Neue Grammatikalisierungspfade werden systematisch postuliert und korpusbasiert verifiziert. Dieser Band versteht sich als Beitrag zur historischen Pragmatik des Italienischen. Untersucht werden in narrativen Texten des This handbook gives an overview of language for special purposes LSP in scientific, professional and other contexts.
It provides insights into research paradigms, theories and methods while also highlighting the practical use of LSPs in concrete discourse situations. The volume is transdisciplinary oriented with a firm basis in the language sciences, including terminology, knowledge transfer, multilingual and cross-cultural exchange. This collective book examines epistemic modalities and evidentiality in a wide range of Indo-European and non Indo-European languages.
It reflects both the diversity of current research and different linguistic traditions. The contributions, written by specialists in the fields covered, are broadly located in the domain of functional linguistics and explore language-specific data from a semantic, pragmatic, cognitive and typological perspective.
(PDF) Leger(e)demain: Reading and the Restless Hand | Adam Zachary Newton - dequsyjeme.ml
Die Studie arbeitet den musterhaften Sprachgebrauch in wissenschaftlichen Texten heraus und beschreibt auf der Basis einer datengeleiteten Korpusanalyse den Wissenschaftsstil auf formaler und pragmatischer Ebene. Mit der theoretischen Einbettung in mehrere linguistische Teildisziplinen leistet das Buch einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Textsortenforschung, zur Normendiskussion und zur Schreibforschung.
This handbook reviews a large range of different research and data collection methods used in pragmatics. It includes overviews of methods that rely on introspection and rational thinking; and it includes overviews of empirical methods, such as experimentation various types of production and comprehension tasks ; qualitative observational methods e. Jucker, Zurich, Switzerland; Klaus P. Schneider, Bonn, Germany. Dieses Buch liefert empirisch-experimentelle Evidenz u.
This volume of essays brings together the work of a number of scholars of the history of lexicography with a particular interest in the paratexts of a range of dictionaries, from the sixteenth century to the twentieth. Topics include lexicographers, marginalia and revision, forematter and backmatter, supplements, publishers, dictionary collections and owners, lists of subscribers, and readers and users of dictionaries. Unter Verwendung des sog. This book deals with Albanian, including the dialects spoken in Southern Italy, and with the Aromanian spoken in Southern Albania. These languages are set in the context of current generative research on syntax, morphology, language variation and contact — yielding insights into key morphosyntactic notions of case, agreement, complementation, and into phenomena such as Differential Object Marking, the Person Case Constraint, linkers and control.
Rita Manzini, Leonardo M. This volume focuses on realisations of wordplay in different cultures and social and historical contexts, and brings together various research traditions of approaching wordplay. This volume is dedicated to the analysis of wordplay in a variety of texts and contexts. It explores the evolution of wordplay and its appreciation over time, as well as the intermediate stages between wordplay and related phenomena. This handbook takes a fresh look at the currently underestimated linguistic diversity of Africa, the continent with the largest number of languages in the world.
The focus lies on the potentially fruitful relationship between African and general linguistics and the contributions the two domains can make to one other. However, the dialects of Southern England remain under-studied. This book provides a collection of articles on subordination in various native and non-native varieties of English framed from both a synchronic and a diachronic perspective.
The book is dedicated to the study of the causes and mechanisms of syntactic change in Slavonic languages, including internally motivated syntactic change, syntactic change under contact conditions structural convergence, pattern replication, shiftinduced transfer etc. Charnois, University of Paris 13; M. Legallois, University of Paris 3. Trends in Hindi Linguistics provides a snapshot of current developments in Hindi syntax and semantics and covers topics such as definiteness marking, comparative constructions with differentials, conjunct verbs, participial relative clauses, ellipsis, scrambling, infinitives and directive strategies.
Together these papers give a rich and in-depth account of the vitality of current research on Hindi. Das Internet ist mittlerweile die wichtigste Plattform zur Publikation lexikografischer Inhalte. Die An Braunes Zielsetzung, Studienbuch und Forschungsgrammatik zu verbinden, wird festgehalten. Er liegt nun in einer vierten, aktualisierten und erweiterten Auflage vor.
Das Deutsche Literatur-Lexikon. Das Der aktuelle Band verzeichnet u. Aufgrund des weit gefassten Literaturbegriffs finden auch Vertreter anderer Fachgebiete Eingang in das Lexikon. Mit Schwerpunkt auf dem Diese Zeitspanne entspricht den Sammelgebieten des Deutschen Literaturarchivs Marbach, das von der Deutschen Schillergesellschaft getragen wird. Arbeiten zu Schiller sind besonders willkommen, bilden aber nur einen Teil des Spektrums. Die Frage der Stimme bzw. Claudia Hillebrandt, Univ. Studien zur Literatur der klassischen Moderne.
Der Band ist ein wichtiger Beitrag zur modernen Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Insgesamt werden etwa Briefe, Konzepte und Exzerpte von und an Arnim ediert. Jahrhundert; Politische Philosophie und Sozialphilosophie; Religi-. This volume constitutes an unprecedented collection of research which productively combines intermediality and life writing studies with diverse American studies concerns. Covering a time period from the nineteenth century to the immediate present, the contributions scrutinize biographies, memoirs, graphic novels, performances, paratheatricals, musicals, silent films, movies, documentary films, and social media.
Dabei liegt ein besonderer Fokus auf der kognitiven Metapherntheorie. Behind the deceivingly idyllic or exotic sceneries lies a fictional stage riddled with irony and failure, with anti-heroes and outcasts who, with their dying breaths, narrate a world that is slowly undoing itself. This book builds on insights from different fields of family research to provide a conceptual framework for the investigation of synchronic and diachronic family constellations and connections in British migration literature at the turn of the 20th century.
By highlighting the relevance and multifaceted nature of doing family, this study also offers new perspectives for transcultural memory studies. Die traditionelle rhetorische Kategorie der Evidenz hat angesichts eines neuen Strebens nach anschaulicher Darstellung in den vergangenen Jahren zunehmende Relevanz erlangt. How does literature evoke reality?
This book takes cues from the history of scientific observation to provide a new approach to this longstanding question of literary studies. Die Kategorie des Werks wurde in den Literaturwissenschaften in den letzten 50 Jahren massiv kritisiert. Der vorliegende Band untersucht, welche Formen und Funktionen der Werkbegriff in den Geisteswissenschaften des Jahrhunderts annehmen kann. Wendemarken der Forschung, die den weiteren Gang der wissenschaftlichen Diskussion tief beeinflussten. Der Band diskutiert Gattungskonstitution und -wandel des Bildungsromans mithilfe von Bourdieus Feldtheorie vom Thomas Bernhards Umgang mit Schrift ist in der Forschung bislang weitgehend unbeachtet geblieben.
Der Band unterzieht die Typoskripte aus dem Nachlass erstmalig einer systematischen Analyse und beschreibt die Effekte, die Bernhards konkrete Schreibpraxis auf die unverkennbare Stilistik seiner Texte hat. Catherine Marten, Berlin. Topische Stoff-Findung als Technik der Wissensordnung und Textproduktion ist ab wegen ihrer Orientierung am kulturellen Wissen obsolet. This special issue of Symbolism: An International Annual of Critical Aesthetics explores the various functions of metaphor in life writing.
In vormodernen literarischen Texten sucht man hingegen vergeblich nach dem gezielt evozierten Horror. Analyzing paradigmatic examples from Antiquity to the 19th century, this thirteen-essay collection explores the production of historico-political knowledge from the vantage point of literary and cultural studies. Focusing on drama as a pan-European phenomenon, it demonstrates how representations of the past shape and legitimize political developments, but also question and travesty the means and ends of historical interpretation.
Metaphorologie ist eine Methode der Textanalyse und Textbehandlung, die von Hans Blumenberg angeregt und praktiziert wurde, aber kaum eine nennenswerte Wirkung hatte. Die aufwendig davonargumentierte Heilsgeschichte kehrt im Literalsinn wieder, der zwischen bilderloser Eigentlichkeit und literalisiertem Gnadenwort zu schielen beginnt.
