are com- plemented by a rich apparatus of notes and explanatory remarks.
The anthology ends with a detailed bibliography, and two separate indices of names and subjects that facilitate the consultation of this voluminous and valuable collection which constitutes an indispensible reference and an imperative reading both within and beyond the anglophone world. The Marquis of Roccaverdina. Translated by Santi V. Boston: Dante University Press, Pp The Marquis of Roccaverdina, a translation by Santi V. Santi V. As such, choosing a language that, while being accessible to the Italian reader, would not in any way interfere with the verisimilitude of the characters in their novels, was of key importance.
While the language of choice in the settings depicted in the majority of their works would most certainly have been Sicilian dialect, in no way did their deci- sion to use standard Italian interfere with the realistic essence of their characters, as they were able to retain some key syntactical elements of the Sicilian dialect. Making the language intelligible to non dialect speakers and at the same time maintaining the semblance of a true spoken language, Capuana and the other Verist writers were able to safeguard the verisimilitude of their characters.
Translating a novel like Il marchese di Roccaverdina is a much greater endeavor than just transposing a text from one language to another: one must possess a great knowledge of English, Italian and Sicilian dialect in order to translate the above mentioned language structure and retain its uniqueness. Buscemi seems to overcome this obstacle by maintaining certain key words in Sicilian dialect or Italian.
For a similar reason, cavaliere, which translates to knight, has been retained in its anglicized form: cavalier. In the same introduction Buscemi summarizes the con- tribution of Giovanni Verga and Federico De Roberto to the movement and con- cludes with some essential biographical notes on Capuana complete with a description of his literary career and the fortune of Il marchese di Roccaverdina.
The end of the volume features the Notes. These include a description of some of the historical figures mentioned in the novel, such as Ferdinand II, that might not be as familiar to a North American reader, as well as the translation of some Italian or Latin words that Buscemi decided not to translate in the text such as onze, tarocco, maluomini, etc. In conclusion Santi V. La fine di qualcosa.
Scrittori italiani tra due secoli. Roma: Giulio Perrone Editore, Il critico letterario e lo scrittore di narrativa e teatro convivono e dialogano in Paolo Di Paolo. Nel romanzo Mandami tanta vita lo scrittore si sbarazza del presente e si rin- tana in un luogo lontano del passato. I due protagonisti, Piero Gobetti e Moraldo, si muovono tra Torino e Parigi in pieno fascismo, durante i giorni di carnevale del Moraldo vive una giovinezza pacata, crede di poter sottomettere tutto al controllo della ragione, si nutre di sogni, di utopie e nulla ai suo occhi, ancora ingenui, sembra impossibile.
I due coetanei percorrono strade diverse, parallele, che riusciranno appena a sfiorarsi senza mai congiungersi. Partendo da questa lettura, Di Paolo si muove con grande intelligenza critica a segnalare la complessa rete di rimandi e intrecci tra i testi, con anticipazioni e ritorni, riprese e variazioni. Di Biase.
The Diary of Elio Schmitz. Scenes from the World of Italo Svevo. Leicester, UK: Troubador Press, Carmine G. Like Sir Richard F. Burton, the translator of The Arabian Nights who spent his last years in Trieste, Schmitz reveals the rich historical connections between Trieste and the broader Mediterranean. The images include photos of the people Schmitz mentions, of his manuscripts, and of his gravestone, whose Italian and Hebrew inscription are both translated.
Di Biase has returned to the original manu- scripts and fixes several small transcription errors that remain in the Italian edi- tions, edited by Bruno Maier and, later, Luca De Angelis. Schmitz also motivated his brother, having him sign promissory notes that would require him to finish his plays. The diary follows the thoughts of a reflective and restless young man who was particularly sensitive to his now famous brother, to his complex Triestine milieu, and to his historical times more general- ly. What did it matter to me to see anything at all?
These lines, along with the entire work, are well worth pondering. Carteggio A cura di Simone Magherini. Ben 40 sono state scritte da Palazzeschi e 15 da Soffici. Inoltre 42 lettere sono concentrate tra il e il , negli anni della breve stagione del futurismo fiorentino. Come doccia, ben inteso, non come pane quoti- diano, sono troppo fiorentino purtroppo. Sono diciotto anni circa che desidero un mese o due di lazzaronismo completo senza essermelo mai potuto pagare. Seconda serie dei 24 cervelli Marina di Ginosa: the swamp became a town. The Roman School has a long-term engagement with Urban Morphology studies.
New challenging case studies collected from new emerging urban contexts are interesting opportunities to test theories, readings and design tools. So there still is a valuable, bright and internationally relevant lesson from Rome and its School of Urban Morphology. Despite the recurrent problems European cities can be still considered historical centers of innovation, places for economic, political and social engagements and grounds for cultural transformations. The ISUF Italy International Congress will be an opportunity to discuss the criteria for designing in the historical city and the knowledge tools which are able to establish cultural and operational mutual relationships between the urban context and the historical urban fabric of cities under transformation.
Recently, architectural and urban strategies for reuse, recovery, transformation are among the design and research themes mostly considered by the contemporary architectural culture, according to different cultural perspectives: aesthetic, artistic, theoretical, design-based, social and economic driven. Contemporary historical settlements are urban organisms whose survival, transformation, management requires complex design actions that should be undertaken making use of survey and analysis that integrate different knowledge and components with the scope to consciously address the new interventions, whether they are pursued through design solutions of continuity and discontinuity toward their past urban identity.
Therefore, the scope of the ISUF Italy International Congress is to share knowledge collecting studies, research, design and methodological tools on the contemporary condition of historical urban fabrics revealing the sense of research and innovation in their biological behavior. Today, it is part of an immaterial circuit where each project refers to other equally abstract projects without place, despite the contrary claims of articles and technical reports.
Of course one can agree with the present state of things, but I believe that the studies of Urban Morphology contain, in their DNA, a critique and a proposal. ISBN Yet Rome, turning to the theme of this conference, is a lesson in Urban Morphology aimed at the project. This fact is evident if we consider not only the continuity of the ancient substratum within the modern city, but also the role of the notion of type: not only the basic building in pre-modern fabrics, where the constructions were not designed, but, until recent times, were built on the basis of the current, shared and consolidated notion of house.
Here the design of buildings and aggregates surfaced, so to speak, from deposits of a shared memory.. Tools that, of course updated, could be very useful to our students. I believe that the studies of Urban Morphology can allow us, in the contemporary condition, to recognise three points of great relevance. They propose a truth, even if provisional and coexistent with other truths of which we must take note and which we must respect. Urban Morphology suggests , in my opinion, an organic unity between method, reading and design.
Of course, the contemporary territory is home to endless contradictions, it is no longer a true organism. Yet the recognition, through a careful reading, of its characters could show the need and the intention to establish the bonds that have been missed, restoring, where it is appropriate and possible, the severed links. The form of Rome, from the operating substratum to modern transformations, teaches us how each changing phase is an update, every new life cycle an adaptation to new conditions.
We do not inhabit a world of fragments. Every fragment could be a part of a new whole, it could constitute the seed of a future life of the cities and of the territory. Hence the idea, in my opinion new and fertile, that any legacy of decisions taken against the form of the city, does not exist in the built world. Every reading, choice, project, however contradictory, has been a contribution to take into account, of which we need to grasp the potential congruence, even if we cannot share today. For this reason, the third point has to do with the economy, in its broadest sense, with the wise use of the resources at our disposal.