So erscheint der Kreuzzug der Moderne bald als Kreuzweg. Zola schreibt das Evangelium neu als gnadenloses Testament. In Zusammenarb. Metaphor in audiovisual media shares this basic setting with metaphor in multimodal interaction. The theory is illustrated with a rich variety of case studies from a broad range of media formats and face-to-face interaction including Hollywood movies, TV news, and dance lessons.
Der Diskurs audiovisueller Bewegtbilder entfaltet sich als kulturelle Praxis, in der Menschen ihre subjektive Wahrnehmungswirklichkeit als Teil einer gemeinsam geteilten Welt zu fassen suchen. Ist gescheitert? Die Frage ist falsch gestellt. Cinepoetics — English edition 4 Approx. Current research on multimodal and audiovisual metaphor has paid little attention to the media character of audiovisual images. Here is where the book develops an alternative position. Exploring the role of metaphor and metonymy in German and Polish campaign commercials, it provides insight into the dynamic nature and embodied affective grounds of audiovisual figurativity.
It thereby challenges the dichotomy of political message and media effect. Over past decades, metaphor has become a fascinating topic for a broad range of disciplines. It is an outcome of collaboration and intense discussions across disciplinary boundaries. Leading scholars explore cinematic metaphor including linguistics, media studies, media history, philosophy, psychology. Greifenstein, D. Horst, C. Scherer, C. Schmitt, H. Kappelhoff, FU Berlin. How can we write a history of affective experience? This question stands at the outset of this study, which casts a new light on a critical period in US film history: the New Hollywood.
Out of the finegrained analysis of core films emerges the picture of a complex interplay of three different modes of affectivity — suspense, paranoia, and melancholy. All three implicate the cinema audience in the deep-seated contradictions of their own feelings. Cinepoetics — English edition Approx. Mit dem 4. Es folgen die Inschriften von den sog. Milesischen Inseln Leros, Lepsia und Patmos, die durch einen separaten Index erschlossen und, soweit erhalten, abgebildet werden. Indices und ein Verzeichnis der antiken und modernen Tiernamen erleichtern die Benutzung.
Kein Text aus der Antike hat in den letzten Jahrzehnten weltweit so viel Aufmerksamkeit erfahren wie die Nikomachische Ethik. Beriger, Ac. Engadina, Samedan, Schweiz; W. Ehlers, Berlin; M. Fieger, Theol. HS Chur, Schweiz, und Univ. Kulturgeschichte interessierte Leser. Da sie in einigen Teilen vom Original abweicht, bietet.
Damaskios um — nach ist der letzte Scholarch der Platonischen Akademie und zugleich der letzte systematische Denker der paganen Antike. Seine Philosophie versucht, das erste Prinzip jenseits der Wirklichkeit zu begreifen. Torres, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Dem Text sind ein kritischer Apparat, ein Quellenapparat und ein Apparat mit Verswiederholungen beigegeben. Wilfried E. Doch wie verhalten sich Text und Bild zueinander? Peter v. Die unglaublichen Dinge jenseits von Thule des Antonius Diogenes kombinieren in einzigartiger Weise u. Elemente der Liebesromane, fantastische Reisen und pythagoreisches Gedankengut.
In detaillierten Fallstudien analysiert Helge Baumann, wie Martial und Statius das Epos in der poetischen Kleinform thematisieren, integrieren und funktionalisieren. Beide Autoren assoziieren unterschiedlichste Situationen, kulturelle Praktiken und Akteure mit dem Epos. Insbesondere gilt es, die zugrundeliegenden Vorstellungen — von Tod und Jenseits, Macht und Gerechtigkeit — aufzudecken und religionshistorisch wie ritualpraktisch einzuordnen.
Ailianos zeigt uns in diesem Werk, was antike Menschen an Tieren bemerkenswert fanden. This volume provides a line-by-line analysis of Book XIII, thereby offering an indispensable starting point for a new critical edition not only of this, but also other parts of the poem. This book offers a comprehensive study of the Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi, an account of the legendary poetic contest between Homer and Hesiod, treating its text as crucial evidence for the ancient reception of epic poetry. It reassesses the manuscript witnesses and offers new textual evidence as well as a critical edition, thus providing a new perspective on the nature and legacy of the text and its tale of literary competition.
This book, a comprehensive survey of T. It also contextualizes the generic changes presented by his work into the sociohistorical background within which he is operating, namely the political context of Neronian Rome. Evangelos Karakasis, University of Ioannina, Greece. This volume provides a fresh perspective on Homeric reception through a methodologically focused, interdisciplinary investigation of the transformations of Homeric epic within varying generic and cultural contexts. It brings together leading international scholars and acute young researchers, exploring how various aspects of Homeric poetics can be mapped on to a diversity of contexts under different historical, literary and artistic conditions.
This book is a collective volume on classical historiography. Approaching the ancient Greek and Roman historical texts from a literary point of view, the essays of the book elaborate on the effect of the compositional devices — in terms of style and narrative — of the ancient historians on the representation of the historical reality. This volume shines a spotlight on these neglected Flavian voices and shows that in the wake of 69 CE, writing civil war became an endemic and inescapable project for Flavian authors.
Monograph, English, September The scholarly tendency has too often weakened the conspicuous novelty and originality that characterizes Zeus in the Iliad. This book remedies that tendency and depicts the extraordinary figure of Zeus as both exclusive master of human destiny and chief of Olympus.
This unique personality represents itself the conflict between superhuman moral indifference for mortal destiny and anthropomorphic feelings for human beings. The apparently disjointed and philosophically perplexing Statesman explores, among many other topics, the role and nature of the statesman; governance, virtue, and the law; and in the framework of a Myth the origins of the universe and humankind. Robinson, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. This book brings together 27 contributions, written by international experts, which explore the evolution of the key phenomenon of intratextuality in Latin literature, across a wide range of authors, genres and historical periods.
Of particular interest are the combined instances of intra- and intertextual poetics as well as the way in which intratextuality in Latin literature draws on reading practices already theorized in Greek antiquity. Theocritus eschews antagonism and never presents his narrators as superior to others or as new incarnations of old masters but simply as new. He ironizes the theme of poetic excellence and distances himself from the tradition of competitive success. Frangoulidis and T. Papanghelis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
Cicero, Livius und Quintilian genutzt. This innovative approach leads to a new understanding of the topography of the invasion, and of the ways in which Greeks in the late fifth century BCE understood the world around them. In diesem Buch werden erstmals vor allem Herodots Lydischer Logos und Informationen aus lydischen und orientalischen Texten mithilfe der Geschichtsforschung und Sprachwissenschaft ausgewertet, sodass ein neues Bild von Lydien entsteht.
While Freud put ancient literature to profitable use, many classic scholars have not been so keen on using psychology. Gradually, though, this is changing: current psychological paradigms offer new approaches in the reading of the Classics, and classical ideas can still inspire reflections on therapeutic practice and the relation between body and mind. This book advocates the merits of marrying both disciplines through a wealth of perspectives.
Berendsohn aus den Jahren — This book analyzes and describes the development and aspects of imagery techniques, a primary mode of mystical experience, in Jewish mysticism. Imagery techniques of twentieth century Jewish mysticism, in contrast to linguistic imagery techniques in medieval Kabbalah, are comparable to screenplays or feature films. This development can be fruitfully contextualized within broader trends of western and eastern imagery techniques.
The discovery of Hebrew manuscripts of Ben Sira in the Cairo Genizah transformed the interpretation of the book. Since their discovery attention has been directed on the interpretation of the ancient book, but this volume gives serious consideration to the Hebrew manuscripts themselves. It examines the early discoveries, the codicology and reception of the manuscripts, and the light they throw on the Hebrew language and poetic techniques.
Editor Bill Rebiger The Yearbook mirrors the annual activities of staff and visiting fellows of the Maimonides Centre and reports on symposia, workshops, and lectures taking place at the Centre. Although aimed at a wider audience, the yearbook also contains academic articles and book reviews on scepticism in Judaism and scepticism in general. Staff, visiting fellows, and other international scholars are invited to contribute. Reinhard G.
Die vorliegende Edition erscheint als Jahrhunderts; Neuere und neueste Kirchengeschichte Jahrhundert ; Christliche Denker und Religi-. Lona, PhilosophischTheologische Hochschule Benediktbeuern. The volume presents 20 articles of renowned European scholars on human leadership in the Hebrew Bible. It contributes to biblical theology as well as to the complex interplay between history of ancient Israel and literary history of the Hebrew Bible.
Who conquered Samaria, the capital of the Kingdom? When did it happen? This book presents a fresh analysis of Joshua 24 and related texts as a test case for refining our knowledge of how ancient scribes edited texts. Joshua 24 is envisioned as a gradually growing Persian-period text, whose editorial history can be reconstructed with the help of documented evidence preserved in the MT, LXX, and other ancient sources. Butticaz, University Lausanne, A. Dettwiler, University Geneva, Switzerland, J. It aims at discovering patterns or strategies of reception within the at first sight often rather chaotic way some of these ancient authors have cited or used these traditions.
It looks for explanations of why it took such a while before authors got used to cite gospel texts more or less accurately. This is the first verse-by-verse commentary on 4 Baruch, a neglected work of disputed origin, composed not long after the common era. This study attempts to place it within its Jewish and Christian contexts and thereby contribute to our knowledge of early Judaism and Christianity. Dale C. Allison, Jr. This volume arises from a conference at Blomfontein, South Africa, in August It contains a lengthy survey of recent scholarship on apocalypticism and mysticism by Pieter de Villiers, and essays on the mystical component in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Paul and Revelation, with recurring discussion of the definition of mysticism in the Jewish and early Christian contexts.
Commentaries on the Guide of the Perplexed occupy a central but neglected place in the history of Jewish thought. In the first study on the subject, Igor De Souza examines this dynamic tradition in its most creative period. Rather than mere interpretation, De Souza reads commentaries as texts in their own right. At the same time, he illustrates how texts are reimagined through commentary, and repurposed for new generations of readers.
Igor H. Carlos A. How did ancient communities approach the concept of religious knowledge? Was it something to be shared with all, or was it the provenance of certain initiates? This booklet considers both pre- and post German-speaking scholarship on the Dead Sea Scrolls. It shows that study of the Scrolls was part of the German tradition of the study of antiquity. It stresses German contributions to the provision of study resources, the techniques of manuscript reconstruction, the analysis of the scrolls in relation to the New Testament and Early Judaism, as well as the popularization of scholarship.
George J. Brooke, University of Manchester, UK. The nine case studies of the present volume explore annotations and annotation practices attested in Jewish and Christian biblical manuscripts. By studying these manuscripts through the lenses of the verbal and figurative notes that surround, intersperse, and add to the primary layer of text, this volume provides a window into the historical interaction and engagement with biblical texts traceable in surviving manuscripts. Die vorliegende Studie rekonstruiert die historische Entwicklung freigeistiger Organisationen in Deutschland nach und speziell seit der humanistischen Wende in den er Jahren.
This work focusses on culturally specific notions of place maintained by the Santal, one of the largest indigenous societies of Central India. Taking a practice-based approach to religion, it presents contemporary Santal rituals not described before. The book discusses in ethnographic detail how the Santal maintain relationships to their environment through rituals and how they link these to discourses of indigeneity and environmentalism. Lea Schulte-Droesch, Freudenstadt, Germany. In den letzten 30 Jahren ist in zahlreichen Arbeiten der Versuch unternommen worden, antike Judenund Christengruppen in das Vereinswesen ihrer Zeit einzuordnen.
Harland, York University, Toronto, Kanada. The aim of this book is to unravel some aspects of the relation between Augustine and the study of signs and signification, with a view to its implications to the domain of semiotics. The volume contributes to the knowledge of the Samaritan history, culture and linguistics. Specialists of various fields of research bring a new look on the topics related to the Samaritans and the Hebrew and Arabic written sources, to the Samaritan history in the Roman-Byzantine period as well as to the contemporary issues of the Samaritan community.
The present study addresses problems of an epistemological nature which hinge on the question of how to define Jewish thought. It inquires the relationship between Jewish culture, Greek philosophy, and Greco-Roman thought in connection with the query into the history and genealogy of wisdom and knowledge. The subject of inquiry will thus be the birth of the concept of Jewish philosophy, Jewish theology and Jewish philosophy of religion.
Although Paul Tillich did not engage in ecological and environmental theology directly, his experience of nature-mysticism and intellectual understanding of the idea of nature rooted in his Lutheran and German idealist heritage. His ontological-pneumatological holistic and multi-dimensional conception of unifying and differentiated reality, theology of culture, nature and morality is profoundly ecologically oriented. The tension between reason and revelation has occupied Jewish philosophers for centuries, who, on the one hand, were committed to defending Judaism and on the other hand to remaining loyal to philosophical principles.
- Hot Set (PI Taboo Erotica);
- Shopping Cart;
- Show Business Homicides: An Encyclopedia, 1908–2009.
- ebook 99 klassiker ersatzteile.
The present publication focuses on sceptical questions, methods, strategies, and approaches raised by Jewish thinkers in the Middle Ages. Current tendencies in religious studies show a growing interest in the interchange between religions and the cultures of rationalization surrounding them. The studies published in this volume aim to contribute to this by dealing with concepts and influences of rationalization in Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Instead of focusing on one religion, the editors aim for a comparative view. Die Autorin untersucht erstmalig den Zusammenhang von rechtsmetaphysischen und rechtspraktischen Fragestellungen bei Molina.
Jeder Theologie-Studierende, ob evangelisch, katholisch oder orthodox, sollte das Buch zumindest parallel zum Studium lesen. Ohne Frage. Aber was ist eigentlich Ethik? Was macht Ethik? Was macht die Theologische Ethik aus? The problems associated with understanding come to light in many facets of our lives. This volume is dedicated to describing these facets and clarifying problems related to levels of comprehension, conceptual analysis, understanding oneself and the other as well as cultural aspects of understanding.
The authors address the topic in different theoretical frames such as hermeneutics, phenomenology, transcendental, and analytic philosophy. Natur als Basis des menschlichen Lebens stellt sich sowohl als Ressource als auch als Bedrohung dar. Contemporary philosophy of science analyzes psychology as a science with special features. Psychology includes specific philosophical problems which are particularly relevant both theoretically casual explanation and practically e. The philosophical analysis in this book sheds new light on philosophy of psychology taking into account descriptive traits and revisionary aspects.
Wenceslao J. This entails that our free will does not exist in the same time that includes our individuality. What makes a sand grain a single grain? Can it be anything distinct from the grain? This book analyses the argument exchange on such issues within the scholastic debates on individuation, and its implications for metaphysics. It shows that the prima facie sound answer that everything is single by itself is untenable, and then discusses the two major strategies of rejecting it embraced by the Scotists and the Thomists, arguing for the latter one.
The theory presupposes a plausible understanding of causation and the self, and shows that in an indetermined world it will sometimes be right to select persons as fundamental causes of their choices. The book provides a novel account of laws of nature via dispositions. It focuses on developing a steady theory of dispositions. It depicts analysis of dispositions en detail and identifies their main problems. To overcome this problems a new account is devised: the triadic process picture of dispositions TPD. Applied to the debate about laws of nature, the TPD renders the laws of nature naturally necessary and metaphysically contingent.
Florian Fischer, University of Bonn, Germany. The present book is a study in epistemology that concentrates on knowledge and both scientific and religious belief. It aims at clarifying relations between knowledge and both types of belief on the one hand and between scientific and religious belief on the other. In order to achieve that purpose in more detail, seven types of knowledge are distinguished. Paul Weingartner, University of Salzburg, Austria. Many systems of logic diagrams have been offered both historically and more recently. Each of them has clear limitations. An original alternative system is offered here.