The Roman historical fabrics, its basic and special buildings, still teaches us a lesson of wisdom and sobriety, even in the examples of the monuments. I therefore believe that we can open this conference with optimism, thinking that our work can, together with the efforts being made in the same direction in other disciplines, contribute to the formation of a new architecture. Learning from Rome Paolo Carlotti Dip. Che svelandoci sempre nuovi particolari, non rinuncia a sorprendere.
Today these form and space phenomena are as good as they were yesterday and will always be good because they proved to be true to order and in time revealed their inherent beauty. Barizza, La forma tangibile, FrancoAngeli, Milano , p Moderna nel senso di aderente nel presente alle istanze contemporanee. Progetti architettonici tanto dalla valenza strategica urbana quanto capaci di esprimere nella forma la sintesi tra tettonica e funzione.
La lezione di Roma, come scrive in un recentissimo libro Elisabetta Barizza 9 Barizza, p. Barizza, La forma tangibile, FrancoAngeli, Milano , p. Strappa editor , Observations on urban growth, FarncoAngeli, Milano , pp. Caratteri e comportamenti edilizi, geometrie regolari e irregolari che spesso rivelano fasi diverse di accrescimento edilizio. The high visitor numbers that attended the ISUF conference begged a question: why do so many scholars still look for answers to the great problems plaguing authentically modern architectural designs in the lithic memory of Rome?
We never fail to be surprised by the excitement that every initiative that takes place in Rome arouses, even though its civitas always manages to reduce any international event to a local level; it is astounding how Rome fascinates those who look to the past for motivation for the future. Rome is not a modern city in the collective imagination, modern in the sense that it meets contemporary demands in the present. It makes no difference if only a small percentage of people manage to achieve it6, as long as that city and that architecture remain a dream for most people; the important thing is to keep hoping.
And yet America still represents the place where each one dreams of making his or her fortune. These architectural plans were as strategically important from an urban point of view as they were able to capture the harmony between tectonics and function in their form. These models were light-years away from each other and from the image of modernity embodied by the Eternal City that, nevertheless, over its thousand-year history, has pursued its own idea of modernity, a modernity that always had to take into account the immanent nature of its imposing lithic past.
As Elisabetta Barizza9 writes in her recently published book Barizza, p. The lesson Rome teaches us is to be found within its walls, not the city walls but the many walls that make up its houses and urban fabric, observed and studied during their slow yet continuous evolution.
In , the world population was roughly one billion people, which was to double by the s. Hans Kollhoff, Il progetto contemporaneo nel tessuto storico dei grandi centri urbani, Roma, Fac. Architettura, 19 ottobre ISBN That is what we learn from Rome. It seemed a way forward, one of the many, perhaps, that could be tried on the way to a new modernity in keeping with history. It is a lesson made up of signs and meaning, of fragmented forms that are serially and organically put back together, a society made up of what are sometimes ancillary buildings — to paraphrase Kahn — within a fabric that consumes itself whilst nevertheless regenerating itself; tectonic expressions of a know-how that has combined form and meaning, a monument with a home, a courtyard with a city square and a building with urban fabric without having to forgo the innovation and harmony between parts that make it right, that make it beautiful.
He was referring to an overlapping image, to the right and wish of a creator to persuade the viewer, to bring him over to his side, convincing him of the validity of the result. However, whilst placing the various parts of the content to be viewed and used in a hierarchy within a building, he asserted the importance of tradition, of the understanding of the features of a particular place and time, not far from the Jungian idea of a collective subconscious. Key terms in Urban Morphology — bands of pertinence, axes and routes, masonry framework and fringe belts — are therefore as recognisable in European cities as they are in American ones; they are features and building behaviours, both symmetrical and asymmetrical shapes that often reveal different phases of urban growth; building renovations and new roads overlapping each other and built to connect new buildings and new focal points in places that were and sometimes still are marginal.
They are the signs that appear like parts of an urban machine, materials that can be used to reconstruct a new kaleidoscopic aesthetic answer to city architecture. The uninterrupted transformation of old cities raises numerous problems in terms of both research and action. Some such problems pertain to the way we apprehend and understand the structures of the existing built environment.
Others concern architectural design in projects aimed at refurbishing heritage buildings or transforming of the historical urban fabrics. Others, still, relate to heritage management and the aesthetic control in historical precincts. These issues can be addressed relying upon either an affective or a cognitive approach.
The affective domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivations, and attitudes. The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. One easily has an emotional response to the urban space, as the latter triggers memories or allows new experiences. But one never fully captures the complexity of the built environments and the urban landscapes. The general public has a very limited knowledge of the morphologic complexity of the urban environments.
Going about their daily errands, urbanites do not have, nor do they need, a clear understanding of the syntactic relations between the components of the built landscape, leaving aside the rules governing their transformation over time. What we really see, and our level of consciousness looking at existing built environments, depends on the particular way we direct our psychic attention.
Attention is a level of affective characterisation. Our personal interests and cultural taste determines what we choose to look at. What we are able to see also depends on the concepts we use to interpret the perceived reality. They only perceive the topological relation. Laypeople and architects do not look at the built environment or perceive the urban landscape the same way. The difference is cultural. Design methods rested on the imitation of previous models.
The characteristics and production of works of art were considered the sole objects of interest while other components of the human-built environment were simply ignored. Know-why is a system of explicit knowledge shaped through learning by studying. The life process within the built structures underwent behavioural and psychosociologic analysis. Most architects devoting their time to architectural research tackled these subject-matters, even if non-architect scientists generally did a better job.
However, the teaching of architectural design continued to rest, and still largely rests today, on traditional apprenticeship training methods around the studio. It gives rise to a great diversity of approaches and confused theories. There are theories about many aspects of architecture, but there is no single consistent theory of architecture.
The vague term art is often evoked to cover the confusing situation. Sometimes, one has the near certitude of touching the border of art. But the built human environment, seen as a whole in its geographical distribution and historical process, has almost nothing to do with art. To use an analogy — of all the spoken or written communication material, very little represents poetry. It is obvious that, in building, a certain latent potential of art can be freed, but such a case represents more the exception than the rule.
Architectural buildings designed in Israel by Neumann in the sixties strongly differed from the prevailing International Style. Based on uncommon types of spatial subdivision associated with the Platonists and Archimedeans polyhedrons, it represented a major contribution to the renewal of architectural language. In my teaching, I have always advocated for a cognitive approach to architectural and urban design practice, based on a close relationship between morphological analysis of the built environment and design process, given that every architectural project should be designed as a transformation project of the existing built environment and evaluated from the standpoint of its contribution to its global quality.
As a creative activity, architecture necessarily depends on intuition, but, as Neumann used to say, the mechanisms of intuition only work in the presence of certain preconditions, the most important being a thorough knowledge of the subject. It is obvious that young architects and many young architecture professors still adopt the cult of innovation and the practice of imitating fashionable architects. The only difference is that they adhere to a new, a different sub-culture taste. One does not have to invest effort and time in patient analysis to understand built environment morphology and syntax.
The hallmark of Camp is the spirit of extravagance. It is the attempt to do something extraordinary, never seen before and fantastically glamorous. Putting mechanical systems outside of the building envelope, which should ensure its weather protection, does not make sense. Yet, the Camp sensibility does not care about commonsense. Most Decon projects were, in fact, very ordinary boxes to witch the name architect had attached enormous faux structures — girders and columns and beams and other interesting decorations that held absolutely nothing, were enormously expensive to build, and violated the laws of gravity in every respect.