It is simpler, more natural, and more expressively and inferentially powerful. It can be used to analyze not only syllogisms but arguments involving relational terms and unanalyzed statement terms. How come we ought to do things? How come that some of our action alternatives come with a practical relevance — oughtness — that others lack? What is the origin of oughtness? This investigation analyzes and evaluates four different answers, as presented by Halbig , Schroeder , Stemmer , and Scanlon Drawing on the insights from this evaluation, it develops a new desire-based theory of oughtness: metaethical conativism.
Damit bietet sie tiefe Einblicke sowohl in die Arbeitsweise von Marx und Engels als auch in die Entwicklung ihres terminologischen und theoretischen Rahmens. In recent years, questions about epistemic reasons, norms and goals have seen an upsurge of interest. The present volume brings together eighteen essays by established and upcoming philosophers in the field. The contributions are arranged into four sections: 1 epistemic reasons, 2 epistemic norms, 3 epistemic consequentialism and 4 epistemic goals and values.
The volume is key reading for researchers interested in epistemic normativity. The book contributes to the refutation of the separation of philosophy in the 20th century into analytic and continental. Guillermo E. Contemporary research on federalism is rarely concerned with its philosophical foundations. However, arguments on why and how best to organise a plurality of states in a multilevel political order have first been discussed by philosophers and inspire contemporary reasoning on international relations not only in political philosophy.
This book offers a unique overview from both a historical and a systematic perspective. Anfang der siebziger Jahre des Heinecke, Flechtingen; W. Knapp u. This book offers a recasting of traditional political philosophy by interpreting core social phenomena as modes of being. It focuses on the ontology of freedom, value, power, justice, government and legitimacy.
Casting human being hermeneutically as whoness opens up new insights into how human beings sociate in interplays of mutual estimation. These are simultaneously social power plays. An explicit ontology of social power results. Michael Eldred, Cologne, Germany. This book deals with theoretical, practical and historical aspects of science and research.
Its analyses and constructions are explicitly intended as philosophical contributions, not only in the sense implied by the established term philosophy of science, but also in the sense of a reflection on science that, alongside more technical aspects of methodologies and elements of theories, also has an eye for anthropological and cultural dimensions. This source edition on the persecution and murder of the European Jews by Nazi Germany presents in 16 volumes a thematically comprehensive selection of documents on the Holocaust. Volume 1 addresses the persecution of the German Jews between and , revealing how the disenfranchisement and social isolation of the Jews was driven forward, and which role terror, state calculations, and the indifference of very many Germans played.
Die Schlacht bei Breitenfeld am Kathrin Bierther, Historische Kommission bei der Bay. Albrecht P. Luttenberger In Zusammenarb. Auf dem Regensburger Reichstag nahm die Religionseinigung eine zentrale Rolle ein. Der 2. Carola Tischler, Inst. Andrea Rudorff. Von an wurden Juden aus ganz Europa nach Auschwitz gebracht — und die meisten von ihnen unmittelbar nach der Ankunft ermordet. Mit der Untersuchung zur Abtei St. Eine zentrale Rolle nahm der Walburgakult im Leben der Benediktinerinnen ein. Maria Magdalena Zunker, Abtei St. Bau- und Kunstgeschichte sowie Archiv- und Bibliotheksgeschichte sind weitere Schwerpunkte.
Every year, the Bibliography catalogues the most important new publications, historiographical monographs, and journal articles throughout the world, extending from prehistory and ancient history to the most recent contemporary historical studies. Deutsches Historisches Institut in Rom, Italien. Sozial-, Kirchen-, Rechts- und Bildungsgeschichte , Archivare.
Vor dem 2. Der Band dokumentiert eine Tagung zum Geburtstag des Augsburger Stadtschreibers Dr. Sammy Gronemann — ist einer der herausragendsten zionistischen Dramatiker der deutschen Sprache. Die Sklaverei wird hier erstmalig systematisch globalgeschichtlich dargestellt. The port and free zone projects described in this book illustrate how state and non-state actors seek to reposition the city within shifting global, regional, and national frameworks.
This history calls master narratives on zones and globalization into question. Harald van Nes, Freiburg i. Radical thoughts and acts are merely a nonconformist attitude; they are usually marginal and are directed against the ruling society. Thereby, these radical thoughts and acts could be classified as politcally left or right, progressive or reactionary. Julius H. In Anbetracht des Wissens um die nationalsozialistischen Gewaltverbrechen sind Begegnungen zwischen Juden und Nicht-Juden nach heute nur schwer vorstellbar.
Anhand umfangreicher Selbstzeugnisse werden ihre Schicksalswege zwischen Polen, Russland und den zentralasiatischen Sowjetrepubliken rekonstruiert. The contributions to this volume explore the intellectual approaches to time and space through literary and historical reflections upon the self and its space from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age.
No longer simply defined by travelogues, travel itself is here recognized as a major movement through space that allows for a reflection on the self and the outer world. In diesem Zusammenhang wird nach der Integration der deutschen Lutheraner im Spannungsfeld von deutscher Tradition und Amerikanisierung gefragt. Der Sammelband diskutiert die Hauptvertreter der literarisch-theoretischen Opposition gegen die Demokratie sowie den antidemokratischen Diskurs insgesamt.
This study analyses how the rules and regulations that governed employment dismissal, promotion and remuneration of bureaucrats in the Grand-Duchy of Baden during the first half of the 19th century brought these features about. In doing so, the study builds on an extensive set of archival materials. In innovativer Weise werden Sicherheitsforschung und Marketinggeschichte, Kultur- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte miteinander verbunden.
Insofar as one presumes a division between distinctly opposed categories of religion and the secular, technical media tend to be associated with the secular and human trance mediums tend to be associated with religion after This volume concerns the ways in which the term medium marks an overlapping of — and thus problematizes — the division between religion and the secular, the personal and the technological.
Seine Studie analysiert die emotionale Verarbeitung von politischen Alltagserfahrungen in Parteien, Gewerkschaften und sozialen Bewegungen. New scientific methods offer new insights in the past. Promising opportunities for archaeology and historiography are confronted with the challenges of interdisciplinary cooperation between the sciences and the humanities. This volume presents contributions by international researchers, arranged in four sections: fundamental questions of archaeology and biosciences, migrations, transformations, and social structures.
Der vorliegende Band liefert die erste umfassende und vergleichende Darstellung dieses Amtes und seiner Eigenschaften. Cultural diplomacy and artistic interaction between Eastern and Western Europe after is in the focus of this volume, providing fresh insight into little known connections and cooperation in different artistic fields ranging from photography and architecture to popular music and theatre. The volume offers an overview on the role culture played in international politics, as well as its role in the Cold War more generally. Mit Blick in die Vergangenheit beleuchtet dieser Band soziale und politische Ambivalenzen des Gesundheitsdiskurses.
Betrachtet werden u. Wiedervereinigung erforscht. Der Grundherr von Tscheb wird am Die nachfolgenden Ermittlungen zeigen seine grausame Herrschaft. Das Buch untersucht in historischer Perspektive, wie sie zustande kamen. Diese Diskussion ist fast so alt wie die Idee des humboldtschen Gymnasiums selbst. Eastern Europe and global labor history. Michael Epkenhans, Gerhard P. Jahrhunderts einen grundlegenden Wandel. Vor allem die drastischen technologischen und gesellschaftlichen Entwicklungen wirkten sich auf die Aufgaben, Rekrutierung und Ausbildung ihrer Offiziere aus.
Zu Stars des Krieges wurden sie zwischen und in der umfangreichen Fliegerliteratur stilisiert. Immanuel Voigt, Historiker, Jena. Kehr im 1. In contemporary history, a much-debated issue has been whether European nations have a common identity and what relevance the European Union has for a shared definition of Europeanness. Der Tagungsband fragt nach Grenzen bzw.
This book fills a gap in the historiographical and theoretical fields of race, gender, and war. In brief, Race and Gender in Modern Western Warfare RGMWW offers an introduction into how cultural constructions of identity are transformed by war and how they in turn influence the nature of military institutions and conflicts. Situating the short-lived but influential Zionist satirical magazine Schlemiel in an extensive network of nodal clusters of varying and shifting significance that roughly encompasses the three decades from to , Zionism, the German Empire, and Africa explores the impact on the self-perception and culture of early Zionism of contemporary constructions of racial difference and of the experience of colonialism in imperial Germany.
Aldo Rossi war ein bedeutender Vertreter der Postmoderne und warf der Architekturmoderne vor, die Geschichte zu negieren. Angelika Schnell, Prof. To what extent has the sublime character influenced architecture in the Alps from the beginning of tourism to today? Under this motto the author analyses Alpine architecture in the context of cultural history and, in addition, provides a critical assessment of contemporary tourism. A book that inspires us to reflect on the future of building in the Alps and on our relationship with nature. Susanne Stacher. Studium der Architektur. Mitarbeit in internat.
Seit o. Bis vor kurzem war das Unternehmen auf mehrere Standorte in Vorarlberg aufgeteilt. The Human Cities partners have carried out urban experimentations in eleven European cities aiming at empowering citizens to rethink their urban environments. The book examines how bottom-up processes generate new ideas to reinvent the city.
It offers inspiration and insights to create more human cities together. Elsa Prochazka, Architektin, Wien. The author examines the urban development of Budapest from to This period is characterized by the significant decline in communally town planning. Privately financed projects tend to not submit to higher level control, in particular when these control bodies are rather weak.
This model analysis presents the phenomenon as exemplary of the development in post-socialist cities. For the fifth edition, a large part of the 3D presentations has been redrawn, all six chapters have been revised and updated. New standards have been established for this handbook, which is a basic resource for many architectural study courses, by adding more component details, new examples with a focus on sustainability and energy consumption, and a major update on finite element analysis FEA and computational fluid dynamics CFD.
Diese Kritiken sind anregend, unterhaltsam, kurzweilig und stets mit einem Schuss Ironie versehen. Advances in the materials and the digitalization in architecture bring about new methods in design construction.
Owing to their flexible properties and good image, these wood-based materials are ideal for computer-aided building component production. Fifteen case examples from research, teaching, and practical applications provide inspiring insights into the potential of formable wood-based materials and digital design.
Uwe R. The layout, design, and facade construction of buildings have an impact on wind and temperature conditions. The publication uses international case studies to explain these relationships. The focus is on manifestations of urban microclimates in an architectural and urban design context. Many popular mountain resorts have seen largely uncontrolled multiplication of chalet-style houses accompanied by roadbuilding for private cars.
The author investigates different settlement structures and, on the basis of detailed graphical analyses, she develops groundbreaking strategies for urban densification and suitable mobility management in order to protect these areas and their natural environs from further uncontrolled development. To achieve this, it is not sufficient to be experienced in the design and execution of construction projects. Specialist project management skills are a mandatory requirement for the success of a project.
The Basics Project Control volume presents, in a practical way, all duties and services involved in project management. This volume describes the various tasks that fall to architects in construction supervision in practical and understandable terms. It addresses construction supervision and quality control in general as well as individual subjects such as quantity survey, account settlement, and cost and supplemental services management.
Klaus Bock. Studium der Kulturwissenschaften. Susanne Jalka, Inst. Es geht aus vom letzten Werk des chinesischen Malers Wu dao-tze aus dem 8. Kunst Wien. Die Genese von Stein eignet sich besonders als Produktionsparadigma mimetischer Kunst. Discourses on museums, exhibitions and cultural heritage can serve as seismographs of national and global cultural development. The ongoing appreciation for museums as well as for sites and phenomena of tangible and intangible cultural heritage has led to the creation of a complex body of theories and to reflections on the mechanisms and requirements of these storage places of cultural memory and their knowledge-related world views.
Edition Angewandte Ca. Marx, Bernd Nicolai Hrsg. Die Autorin geht der Marginalisierung des Fotogramms innerhalb der Fotografiegeschichte nach. Katharina Steidl, Wien. Seit dem Im Die Online-Ausgabe wird laufend aktualisiert. Harald Baumeister, Bay. Staatsbibliothek, Abt. Verwaltung und. Die Buchgeschichte wird in die allgemeine Geschichte, vor allem die Kulturgeschichte, eingebettet. Fragestellungen zum alten Buch z.
Petra Hauke, Humboldt-Uni. De Gruyter Praxishandbuch Ca. The reader finds quickly the sought address and further information, thanks to the lucid and clear layout. Innovative training for school librarians from around the world illustrate the diverse ways to prepare school librarians for the roles identified in the Guidelines. The chapters describe ways for delivering school librarian credentialed programs; improving school librarian services; and providing professional development opportunities for specific aspects of school librarianship.
The 43rd edition of International Directory of Arts IDA contains about , addresses from all over the world: from museums and public galleries, universities, academies and schools, associations, the art trade, galleries, auctioneers, restorers, art publishers, art journals, antiquarians as well as art and antiquity fairs. The names of curators and senior academic museum staff as well as indexes of companies and persons are included.
De Fina, Anna. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Emlyn-Jones, Chris. Second Series 33 : 1— Fludernik, Monika. London: Routledge, Gabriel, Gottfried. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, Hampe, Michael, Die Lehren der Philosophie. Eine Kritik. Berlin: Suhrkamp, Second Ed. Holler, Claudia. Ham- burg, Unpublished Master Thesis. Rethinking Narrative Identity. Persona and Perspective. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Bemjamins, The Odyssey. Die Odyssee. Wolfgang Schadewaldt. Hamburg: Rohwoldt, James, Henry.
The Golden Bowl. Harmondsworth: Penguin, Joisten, Karen. Narrative Ethik. Weimar: Akademie Verlag, Joyce, James. Declan Kiberd. Kerby, Anthony. Narrative and the Self. Bloomington: Indiana UP, Knox-Shaw, Peter. Jane Austen and the Enlightenment. Korthals Altes, Liesbeth. The Negotiation of Values in Fiction. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, Mergenthal, Silvia. Erziehung zur Tugend. Frauenrollen und der englische Roman um Meuter, Norbert. Das narrativische Paradigma in den Kulturwissenschaften.
Stuttgart- Weimar: Metzler, Mieth, Dietmar, Dichtung, Glaube und Moral. Karen Joisten. Miller, J. New York: Columbia UP, Empathie, Sympathie und Narra- tion. Strategien der Rezeptionslenkung in Prosa, Drama und Film. Caroline Lusin. Heidelberg: Winter, Niederhoff, Burkhard. Style 36 : — Newton, Adam Zachary. Narrative Ethics. Cambridge: Harvard UP, Nussbaum, Martha C. Oxford: Oxford UP, Phelan, James. Living to Tell about It. A Rhetoric and Ethics of Character Narration.
Ithaca: Cornell UP, James Phelan, and Peter Rabinowitz. Oxford: Black- well, Pippin, Robert B. Henry James and Modern Moral Life. Pratt, L. Lying and Poetry from Homer to Pindar. Falsehood and Deception in Archaic Greek Poetics. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, Proclus Diadochus. Procli Diadochi in Platonis rem publicam commentarii. Guilelmus Kroll, Leipzig: Teubner, Reinhardt, Karl. Von Werken und Formen. Paris: Ed. Oneself as Another. Kathleen Blamey. Chicago: U of Chicago P, Das Selbst als ein Anderer. Jean Greisch. Rorty, Richard. Vladimir Nabokov.
Pale Fire. Rushdie, Salman. New York: Random House, Ryle, Gilbert. Schabert, Ina. Die Ethik der Fiktion und der englische Gegenwartsroman. Skalin, Lars-Ake. Weidle, Roland. Worthington, Kim L. Self as Narrative. Oxford: Clarendon P, Zacharias, Greg W. Henry James and the Morality of Fiction. New York: Peter Lang, Ethik und Moral als Problem der Literatur und Literatur- wissenschaft. Berlin: Duncker und Humblot, Columbus: Ohio State UP, If fictional as well as factual narratives can change the beliefs of readers, then they are ethically meaningful to disseminate values, emotional dispositions, and cognitive prac- tices.