In short, Deconstructivism was a toy, a piece of giant, non-sense sculpture affordable only by the superrich. These architectural works are the result of a purely affective approach to design. Unfortunately, computer-assisted design, which enabled visualisation and building of the most crooked forms, has made architectural stupidity and extravagance only easier.
Architects and urban designers who work in centuries-old cities face another kind of problem: the constraints bound to architectural heritage preservation and the rules set by local public authorities for controlling the transformations in so-called historical precincts. These two basic questions further confront an evolving ideological context. The concept of built heritage evolved progressively during the last two centuries. It ISBN Lately, many buildings of Le Corbusier were registered on the World heritage list. This is highly paradoxical since Le Corbusier was a bitter enemy of architectural and urban heritage.
Le Corbusier was one of the most dangerous malefactor of the twentieth century. He tried to destroy urban civilisation and he almost succeeded. Within that framework, the perspective on the assessment of the built heritage evolved to another level. It extended from the architectural objects to larger scale anthropic structures in human settlements. Cultural landscape refers to the human use of place, it acknowledges the fact that built environments express human attitudes and values of the past.
This constitutes a new way of looking at the territory that emphasises the historic relations between communities, their activities, and the natural environment. The generous extension of the concept of built heritage also conveyed some serious ideological drifts, an adverse impact that has not yet been fully measured.
The latter leads to an abusive aesthetic value granted to all material forms of human expression. In these current circumstances, it is necessary to understand the limit of validity of ideas and methods underpinning the traditional heritage management practices. The prescriptive and normative doctrine, originally associated with the preservation of historical monuments, becomes irrelevant with regard to an expanded conception of the built heritage, and incompatible with our evolving view of history and perception of time.
Further, the concepts and methods developed for preserving architectural objects prove unsuitable for the preservation of urban and territorial heritage. Similarly, methods and mechanisms devised for the conservation of natural sites and historical gardens cannot be extended to the category of cultural landscapes. To the extent that value assessments are made by a wide group of stakeholders, rather than by traditional preservation professionals such as Art and Architecture historians, these surveys are useful for understanding sociological and cultural conditions underpinning perceptions towards heritage and its preservation.
Sometimes, it refers to abstract moral principles, sometimes to a physical characteristic observed in one object. There are no clear distinctions for instance between utility value and economic value. The typologies of proposed heritage values reveal themselves totally absurd, quite simply because they are not based on mutually exclusive categories. He explained that science cannot decide questions of value, that values cannot be intellectually arbitrated at all because they lie outside the realm of truth and falsehood.
Bertrand Russell, Science and religion. Such prescriptions, of which explanatory statements are not explicit since the character is never explicitly described, are unenforceable and should not resist a legal challenge. Architectural projects are hence submitted to a highly discretionary approval process, entrusted to advisory councils on cultural heritage. In practice, members of advisory board can veto any projects not corresponding to their personal taste.
Therefore, their decisions are highly unpredictable. The worst architectural intervention could be approved, the best projects are likely to be rejected. Built environments are submitted to an ongoing transformation process. They are the product of continuous adaptation to the evolving needs, lifestyle and constructive practices of society. Further, even high-value historical structures are subjected to the material lifecycle of building: interventions are thence de rigueur.
It entails that the preservation of architectural and urban form should not be envisioned restrictively and be concerned with only a minority of built objects, either deemed worthy of strict conservation or candidate for demolition. It is a social responsibility of all architects and urban designers to engage with heritage preservation, and with the built environment more broadly, on those terms. These rules can be discovered through the theoretical reconstruction of their historical formation and transformation processes.
Questa scelta scaturisce anche da ISBN Si tratta di un suggestivo saggio di analisi urbana che deve molto al maestro del suo autore, Gianfranco Caniggia, al quale si deve per inciso una memorabile opera su Como. I quartieri sono separati da aree verdi, parchi, giardini o campi coltivati, formando una sorta di gigantesco mosaico insediativo.
Tornando a Sigmund Freud egli afferma che, se osserviamo il Palatino, possiamo con gli occhi della mente vedere che, accanto alle rovine dei Palazzi Imperiali, questi stessi, ancora integri, si ergono in tutta la loro imponenza. Di memorie e di pensieri. Anche nella letteratura le pagine di Quer pasticciaccio brutto de via Merulana di Carlo Emilio Gadda restituiscono una Roma reale e al contempo fantastica, casi alcuni passi dei romanzi di Pier Paolo Pasolini Una vita violenta e Ragazzi di vita.
Anche questo progetto non ebbe seguito, se non nel Corviale di Mario Fiorentino che ne rappresenta un frammento. Una tradizione elevata fondata anche sul fatto che era nata nella prima scuola di architettura italiana. Costruire opere moderne ISBN La congruenza tra la tipologia originale e la sua traduzione in volumi, spazi e particolari costruttivi e decorativi venne infranta.
Il Palazzo di Montecitorio - dal quale la metafora pasoliniana del Palazzo come roccaforte isolata del potere - fu progettato nel da Gian Lorenzo Bernini per la famiglia Ludovisi. E1lissi, cerchi e rettangoli davano vita a un insieme di forme che anticipavano di qualche anno la geometria frattale di Benoft Mandelbrot.
Va anche ricordato che a quel progetto non corrispondeva ancora una tecnica costruttiva adeguata, per cui esso venne considerato troppo ardito, anticonvenzionale da tutti i punti di vista. A conclusione di questo itinerario, per mia scelta parziale, accidentale e frammentario, vorrei proporre alcune considerazioni che ritengo di un certo rilievo.
Inoltre Roma nacque come una federazione di nuclei insediativi urbani su colli diversi. Civil, Environmental, Architectural Engineering, Univ. This paper investigates the composition of heterogeneous fragments, excerpts from the inventory of collective memory, and the resulting unpredictable architecture in an urban context. The project focuses entirely on the city of Rome, its classical antiquities, its Renaissance and Baroque works and different branches of modernism found there.
The experimental setting, that some may deem fantastical, is derived from the superimposition of an existing environment and works introduced from other contexts. Introduction The representation of a space in which coherence of place and time is not a requirement was exemplarily practiced by the artist Canaletto in in a painting in which the project of the Rialto Bridge over the Grand Canal in Venice developed two centuries beforehand by the famous architect Palladio is represented together with two buildings that are part of the city of Vicenza, that is, Palazzo Chiericati and the Basilica.
The inventions resulting from the union of individual architectures into unitary visions that do not organically belong together due to shared birth or co-ordinated development is a particular iconography in which buildings abandon the passive and ornamental function thanks to which we have got to know them and reacquire an actively elevated role in the project.
The buildings represented in the perspective representation of the scene have a physical appearance permitting precise evaluations of the choices to be applied in as far as they affect the themes of the private and above all the public space, the volumes, the surfaces, the materials, and the technologies. A similar procedure that tests the possibility of enhancement of the context and the monument was started by the greatest architect of the era of romantic classicism, Karl Friedrich Schinkel, and can be seen in one of his best known designs called Large composition, how Milan Cathedral should be situated So the monument of the Lombard city is represented on a hill that overlooks a large city on the coast, perhaps Trieste, in order to test a new version of the relationship, here between architecture and nature.
Robert, William Marlow, and many other artists painted representations that were syntheses of real information and imagined components. At the start of the nineteenth century, Karl Friedrich Schinkel painted views of architecture immersed in scenic romantic landscapes that were sometimes re-elaborations from his travel notes based on real building components but conceived and assembled by himself in free compositions.
He interpreted the landscape and composed images for his own world. From the very start, he made a strict choice and believed in his own vision with sacred religiosity. Semerani , pp. Several contemporary artists have become experienced in the study of place by varying real elements in it, that is, in the analysis of the imaginary environment deriving from. The digital designer Anton Reppon, Russian by birth and American by adoption, has been praised by the critics for a series of images in which he simulates new environments for eleven important buildings in New York, masterpieces of contemporary architecture in the American metropolis that are imagined as being isolated in a desolate inhospitable context, in the desert or on the open sea, becoming unknown and therefore unreachable.
The Canadian photographer Chris Helgren, whose studio is in Toronto, has committed himself to an experience on the theme of combining contributions from different times in the same place. The artist shapes an experimental environment by redesigning places and cities using slippage in time and between places, a shaping that is not real but imagined, and is possible albeit with a little variation. Methodology Part of the laboratory experience matured in the teaching of the Urban and Architecture Composition II course regular professor Enrico Pietrogrande, co-workers Alessandro Dalla Caneva and Nicola Sartorello, academic year on the Civil Engineering - Architecture degree course at the University of Padua in Italy Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering has closely approached the above-mentioned experiences by providing for the development of projects by the students in composing collages that show images of possible urban contexts in the city.
The developments are real and true urban scenes starting by inserting architectures, preferably monumental and freely chosen from the formal stock offered by history, in a fragment of urban fabric autonomously decided by the student with no conditions attached. The buildings of the piazzetta San Marco, the church of the Salute, but above all the Palladian architecture of the three churches of San Giorgio Maggiore, Le Zitelle, and the Redentore become the buildings favoured in the construction of an imagined Venice affected by a dialogue from distance.
Rossi did not hide how much the formal operation staged using the theatre of the world certainly referred to the Venetian Capriccio. Canaletto proposing the insertion of Palladian buildings in a real place like the Rialto Bridge highlights a logical formal operation in which the meanings that unexpectedly emerge from the composition represent the true meaning and authenticity of reality.
Rossi , pp. Consequently, in the experience proposed in these pages the beautiful is not investigated by the application of schemas or principles but trusts its own representation to its evocation, its rhythm, its view, and to its movement, using the stated purpose of communicating the meanings and reawakening memories in order to rediscover the connection between reality and imagination. Quatremere De Quincy , p. Contessi , made of inert fragments of reality such as towers, churches, town halls, chimneys, and schools, emptied of the presence of mankind but paradoxically revealing an intense interior life responding to our emotive, symbolic, and ideal investments.
Rossi , p. Therefore, this imagined reality coincides with the nature of the form, a form that through its size, proportions, and relationships knows how to restore the fundamental reason that caused it. The most important results seem to be the ability of the compositional game to lead to the production of a multiplicity of images in which formal eclecticism combines historically diverse objects and translates them into the evocation of unexpected meanings, which is far from a search for originality.
It is remarkable that forms that do not seem to be more meaningful since they are linked to a particular moment in history, recontextualised, make their meaning recognisable, or assuming the new position within the context, they produce a transformation of the meaning that makes them extraordinarily actual in the present.
However, the essence of Aldo Rossi is really appropriation, that of the use of historical forms, the forms of the past, recomposed so that their meaning is changed, brought up to date, so that they are suddenly rediscovered. Monestiroli , p. Applications Four developments in the city of Rome are now proposed. Rome suspended between the dome of St.
The Reichstag and St. So the Reichstag and St. Certain elements of architecture such as St. The Reichstag building from Berlin has nothing to do with the history of Rome but the unusual effect is even more evident precisely because of this and the emergence of architectural meanings and values inside the composition is also evident. This aspect constitutes the original moment of the entire urban composition. The meanings that emerge from the composition are more interesting than the stylistic and functional aspects: the city is the place where the experience of life as lived by mankind is represented.
The formal logical experience that students Carlotta Picci and Damiano Ricca achieve is composed of the insertion of a well-known historic form, Palazzo Vecchio in Piazza della Signoria in the city of Florence, within a picturesque view of the eighteenth-century urban landscape in Rome Figure 2. The students Chiara Pomes and Lorenzo Piccinini confronted another place identifying Rome, the Piazza del Campidoglio, by changing the backdrop perspective of the piazza, that is, Palazzo Senatorio, which was consolidated in the structuring of the public space desired by Pope Paul III and planned by Michelangelo between and Figure The perception of another building, Palazzo Madama, which stands in Piazza Castello in Turin, opens various opportunities to conclude the space, new relationships between the Roman context and the baroque architecture that Filippo Juvarra designed to cover the medieval building.
Lastly, Elisa Castagna and Eric Cavallin centred attention on on the Piazza di Spagna in order to evaluate the effect produced in the heart of the historic-artistic Rome by the presence of distinctly contemporary forms such as one of the towers of the Neuer Zollhof complex developed by Frank O. Conclusion Architecture is a spatial experience that we face in our daily lives in the real world. We have lost the habit of comparing ourselves in this experience, often considering the city and its human works to be a foreign fact since the habit makes us insensitive to the meaning of things so it seems obvious and entirely natural to be immersed inside the spaces in which we live every day and that the forms architecture takes have built according to the measure of human life.
Leonini , pp. The city possesses its own character that cannot be evaluated by a purely social or functional analysis but has to be above all considered from the formal point of view. As Aldo Rossi reminds us, the ability of the project to unite the logical aspect of architecture with the poetic aspect represents the highest form of realism, the only way to relate the real experience of ISBN For the old Masters the city was built according to aesthetic principles and so they worried about arranging the buildings according to determined sizes and proportions, more evidently in the main places in the city.
The aim was to make that monumental meaning manifest itself in space due to which a collectivity recognised in it the symbolic and emotional values that produced it. The Acropolis in Athens and the Field of Miracles in Pisa have taught us that the expressive force of form depends on the free but mathematically established disposition of buildings in relation to each other.
The architectural project today should be oriented more than ever to operating inside or on the edge of the historic city, considering the relationships that the forms establish with the pre-existing historical environment. This means thinking of the project not as an autonomous or isolated entity but an architectural fact that is placed in relation to other parts of the city.
In this way the project is conceived to build an idea of urban landscape in which the experience of emotional life by mankind does not feel excluded or even worse alienated but may inhabit that place. In fact, the city is credible if its forms manage to restore or represent the values in which a collectivity recognises itself and the city manages to enrich itself in the multiple layers of meaning which are then stripped away when it is treated as a simple value of use or merchandise for exchange.
References Arisi, F. Contessi, G. Focillon, H. Giedion, S. Leonini, L. Esperienza delle cose Marietti, Genova. Monestiroli, A. Il progetto del monumento tra memoria e invenzione Edizioni Gabriele Mazzotta, Milan. Quatremere de Quincy, A. Dizionario storico di architettura Marsilio, Venice. Rossi, A. Aldo Rossi. Disegni Skira editore, Milan. Semerani, L. Sestieri, G. Venezia, F. Gehry between and They are the territories with the not understandable structure and history of forming, unplanned unpredictable in development. Fringe belts still contain original samples of unique civil architecture, and more over some traditional industries, gardens, etc.
Old times, functional processes evidently leaved imprints in the forms of individual house holdings as well. The comparative analyses of modern renovate projects shows similar attitudes toward understanding of city structure. Thus, understanding of laws of urban gaps forming will allow professionals to compose strategies of the urban renovation taking into account modern requirements for the city environment.