Building on recent research in psychology and literary studies, this article explores in three steps the ethical value of fictional narratives. First, the persua- sive power of narratives is discussed from a cognitive perspective, which in- cludes consideration of the ethical consequences of taking the perspectives of others. Second, these insights are connected to a delineation of narrative con- ventions, which can foster the kind of deeper understanding associated with altruistic behavior.
In the third part, pertinent narrative strategies are discussed from an ethical perspective. A brief conclusion summarizes the most important results and sketches some fields that merit exploration in future studies of ethical criticism. Keywords: cognitive narratology, narrative conventions, persuasion, ethics, per- spective taking Narratives are persuasive: they can induce listeners to change their values and opinions.
But even though the persuasive power of narrative is taken for granted and exploited in fields such as marketing and politics, literary scholars have as yet been reluctant to acknowledge this potential of narrative. If narratives can alter the beliefs of readers, then they are important tools for spreading values, emotional dispositions, and cognitive practices. This does not mean, however, that fictional narratives are necessarily moral; instead, they can be used for myriad sorts of im moral purposes.
In the following, I will clarify the question concerning the ethical importance of narrative conventions by combining recent research in psychology with narrative theory. I argue that it is worthwhile to take the persuasive power of fiction seriously by practicing an ethical criticism that acknowledges the impor- tance of form, and, at the same time, developing criteria for evaluating the ethics of fictional works. At first sight, these results seem surprising: who would have thought that a simple story can induce American students to believe that eating chocolate helps you lose weight or that brushing your teeth is bad for your gums?
- Gefährdungen von Glaube und Moral (German Edition)?
- Skippeees Secrets to a Happy Life?
- Tracing Paradigms: One Hundred Years of Neophilologus | SpringerLink.
Yet this is exactly what studies have found, and these initial findings have subsequently been replicated and broadened in scope since the end 1 Though scholars such as Jay Hillis Miller, Paul Hernadi or Wayne C. Booth assume that fiction does have an ethical importance, they do not explicitly deal with the persuasive power of fiction, define it, explore the reasons for this potential of fictional stories or relate it to formal conven- tions.
Moreover, it is not just factual stories that can persuade readers: indeed, though it seems unlikely that narratives which readers knew to be fictional and therefore without a factual truth-status could persuade them to change their mental encyclopaedia and general world knowledge, many experi- ments, like the path-breaking one conducted by Prentice, Gerrig and Bailis, have shown that fiction is just as powerful, if not more so.
The morals and values embedded in literary works matter. In their overview of recent research in this area, Green and Donahue show that these morals should be taken seriously and questioned with regard to the kind of ethics that are spread via particular kinds of fiction. To date, no definitive study has explained why stories known to be figments of the imagination can have such a potential for persuasion.
The suspension of disbelief, thus, naturally accom- panies the process of reading good narratives. Contrary to the Romanticist belief that the reading of fiction involves the willing suspension of disbelief, it requires more cognitive effort to suspend belief and critically scrutinize the plausibility or correctness of what has been read see Gilbert; Schreier In the following, I will concentrate on the second function that reading, particularly of fictional stories, can fulfill, and I will propose a few hypotheses concerning the relationships between the two.
In order to explore which narrative conventions can evoke sensitive under- standing of others, it is necessary to first delineate the cognitive and affective processes involved in this kind of understanding. Related feelings, which are connected to pro-social behavior, have also been referred to as sympathy, pity, compassion, and sympathetic distress Batson, Ahmad, and Lishner ; they should be distinguished from the kind of empathic sharing involved in perspective taking.
Both processes are, in different combinations, practiced in interactive encounters and in the reading of fiction; in short, the understanding of people and the understanding of fictional characters bear many resemblances. Such an elaboration of implicit personality theories is a precondition for pro-social action, since one must under- stand the needs and feelings of others before one can put that knowledge into practice.
Nonetheless, there is at least one kind of perspective-taking that can be practiced in reading fiction and that has been shown to correlate with altruistic behavior. In contrast, imagining oneself in the position of another is not necessa- rily related to altruistic behavior. Several conditions must be met in order to adopt such a perspective, and I argue that fictional narratives are particularly apt to fulfil these.
The combination of these factors allows the reader to regulate his or her own perspective and to imagine what the characters feel and think, all while remaining aware of his or her differences from the characters. Reading fiction thus affords a perfect opportunity for practicing perspective taking that is, due to its manifold inherent difficulties, precarious in interactive situations see Decety and Sommerville; and Rameson and Lieberman.
This is also linked to the persuasive power of fiction: the reader must imaginatively, emotionally, and cognitively engage with the tale in order to care about the characters and to adopt the beliefs and values that are being presented. Apparently, stories written by canonical or bestselling authors have had more impact than those produced by psychologists for the purposes of testing Green — However, I would argue that, from the perspective of literary studies, one can point to a number of narrative conventions that encourage perspective taking. It is worth emphasizing that these conventions cannot deter- mine how individual readers respond to a text.
Characters like Harry Potter or the hobbit Frodo would thus meet the criterion of perceived realism. Within their respective fic- tional worlds, the characters act in a way that is plausible to the extent that they correspond to current folk psychology. This fits in well with the requirements for the imagine-other perspective: characters must be lifelike in the sense that they conform to beliefs about psychological processes, for this allows the reader to understand their thoughts, feelings, and actions.
This does not mean, of course, that in order for characters to be perceived as lifelike they must be models of reason and internal consistency: on the contrary, small deviations or even obvious defects can prove fascinating because they remain within the bounds of the thinkable, despite also being beyond the pale of the normal. Indeed, it could even be argued that the most lifelike characters are those that are complex and carry internal contradictions. Moreover, genre conventions, individual preferences, and the cognitive abilities of readers for instance, chil- dren as opposed to adults each play a large role in defining what is plausible within the frame of the fictional world.
This allows the reader to follow and empathically share the mental processes and emotions of fictional characters, and thereby reduces the distance between reader and characters. The second provides knowledge about the characters and offers insight into their respective personalities and current mental states, thereby allowing the reader to understand characters and adopt their perspectives without actually following their thought processes.
The second provides knowledge about the characters and can, in turn, induce readers to feel for them. Both aspects are intri- cately related as far as the taking of perspectives is concerned, but they proceed via different means. The third, and equally time-honored, mode of heightening the interest and empathy of readers is that of setting a character into a precarious position. In order to feel with and for characters, they must be in a situation that potentially allows for positive as well as negative endings. In such situations, the reader is prone to evaluate the future development of events in light of his or her own wishes as well as those of the characters.
It must be emphasized, however, that each of the three conventions discussed above can, by the same token, be employed in order to increase the distance between character and reader. In particular, contemporary and multi-perspective works fre- quently present abhorrent, disgusting, or, at least, undesirable feelings that the reader understands though they evoke negative emotions instead of empathic sharing. In this respect, the character of a serial killer may serve as focalizer in precarious situations, with the reader hoping that the character will be apprehended in time.
The process of sharing thoughts and emotions can therefore be reduced to a merely rational process, one which evokes disgust and antipathy rather than empathy. I wish to argue that increasing the reader-character distance is of crucial importance for the process of perspective taking. This is rare, however, even as far as the empathic sharing of thoughts and feelings is concerned. This second process is intricately connected to an overall assess- ment of the situation and to the moral positioning of readers; it is closely related to questions of ethics. The Ethics of Form: Narrative Strategies from an Ethical Point of View So far, I have stressed that the adoption of the imagine-other perspective is ethically desirable.
This corresponds to the Western tradition of appreciating empathy, sympathy, and the power of literature to evoke these feelings. As the pro-social associations of the imagine-other perspective evidence, there is good reason to follow this tradition, to which authors such as George Eliot have contributed. With regard to the ethical value of literature, it is advantageous to differenti- ate between two aspects: On the one hand, there is the reduction of the distance between readers and characters, and the adoption of the imagine-other perspec- tive.