Methods of research and protection of cultural heritage sites were created. Historical science usually examines architectural objects, existing urban design ensembles, and historic towns on a certain stage of development, whereas applied research and practical urban planning focuses on functional areas, structure, and infrastructure of populated areas.
It is possible to integrate and divide areas of different historical periods, functional and technological content with conscious planning of buffer structure-saving areas. This system can be seen as an instrument for preservation of historic urban areas, landscape, architectural, and preservation sites in the city structure, as well as for overcoming spatial segregation. Each of the periods leaves characteristic, recognizable image of the city structure and system of regulations imposed on urban planning. In a sense, optimal morphological structure is a component of sustainable development of populated areas, for which the humanity began struggling consciously only in the last quarter of the twentieth century.
The concept of a modern city — a dense city, protecting natural environment around and within itself, solving its environmental, transportation and other issues not at the expense of continuous absorption of vacant land, but at the cost of structuring and technologizing urban and agglomeration processes based on coexistence of cultures and biotopes. It is viewed from the standpoint of environmental or at least functional imprint in the region.
Scale and globalism of the process suggests that currently in urban reconstruction two fundamentally different methodological stages can be observed. As a separate goal should be regarded the restoration of native eco-systems through functioning of the city and non-exhaustion of natural resources while combining spaces, biotypes and cultures. Methodology of technocracy, which continues to live today, at least in the regulatory and procedural documents, is based on the fact that natural processes of city-systems development including social life, relative freedom of the economy, and their material embodiment in the city environment are determined by planning and construction industry.
At a time when urban life was treated as a conveyor belt and daily life and culture as derivatives of industrial processes, ideas of spatial self-organization were prohibited. While the Machine represents an age of homogenization, Life is an age of pluralism and differences. Thus, the architecture of Life is an age of differences expression. There comes the age of intercultural interaction, where a system of values and lifestyle of the West and other countries come to coexistence, symbiosis.
The doctrine of Humanism, which made the man a rational being secondary only to God and gave him control over the living and the natural world, ISBN Kurokawa states that the question of human survival, even from only an environmental perspective, depends entirely on the ability to co-exist with the other life forms and eco-systems on the planet. Il volume si basa su una serie di seminari organizzati dal William and Katherine Devers Program in Dante Studies per il settimo centenario della nascita di Francesco Petrarca.
I primi tre interventi che aprono il libro insistono nel presentare l'immagine di un Petrarca che in maniera consapevole e premeditata cerca di cancellare i debiti che lo legano al grande poeta che lo ha preceduto, Dante Alighieri, proprio nel momento in cui sviluppa una poetica che si oppone in maniera sostanziale al dantismo. Theodore J. Secondo Cachey Petrarca arriverebbe a sostenere che Dante era un falso profeta e che non era un poeta Albert R. Teodolinda Barolini nel suo intervento si concentra sulla natura metafisica della poesia petrachesca, non in quanto soluzione filosofica, ma come risposta pratica ai problemi posti dalla natura temporale della voce poetica sottolineata da Petrarca.
Le preoccupazioni metafisiche di Petrarca emergerebbero soprattutto nelle prime poesie del Canzoniere , e lo porterebbero a ridimensionare notevolmente la materia erotica in favore di una meditazione sulla subordinazione dell'io poetico alla dimensione temporale e molteplice della vita. Come suggeriscono gli stessi curatori, il rapporto tra Dante e Petrarca andrebbe approfondito ulteriormente includendo nel confronto Boccaccio.
Su questo piano appare necessario un approfondimento capace di ricostruire la posizione di Dante e Petrarca nel contesto delle grandi discussioni teologiche e filosofiche del Trecento. A New Life of Dante. Revised and updated edition. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, Nel riproporre, a quasi dieci anni di distanza dalla prima edizione, la sua fortunata biografia di Dante, Bemrose non ha apportato sostanziali modifiche al suo lavoro.
Il lavoro parte dalla premessa, condivisibile, che negli ultimi dieci anni non sono emersi documenti tali da rivoluzionare la biografia dantesca xi. Cangrande della Scala, Guido da Polenta, Moroello Malaspina, Guido da Batifolle, Margherita di Brabante, del resto, compaiono puntualmente nella biografia di Bemrose, ma chi fossero questi individui, quali fossero le loro idee politiche e, in particolare, quale fosse la natura dei loro rapporti con Dante sono questioni cui forse poteva essere rivolta una qualche attenzione.
Per concludere, quindi, il volume di Bemrose risulta una pregevole e stimolante introduzione alle opere di Dante, cui forse avrebbe giovato un aggiornamento critico e storiografico. A cura di Roberta Morosini, con la collaborazione di Andrea Cantile. Firenze: Mauro Pagliai Editore, Il volume rappresenta quindi nella sua interezza un notevole elemento di stimolo e di apertura verso un approfondimento indagativo pluridirezionale, vista la ricchezza di elementi e di dati interpretativi forniti. Each bite is delightful and the service is smooth, moving from one dish to another so easily that any inconsistency is hardly noticeable.
The offerings are varied and wide-ranging, but not exhaustive. However, the Fiordespina-Bradamante incident is central to Hopeless Love mostly in an organizational sense, linking works that precede the two romance epics with works that follow them. The first chapter explores the antecedents of Bradamante, the object of queer female desire in both the Innamorato and the Furioso.
DeCoste does not elaborate, however, and thus misses the opportunity to make a thematic connection: these contrary attitudes towards female autonomy and eros are typical of the two authors, and remain consistent in their characterizations of Bradamante and Fiordespina, as well as in their depiction of queer female desire. These situations are resolved in an Ovidian mode when the fictive male is transformed, through divine intervention, into an authentic man. The brief section on female hagiography that ends the chapter is helpful in establishing cross-dressing and queer female desire as motifs, but seems otherwise extraneous.
This expectation enables Boiardo to imply completion of his tale even while interrupting it; he also utilizes hopeless love to represent the manifold crises — narrative, historical, personal — facing him when he stopped writing his poem. Indeed, Orlando furioso consistently contains and punishes female desire, whereas Orlando innamorato consistently affirms it. One might almost say that for Boiardo, no female desire is queer, and for Ariosto, all female desire is queer, unless it is represents a response or a submission to male desire.
If anything, the comedies appear to be in dialogue with the cantari, with which they share conventional endings. Hopeless Love is necessary reading for anyone interested in the kaleidoscope of sexuality present in Italian Renaissance literature. Paris: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, The eleven articles that constitute the collection are organized chronologically.
Some are in Italian, others in French. Italian sources are included in the original language with accompanying French translations where applicable. These individual studies follow an august introductory essay by Anna Fontes Baratto who provides an overview of major classical and medieval authors on amicitia, as well as their contribution to the tradition of related literature and to studies comprising the collection. Essay titles will be abbreviated in this review.
Articles range from historical to literary analyses, with a number of texts constituting interdisciplinary studies that span both categories. Various types of friends and friendships are considered: good and bad, real and ideal, private and public, secular and religious, present and absent, social and political, homogeneous and heterogeneous. It is not only ideals and practices of friendship that are considered, but also the relationship between friendship and writing epistolary and poetic , and friendship through writing.