On the other hand, it is important to emphasize the ethical significance of distancing devices that contri- bute to an awareness of the differences between readers and characters. Especially in postmodern times, it is necessary to consider the experience of alterity, of the otherness of others. According to the French philosopher Alain Badiou 41 , the acceptance of alterity and the radical difference between oneself and everybody else including oneself is a cornerstone of a theory of ethics.
This view is compa- tible with a Levinas-inspired ethics, which has moved away from the prescriptive dimension of traditional values and towards a more tentative and open postmo- dern ethics. Because we live in a society marked by multiplicity, heterogeneity, and alterity, literary works have an ethical value that transcends the practice of the imagine-other perspective, for they not only enable us to appreciate this kind of heterogeneity and complexity, but also help us to accept otherness, to refrain from stereotyping and categorizing others, and to abandon the insistence on closure.
This does not imply a devaluation of the kind of perspective taking described above; rather, it makes it possible to appreciate the ethical value of narrative strategies that induce both sensitive understanding of lifelike characters and the acknowledgement of instability, openness, heterogeneity, and complexity. It therefore seems promising to briefly consider aesthetic devices that in- crease the distance between readers and characters. Practicing empathy is only part of a more complex cognitive process as far as altruistic behaviour is con- cerned: it is also necessary to differentiate between persons whom one should empathize with and those whom one should not.
Moreover, distancing strategies are closely linked to the aesthetic quality of literature. Defamiliarizing devices, which slow the reading process and enhance the dis- tance of what is being described to the reader who must puzzle out what is meant can also open the space necessary for questioning stereotypes and pre- judices and for affectively engaging with characters who may initially seem strange.
However, defamiliarizing devices do not always lead to cognitive closure; from an ethical perspective, what seems to be even more important is the flex- ibility and openness such devices require of readers. For example, it is frequently impossible to categorize characters; especially in modernist works, the first description of a figure often amounts to nothing more than hints about their opinions, attitudes, or dispositions.
In contrast to our routines in everyday life, in reading fiction our first impressions are often questioned and need to be revised. In many cases, it is possible in retrospect to recognize former misunderstandings and to reinterpret events in light of these new insights; in other cases, the uncertainty concerning the evaluation of a character remains. Some literary texts necessitate the acknowl- edgement of complexity and otherness as well as only partial comprehension; they deny cognitive closure and complete comprehension. Shifts in focalization, which call for rapid adjustment to different points of view, can enhance the effects of defamiliarization.
This differen- tiation is also important for understanding the cognitive and the ethical value of reading fiction. This implies that the reader must choose which characters to empathize with and which to main- tain distance from. Various other aesthetic devices can also guide the processes of perspective taking. It is infeasible to discuss them here, as an effective and detailed account would have to explore, among other things, conventions concerning the handling of time and the importance of ambiguities and gaps or blanks Iser 67, Multi-perspective works especially necessitate the interpretation, evaluation, and weighting of different perspectives.
Readers are encouraged to accept alterity and heterogeneity. They practice a process that, from an ethical perspective, is arguably as valuable as adopting the perspectives of others. In literary works, this process is guided by distancing and engaging devices. The complexity and denial of closure inspired by the use of narrative forms can thus induce readers to comprehend contradictory positions, thereby rendering alterity more acceptable and moving towards an ethics of alterity. Unreli- able narration is per se a problematic narrative device as far as the ethics of a novel are concerned.
After all, unreliable narrators usually tell their story from their own point of view; particularly those sincere, but in some way misguided, deviant or mentally ill character narrators that Booth and many others dealt with allow us insight into their thought processes and justify their behaviors in accordance with their own norms, trying to encourage the reader to empathize with them. The relation between ethics and unreliable narrators with questionable norms and values is thus fraught with that the villain of his novel Clarissa published in actually evoked the sympathy of many of his intended readers.
Moreover, the dynamics of the reading process must be taken into account: just as the same character may appear in a different light in different situations, the relations between characters shift, and heroes may appear less admirable and villains less despicable at different stages of the text. I owe this reference concerning the wide spectrum between the bonding and distancing devices in the same narrative text to the editors of this volume. On the one hand, the confrontation with radically different views may establish this kind of fiction as a valuable vehicle for ethics, because it evokes an experience of alterity.
After all, cognitively following the thoughts of narrators or characters does not necessarily imply either affective sharing or a loss of critical distance on the part of the reader.
Philadelphia Area Archives Research Portal (PAARP)
A similar, perhaps even more important, kind of ethical reflection can be inspired by multi-perspective works featuring heterogeneous perspectives that can neither be reconciled with each other nor discarded as irrelevant or simply wrong. Such novels, which require openness and acceptance of ambiguity and complexity on the part of readers, implicitly raise the question of whether there are absolute ethical values. The same function can be fulfilled by novels that include several narrators or present only a particular point of view while hinting at other, equally valid ones.
The topic certainly merits further attention, but I would like to suggest that three interrelations espe- cially warrant exploration. Second, shifts from categorization to individuation and the discarding of stereotyping a particular character may engender a change of attitude towards particular stereotypes or an awareness of the problems of stereotyping in general. Third, taking the perspec- tives of characters and temporarily adopting their values and traits may lead to a reflection on and appraisal of these values and thereby result in the dissemination of values.
The ethical impor- tance of literature has been stressed by scholars in both Western and Eastern countries. Rarely, however, has it been attempted to consider insights from psychology and cognitive studies in order to link the use of particular constella- tions of narrative conventions to specific kinds of ethical values. While the effects of particular narrative conventions always depend on their specific combination and weighting as well as on the content and context of the particular work, two aspects merit consideration with regard to the analysis of the ethical value of 6 I owe this suggestion to Shang Biwu and Nie Zhenzhao.
However, many questions remain open, especially as far as the effects of the arrangement of specific narrative strategies are concerned. A framework for understanding such combinations has been sketched here, yet this could be further detailed and modified in any number of ways worthy of exploration. Which constellations of particular devices reduce the distance between reader and character and invite the reader to feel with and for the character in question?
To what extent are these combinations subject to historical change, what role is played by cultural values, and is it possible to relate specific constellations to specific genres? And, last but not least, what role do specific cultural models play as far as concerns, for instance, features about the contents of the work or the depiction of the characters? How do characteristics such as physical attractiveness, generally ideal personality traits, and emotional dispositions relate to the use of formal conventions? The number of open research questions could daunt scholars into surrender- ing before even making any attempt.
However, there are good reasons for endea- voring to address these problems. At a moment when the legitimization of literary scholarship has become an urgent problem in many countries, the promise of such a benefit is particularly stimulat- ing and justifying. Wien: Turia und Kant, Batson, Daniel C. New York: Psychology Press, Imhoff, Erin C. Mitchener, Lori L. Bednar, Tricia R. Klein, and Lori Highberger. Shane J. Lopez, and C. The Rhetoric of Fiction. Boyd, Brian. Jonathan Gottschall and David S. Breithaupt, Fritz. Kulturen der Empathie Cultures of Empathy.
Frankfurt a. Busselle, Rick, and Helena Bilandzic. Cohen, Jonathan. Decety, Jean, and Jerry A. Eagleton, Terry. The Event of Literature. New Haven: Yale UP, Gerrig, Richard J. Experiencing Narrative Worlds. Willie van Peer, and Seymour Chatman. Gilbert, Daniel S. Grabes, Herbert. Gerhard Hoffmann and Alfred Hornung.
Heidelberg: C. Winter, Green, Melanie C. Brock, and Geoff F. Keith D. Markman, William Klein, and Julie Suhr. Habermas, Tilman, and Verena Diel. Harrison, Mary-Catherine. Hartner, Marcus. Perspektivische Interaktion im Roman. Berlin, Boston: de Gruyter, Hernadi, Paul. Hochschild, Arlie R. The Managed Heart. Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley: U of California P, Hogan, Patrick Colm. Iser, Wolfgang. Jameson, Fredric. Keen, Suzanne. Empathy and the Novel. Kidd, David C. Mar, Raymond A. Miall, David S. Willie van Peer and Seymour Chatman.