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Five studies analyze actual historical friendships as reflected in personal correspondence, with three focusing on consolation and counselling in material or spiritual matters, one considering friendship among men of unequal stature, and another discussing friendship at a distance as a spiritual phenomenon. Bookshelf The remaining two of these studies turn to important literary figures: Dante and Petrarch. Fictional or literary friendships also constitute an important focus of the collection.
In addition to specific literary friendships, the topic of friendship in literary texts is a third unifying theme of the collection. The classical sources of medieval Italian conceptions of friendship and the ends to which they were appropriated are duly highlighted in this comprehensive study on amity as an idea and as a reality in Italy of the Middle Ages: friendship as lived, theorized, and penned.
A Bilingual Edition. Troy Tower and Jane Tylus. Jane Tylus. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, King and Albert Rabil Jr, which also includes the recent publication of the works of Lucrezia Marinella and Chiara Matraini, among other female writers. The importance of this volume resides in several aspects. First, it is the only modern edition to restore the original order of the poems that appeared in the edition prepared by Cassandra Stampa after the death of her sister Gaspara.
The poems are grouped by genre in three sections: sonnets, capitoli tercets of hendecasyllables linked by concatenation , and madrigals. Second, this edition proposes to reproduce the original Renaissance text with its inconsistencies in elisions, spelling, capitalizations, and diacritics; discrepancies among subsequent editions are signalled in the notes to the text grouped at the end of the volume.
Selected Poems, New York: Italica, , which presents a limited critical apparatus. She first gives some biographical information, engaging with preceding critical interpretations i. Next, she addresses the poetic influences on Stampa starting with Petrarch, but including also Sappho, Ovid, Horace, Propertius, Tibullus, Catullus, as well as some of her male and female contemporary writers.
All of these essays are lucid and informative, a perfect starting point for undergraduate and graduate study alike, especially given the useful select bibliography that follows and complements them. Also, at the very end of the volume, the editors have inserted three Appendixes.
Tylus at times modifies the internal ordering of words and the sequence of lines for the benefit of the rhythm, but this technique does not work to the detriment of the original meaning. One problem the reader not proficient in early modern Italian might face is that of understanding when the translation drifts apart from the original and becomes more interpretative than literal.
If Tylus on occasion expresses concerns about translation in the notes, this is not always the case in the volume as a whole. A larger number of footnotes to the Italian text could have helped in disentangling some syntactic and semantic complexities which otherwise remain obscure. If, on one hand, this translation aims to function intrinsically as a commentary on the original, therefore reducing the need for the multiplicity of notes the Italian reader is accustomed to in traditional Italian critical editions, on the other hand the reader now and then is left with some lingering textual concerns.
Also, it might have been helpful to include line numbering for the poems. Della Repubblica fiorentina. Roma: Aracne, Mandricardo e la melanconia. Bruxelles: Peter Lang, Giudicetti dispiega uno sguardo focalizzato sulle due questioni — alle quali sono dedicati grosso modo le due parti che compongono il libro — avendo cura di farle convergere fino al loro contatto, momento in cui si raccolgono tutte le suggestioni accumulatesi nelle pagine. A questo scopo, viene premessa una breve rassegna critica della bibliografia ariostesca, suddivisa per temi rilevanti, in modo da chiarire le connessioni con i lavori degli studiosi che lo hanno preceduto.
Il motivo ispiratore e la lente attraverso cui guardare alle ottave ariostesche sono sempre chiari, e sono i momenti in cui la parola si organizza e assume determinate caratteristiche Il desiderio di stringere una soluzione, per quanto opinabile e passeggera si voglia, rimane. Alcune parti non mancano di convincere, e offrono un punto di vista interessante sui meccanismi della parola nel poema, come nel caso di Rinaldo nel secondo capitolo della seconda parte. Metamorphosing Dante is the second volume in the series Cultural Inquiry, a project directed by Christoph F.
The more specific focus and achievement of this volume is that it draws theoretical models of tension from Dante that support and give meaning to tensions found in contemporary literary thought and its expression. In the Introduction, Camilletti, Gragnolati and Lampart pay special attention to the contextualization and definition of the term metamorphosis as a profoundly comprehensive and multifaceted notion. The book is divided into four sections. Among the successes of this volume beyond the vast identification and thoughtful analyses of appropriations of Dante in contemporary literature is the discovery and re-appropriation of the notion of tension itself as a positive, rather than as a negative term.
Each of the tensions identified in the various essays marks a locus of fecund ground, where literary exploration and innovation happen. Overall, this volume succeeds in demonstrating through its nineteen unique analyses that the act of metamorphosing Dante is a widespread twentieth- and twenty-first-century literary and artistic phenomenon, worthy of our attention not only as proof that understanding the past notwithstanding its medieval-ness can help provide a positive foundation for the present, but also as evidence that discovering fruit in spaces of tension has historical legitimacy.
Building a Monument to Dante: Boccaccio as Dantista. In chapter two, Boccaccio the biographer is examined as a force that shapes a figure of Dante that supported his own position in contemporary political and intellectual debates. In the third chapter, Houston delves into two lesser known works of Boccaccio in order to support his proposal of Boccaccio the apologist.
Boccaccio, whose diverse literary pursuits made him too complex to fit in traditional medieval editing categories, broke the mould with his much more emancipated relationship as editor to the author. Ever acting as a mediator of his two dominant masters, Boccaccio upheld Dante as an icon and an authoritative counterpoint to the philosophy of Petrarch. In the biographical Trattatello in laude di Dante, Houston finds that Boccaccio combines the various contemporary forms of biography to figure Dante as a man ordained by divine providence to instruct through his poetry.
These advocates generally rely on the justification that Boccaccio must have undergone a radical spiritual and moral conversion in the early s. In order to make the text accessible and meaningful to the popolani, Boccaccio keeps his Esposizioni relatively tangible with his vision of poetry as fundamentally political and ethical. In order to harmonize his reading of Dante among humanists and critics of vernacular literature, he downplays the specifically Christian allegory and interprets the Commedia as a secular text.
According to Houston, Boccaccio wrote at the helm of all new literary constructions that translated wisdom, whether pagan, Christian, vernacular, or Latin, to leaders of his day who could benefit from its moral lessons. Nonetheless, Houston pertinently reminds the reader that, despite these differences, throughout his lifelong monument-building process on behalf of Dante, Boccaccio always kept Petrarch in mind, and never abandoned the hope of harmonizing his two masters.
As a result, not only Boccaccio scholarship but also students and scholars of the literary environment of the tre corone will benefit greatly from this book. Dante in Oxford. The Paget Toynbee Lectures. Nine lectures delivered between and are presented in this collection of the Paget Toynbee Lectures; four of these are here published for the first time. Regarding textual changes introduced by De Robertis, Leonardi points out sentences with a modern syntax and, vice-versa, syntagms whose meanings have precedents in Duecento poetry.
He also discusses choices relating to three enduring debates. He dwells on sources such as Boethius, pseudo-Seneca, Ovid, Juvenal, Lucan, at times mediated by Brunetto or Boethius himself, through whom Dante renewed the concepts of nobility and generosity , This essay briefly outlines the initial diffusion of the poem with bibliography updated to to concentrate on metaphors variously elaborated by Dante, each time enriching them to complete their meaning.
Distancing himself from Charles S. The use of important editions such as Brunetto Tresor, edited by P. Beltami et al. Some inaccuracies also occur in the index of names. The book offers an overview of on contemporary Dante Studies from various countries, and it thus shows how different approaches, from Italy and from the Anglo-Saxon scholarship, can exchange results.
Disreputable Bodies gives a refreshing perspective on these philosophical discourses. Simultaneously, however, matter is the active force behind the ever-changing couplings of the elements. Matter is akin to the sexually aroused woman who continually couples with a fervent desire. These thinkers arrive at such symbols not based on Aristotle alone, but on the interventions of other thinkers and traditions.
Numéros en texte intégral
The Neoplatonic tradition, Plotinus, Maimonides, and Thomas Aquinas are but some of the influences Kodera recognizes in postulating the association between matter and a sexually desirous woman or prostitute. He establishes two parallel and at times complementary lines of investigation that are evident in this first chapter and continue throughout the book: gendered metaphors and deliberate misreadings of ancient sources. In the Neoplatonic context, Kodera examines the many female and overwhelmingly negative associations Ficino makes with matter.
Matter is the mirror image that ensnared Narcissus the soul and pulled him down to destruction ; matter is the female womb that traps and imprisons the soul, and, through the mirror influence of the liver, can receive alien imagery that changes the foetus. How does Kodera arrive at these bold assertions and expose the implicit meaning of these metaphors?
Such misreading is at times the result of Renaissance thinkers tempering their Peripatetic or Platonic philosophies with the interventions of other authors such as the Rabbinic tradition in the Neoplatonic works of Leone Ebreo , or even new technologies distillation, primitive forms of plastic surgery that offer more dimensions to an already existing metaphor.
In other instances, the Renaissance philosophers deliberately ignore or misconstrue passages from Platonic texts that are contrary to their personal philosophy. Disreputable Bodies gives thought-provoking perspectives on long-studied philosophical discourses. It is not by accident that Kodera begins most chapters with citations from Shakespeare that make use of the very metaphors and abstract concepts under review in the chapter, demonstrating that by explicating these metaphors in their philosophical context, Renaissance scholars will be able to elucidate further other lingering quandaries in an assortment of literary texts.
In many ways the African American reception of Dante follows the trends in reading Dante over the centuries, but Looney focuses on what makes the African American reception of Dante unique; namely, the suggestion that Dante is a kind of abolitionist and the Divine Comedy a kind of slave narrative. The second half of the introduction tells of the surprising presence of Dante in a wax museum in Cincinnati created by Francis Trollope in First, Looney briefly considers the debate between W. Du Bois and Booker T. Washington at the turn of the century over appropriate models of education for African Americans.
At the heart of the chapter is a discussion of the imitation of the Inferno in the film Go Down, Death! While Williams uses Dante as a signifier of integration, Wright uses the Comedy to mark migration, and Ellison, as Looney explains in the concluding analysis of this chapter, employs Dante both to migrate into and to integrate his work with the European canon.
During the Black Revolution, Dante continued to be seen as a powerful model of activism and emancipation as evidenced by the early work of Baraka LeRoi Jones , who employs Dante in his expression of a new kind of militant black identity. Looney argues that, unlike Ellison and Wright who see Dante as a gateway into European culture, Baraka uses Dante first to measure the growing distance between himself and European literature, and subsequently to separate himself from it completely. Loftis, Dudley Randall, Askia M. In terms of academic significance, Freedom Readers fills a gap in the reception of Dante in America.
The chronology of African American Dante reception examined has been almost completely ignored by Dante scholars, as well as by Americanists and African Americanists. The literary imitations inspired by Dante which are examined in this book are not only useful for furthering an understanding of African American culture, but also for revealing unforeseen features of the Divine Comedy.
Il primo capitolo riguarda la linguistica. Stazio assurge a esempio paradigmatico del rapporto ambiguo — e si potrebbe aggiungere poietico —col testo virgiliano. Dante seguirebbe qui la stessa metodologia agostiniana, nella rilettura di testi classici in un nuovo sistema di significati. Si tratta di Catone, Dido ed Enea. Marchesi non solo adotta un approccio costruttivista nella sua speculazione, ma lo attribuisce allo stesso Dante, quale autore e teorizzatore del linguaggio poetico. Riferendosi al capitolo 24 del Purgatorio, Dante mostrerebbe attraverso Stazio la differenza tra una corretta lettura costruttivista e una, inappropriata, di stampo oggettivista.
Questo limite emerge soprattutto a proposito della tesi secondo cui Dante si appropria della lettura riservata al testo sacro per applicarla al suo capolavoro. Patrologia Graeca 53, Ravenna: Longo, Imprenscindibile in questo contesto il ruolo svolto da edizioni e traduzioni, che reintroducono nel circuito intellettuale opere di difficile accesso e talora assai rare. Negli altri due saggi, Elizabeth Fiedler discute il contesto religioso e iconografico del lavoro di Marinella, mentre Ryan Gogol si sofferma sul rapporto letterario tra la scrittrice e Cristofano Bronzini.
Una, Margherita Sarrocchi, sembra essere stata un punto di riferimento per Marinella, con la sua Scanderbeide e Sin dal primo canto il lettore familiarizza con i toni elevati e le immagini potenti, come nel caso della descrizione della flotta veneziana I, 30 sgg. Risulta insomma fondamentale ritornare in possesso di, e avere a disposizione, questo tassello del mosaico epico italiano e della letteratura seicentesca. Pare si dilettasse di poesia epica anche Giovan Battista Marino. Fra i molti su questo argomento che furono scritti nel Seicento si veda quello sulla translatio della Santa Casa di Loreto dalla Palestina ai colli lauretani: Il tempio peregrino, poema sacroeroico di Giulio Acquaticci, recentemente edito a cura di Dino S.
Cervigni, Roma, Aracne, , pp. Come questa meritoria edizione riconferma. The Controversy of Renaissance Art. I rarely come across studies that truly debunk long-established assumptions about their own field of research. In The Controversy of Renaissance Art, Alexander Nagel meditates on Renaissance scholarship, on theoretical assumptions that have been — perhaps — too often taken for granted, and argues for a new interpretation of the artistic works of this period.
It is well before those years, in fact, that the connections between sacred iconography and lay painting were subject to a profound scrutiny on the part of many Italian painters, who found new ways of depicting lay themes by reworking, reinterpreting sacred images. From sacred iconography to the role of art itself, whether instrumental to the delight of private individuals or to form a collective conscience, virtually everything is scrutinized.
He argues for the need to look at the research of religious historians to understand artistic texts in an utterly different way. This is a part of the Renaissance less studied and less taken for granted, particularly in Southern Europe — Italy, that is. Nagel convincingly argues that there did not exist a specific program that addressed nudity or improper visual interpretations of sacred images. Everything was placed in the hands of the individual surveyors and their artistic sensibility.
When, then, did artistic license become a problem? Idolatry comes as a result of putting certain esthetic criteria on a scale, a scale that is a product of society. As such, its connotation varies from Florence to Northern Europe. What is recognizable in the Netherlands i. Doubling — the character and the real person who modeled for it — produces a theatrical effect The widespread use of wax effigies in Florence at the time has a role in the passage between inserting portraits of real people of the time into paintings representing sacred images.
Ghirlandaio is a good example of creating balance between sacred figures and portraits of Florentines of his time in his Tornabuoni chapel How do you avoid idolatric worshiping, then? How do you rethink image?
The scholar addresses this issue from multiple points and perspectives. In the pre-Council of Trent period, we had the debate about the supremacy of sculpture over painting, with different positions taken by Castiglione, Bronzino, and Benedetto Varchi, respectively, but not exclusively. They all recognized the importance of sculpture for the urban landscape. The illustrations in this volume are superb. The layout of the book renders justice to the masterpieces with which and of which Nagel is conversing.
The challenge in question deals with the hidden aspects of the Rinascimento. Nagel offers such an enjoyable and refreshing look at this complex period that I truly suggest this read to scholars, for he proves the fallacy of some aspects of art history and its connections to the society of the period, thus making manifest the dynamic force of scholarly criticism. But it is always, and especially, a critical reading of the reality a painting interprets. Kissing the Wild Woman. This work has been overlooked by early modern and contemporary scholars alike. With Kissing the Wild Woman, Nissen provides a welcome and discerning examination of Urania, considering the literary, historical, and art-historical contexts surrounding the author.
Nissen devotes particular attention to Boccaccio, whose Fiammetta and Filocolo helped shape the prose romance genre in Italian. In the end, the fictional Urania and the historical Bigolina are in many ways corresponding figures. While dominant male voices in the century would argue that a woman should achieve self- expression by posing for paintings, Bigolina counters that women can find a more appropriate outlet by harnessing the written word. By devoting due attention to a complex and neglected early modern prose romance, and by writing in a language accessible to scholars and students in all fields, Nissen gives Bigolina the voice she deserves.
The Perfect Genre. Drama and Painting in Renaissance Italy. Surrey UK : Ashgate, Following her introduction, Kristin Phillips-Court has divided her book into five main chapters, each dealing with a different play. Her focus on textual analysis is supplemented by examination of works of the visual arts: religious frescoes and panels, mythologies, allegorical portraiture, state portraits, and pastoral scenes. The Perfect Genre is a welcome and necessary study with a truly interdisciplinary orientation. While this approach is not unusual in Italian histories of drama, it is under-represented in Anglo-American publishing.
Phillips-Court organizes her investigations by first giving a close reading of select passages from the literary work under consideration. Her quotations appear in the original and in English, an intelligent choice that will make her work accessible both to university students and to scholars of English drama, who will see the relevance to the development of theater and the visual arts in a wider context.
In addition, she examines the biblical and classical sources of Italian Renaissance drama. Phillips-Court does not adequately justify overlooking the seminal productions of Bibbiena and Ariosto, presented with splendid sets by Peruzzi and Raphael. Although her interest is not in artists who were involved in mounting theatrical productions, it would have strengthened her art historical readings to have addressed this field of artistic exchange.
Her examination of Tasso is rich and original. Tasso, like Dante and Boccaccio, inspired many artists, but Phillips-Court is concerned to demonstrate the productive dialectical relationship between word and image. The final chapters on Tasso and Bruno deal with philosophical and metaphysical debates. Phillips-Court shows that she is equally at home with cultural history and political theory. Phillips-Court analyzes the self-fashioning of Paul III Alessandro Farnese and of his family members, in which Titian played so important a role as portraitist, while Caro filled the position of humanist secretary.
Rather, Titian took the unprecedented step of depicting a pope with his head uncovered in one of the two versions of the famous portrait, where Paul is not bald nor is his tonsure in evidence. Earlier in the sixteenth century, Raphael set a precedent in his portrait of Pope Julius II, which he followed in his subsequent portrait of Leo X. This precedent influenced Sebastiano del Piombo in several versions of Pope Clement VII, yet all of these depictions emphasized the ceremonial role of the papacy by outfitting the pope in his appropriate headgear.
Phillips-Court uses different registers of theoretical language in her study: literary criticism, historicism, film studies, art history, and visual theory. The use of film studies is informative and judiciously handled, resulting in a greater appreciation of the technical advancements of Renaissance artists and writers.
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Occasionally the theory overwhelms the analysis. Was it Brunelleschi who designed the theatrical machinery? Readers of The Perfect Genre will find themselves turning to the plays and visual works in question for a closer look — an admirable achievement worthy of the best tradition of humanist exegesis. Both the black-and-white images and the color plates are nicely produced. Pp Classical intertextuality in the Furioso has been thoroughly examined on both sides of the Atlantic. Stoppino takes into consideration various kinds of intertextuality and the importance of gender and female genealogy within the Furioso.
In the first chapter, Stoppino concentrates on Bradamante as a female warrior in the Furioso and recalls her appearance as such in the cantari and poemi cavallereschi. The primary texts discussed in this chapter include two late fifteenth-century works: Historia di Bradiamonte sorella di Rinaldo Brescia, and the Inamoramento de Carlo Magno Venezia, The Ariostean incarnation of the Amazon-like figure was inspired by previous epic poetry Virgil, Pulci, Boiardo as well as by travel narratives e.
In chapter 4, Stoppino examines how genealogy is transmitted through prophecy in the poem. Melissa, for example, imparts prophetic knowledge about the future Este dynasty to Bradamante. The author carefully traces the relationship of Bradamante to medieval literary figures of the sorceress and the sibyl. The role of females within dominant patrilineal narratives becomes the main topic of this section. Specifically, she discusses how Ariosto challenges traditional patrilineal prophecy by making Bradamante the addressee of future Este dynastic knowledge.
The notion of women as political subjects becomes especially apparent in marriage when loyalty is split between a family of origin and an acquired family.
In the Rocca di Tristano episode, Bradamante becomes the female founder of the Este lineage. Ariosto is able to revitalize classical tales through their medieval representations within the Furioso. The most striking is the introduction of the beauty contest for the women, absent from the French models.
Gender plays an important role, and female warriors recall the longstanding but often overlooked tradition of the genealogy of gender. Her research is precise, well-documented and uncovers several intertextual references to medieval romance narratives in the Furioso. Texts and Translations. Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies This edition of Florentine Sacre rappresentazioni gathers some of the religious plays by Feo Belcari and Castellano Castellani and places itself among recent works dedicated to a rediscovery of this genre.
The sacre rappresentazioni, plays representing the lives of saints or biblical episodes, now attract the interest of scholars since the elaboration of biblical and hagiographical models can provide significant insights into the cultural environment in which they were produced. The project behind this volume is ambitious and undoubtedly significant in the field of Renaissance studies. The sacre rappresentazioni were not aimed at the learned but at a wider public, and therefore their form and content mirror the language, tastes and social habits of the average Florentine citizen.
This version is the most comprehensive to this day but it cannot be considered authoritative. Perhaps new revised editions based on the manuscripts and the early prints are now necessary to substantiate or improve on the nineteenth-century versions. Such editions might, for example, be more accurate and free of ambiguities caused by either typographical or editorial errors.
The volume regrettably lacks also a complete bibliography at the end, although the footnotes provide bibliographical references, which at times appear not to be accurate or do not supply all the necessary data. If, on one hand, Castellani satirizes the celebrated carnival songs, which probably represent to him the epitome of Medicean moral corruption Santa Maria Maddalena , p.
The English translation is fluent, clear, and an excellent tool to understand especially the most difficult idiomatic sentences of this variant of Italian vernacular. With some improvements, the volume could be an authoritative and indispensable text in this area of studies. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company, It was prepared for press, as editors Juliann Vitullo and Diane Wolfthal note in their Introduction, right before the global economy began its turn towards a recession and waves of protest voiced their outrage with corporate wealth and greed 1.
Several centuries beforehand, during the rise of the monetary economy between the thirteenth and seventeenth centuries , the accumulation and the expenditure of individual and institutional capital were debated in moral and ethical terms. Avarice, and not pride, increasingly began to be viewed as the root of all evils, as articulated by Thomas Aquinas in his gloss of 1 Timothy 1.