Miller, Jay Hillis. Moll, Henrike, and Andrew N. Level 2 Perspective-Taking at 36 Months of Age. Jutta Zimmermann and Britta Salheiser. Wolfgang Viereck. Amsterdam: Brill Rodopi Heidelberg: Winter Oatley, Keith. Ithaca, London: Cornell UP, Prentice, Deborah A. Gerrig, and Daniel S. Rameson, Lian, and Matthew D. Schmidt, Siegfried J. Schneider, Ralf. Schreier, Margrit. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, Shang, Biwu. In Pursuit of Narrative Dynamics. Bern: Peter Lang, Shklovsky, Viktor. Russian Formalist Criticism. Four Essays. Lee T. Lemon and Marion J. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, Singer, Tania.
Slater, Michael D. Tooby, John, and Leda Cosmides. A Review of Theory and Literary Criticism 30 : 6— These include a rabbinic formula about the category-status of the material text, which among other things demarcates religious from secular. The essay distills an argument from a larger project, To Make the Hands Impure: Art and Ethical Adventure, the Difficult and the Holy Fordham UP, , which considers the question of how reading may be said to possess a certain ritual sensibility embodied by the ethical situation of the book lying in the hands of its readers.
He shows you this object. Perhaps he asks you to inspect it to see if it is indeed real, unaltered, normal. You want to be fooled. In this respect, however, the schema of Pledge-Turn,- Prestige has yet another story to tell, as an ars poetica for the workings of art, generally. Architecture, for example, stakes a pledge on the transformation of space and surrounding element into social structure and habitation.
Music stakes a pledge on mechanical waves of pressure realized in ordered configurations of frequency and pitch, duration, and interval that enable song and rhythmic pulse. The plastic arts stake a pledge on the materiality of stone and wood, glass and textile, and pigment and canvas rendered into design, pattern, image, and form. Dance stakes a pledge on the human body posed and mobilized through perfor- mance and social contact. Cinema stakes a pledge on the illusion of movement generated by twenty-four still frames per second not to mention the bricolage of those cutter-magicians known as editors , and, like theater, it stakes a pledge on the stylized impersonation of person.
Literary and verbal representation stakes a pledge on language as both artifact and expression, and on the uncanny circuit of address between writers and readers. Art presents itself, wills some change in form or the production of some effect or consequence, and finally re-materializes either itself or its objects.
Mimesis-as-prestige is costly, for nothing is ever really brought back whole once it has been pledged. Manipulated and subject to sleight, the object-in-hand never really stays un-altered. My essay centers on this very quotidian economy, the everyday mimetic circuit of exchange that we take for granted—even we scholars, archivists, and professional book-handlers whose vocation is to read.
By this point, the title of my essay has perhaps become somewhat clearer. I have begun it in this manner for three reasons. Secondly, I want to suggest that this formula, as in my claim about its importability as a kind of ars poetica for the workings of aesthetic practices generally, also applies to the enterprise of commentary and criticism—as its own sort of conjuring and stagecraft.
It is to describe it as if literature were music or art, and as if one could sing or paint criticism. Again, but for the first time: the critic shares the language of her subject, but then changes every word, makes it her own tilted subjection. All critics do this, but the writer-critic, wanting to be both faithful critic and original writer, does it acutely, in a flurry of trapped loyalties. The reverse of the statement would be more correct: reality is the shadow of the word. The third, and most immediate, reason for my beginning thus is that the formula of Pledge-Turn-Prestige has been repurposed here as an armature on which to sculpt this essay, which following these preliminaries will assume a three-part structure.
In this way, an organizing concern for the performative ethics of criticism, in craft and artificing, reveals its own hand. Tulp is directinging its collective attention. For the book alone allows the body to be deciphered and invites the passage from the interior to the exterior. Sebald comments on this seeming anomaly in The Rings of Saturn 16— Nonsense—though, admittedly, a peculiarly self-referential art-academic, specialized-tome- generating sort of nonsense. Just look at the picture. For what a marvel of motility it is—with its capacity for compression and extension, for flex and repose, grip and rotation.
The hand in itself is a veritable miracle…. This is a painting, then, about looking at hands, about vision and malleability—about the fundamentals of painting itself. Either the book is the final object of internal gaze, which the interposed hand interrupts; or the gazes at the hand cannot help but extend farther forward, to the book behind it. The line of sight linking them also, of necessity, coordinates them. That was the degree to which he forgot himself in study. Many of you are undoubtedly thinking, with good reason, that at this very moment, I am in the process of rubbing the text to make it spurt blood—I rise to the challenge.
Has anyone ever seen a reading that was anything other than this effort carried out on a text? One must, by rubbing, remove this layer which corrodes them. I think you would find this way of proceeding natural. Raba, in rubbing his foot, was giving plastic expression to the intellectual work he was involved in. I mention Levinas here, in connection with the Helen Keller example, specifically to provide an initial example of the book- in-hand even if Levinas seems to concentrate on the foot-in-hand, or the foot-in- the-other-hand.
But on either side of the fulcrum between mimesis and exegesis, reading remains fundamentally tactile: the book is the book-in-hand. I will offer a few examples from a somewhat different textual tradition. As soon as this volume began to circulate, Mr. And so, Levinas surely does massage the Talmudic text here, which in its plain sense more likely suggests that Rava was sitting on his hand, and thus drawing blood by grinding it as opposed to the more provocative image of a frictional, restless hand. They were distributed in the lower classes. The teacher would call my name, and the book then made its way from bench to bench; one boy passed it on to another, or else it traveled over the heads until it came to rest with me, the student who had raised his hand.
Its pages bore traces of the fingers that had turned them. The bit of corded fabric that finished off the binding, and that stuck out above and below, was dirty. But it was the spine, above all, that had had things to endure—so much so, that the two halves of the cover slid out of place themselves, and the edge of the volume formed ridges and terraces. Hanging on its pages, however, like Indian summer on the branches of the trees, were sometimes fragile threads of a net in which I had once become tangled when learning to read. Both scenes— negatively, in the first instance, and with more emulative force in the second— illustrate what I mean by transfer or transitivity.
But what added to her anxiety was her belief that the book was a contagion, that its gold-leafed pages would defile her should her fingers brush against it by accident when she was searching for another book on the shelf. However, the next section offers quite a different story, and is counterintui- tive in the extreme. In this story, the tradeoff involving both mimesis and exegesis is a line that marks one kind of text-culture or reading practice from another, a sign that registers canonical inclusion or exclusion, sanctity as opposed to mundanity, defilement versus consecration.
Like the object-in-hand noted earlier that never really remains unaltered, the book-in-hand of this example concen- trates the very force of alteration. Correlatively, human hands themselves were also accorded a special status according to their propensity to busy themselves with things of every sort. Strangely enough, however, included among contaminant articles and objects is the material status of scripture itself.
Such classification ensured that these inscriptions would not be handled casually and would be accorded the proper respect commanded by their qedushah, or holiness. And yet, counterintuitively, holy books possessed the power to taint persons, not vice versa. Scholars have been understandably piqued by the linguistic apotropaism that thus transforms defilement into a sign of sanctity. An etiology for this peculiar reversal is offered in a tractate of the Talmud, which foregrounds storage places for Torah scrolls in the Mishnaic period early first through early third centuries C.
The customary practice was to stow them with terumah, sanctified grain, since both were considered ritually holy. Could books that did not mention the name of God such as Song of Songs and The Book of Esther—or that skirted non-Jewish philosophies Ecclesiastes be included alongside the Torah and the Prophets as part of the Biblical text corpus?
Did they refer to the ideas spoken within the book, or to the words of the book when spoken, or to the book itself as a physical object, or to all of these? But the physical is still a baseline. The interdiction against casual contact accords with an entire halakhic protocol regulating the proper handling of ritual texts. By exten- sion, sefarim books with religious content are accorded their own elaborate de jure apparatus of reverential comportment, which, not coincidentally, calls pre- cise attention to their vulnerability.
When a sefer falls, it must be reverently kissed upon being picked up; and when it becomes no longer usable, it must be put aside in a safe place or buried in the ground; it may not be burned or discarded. If stacked, sefarim are placed in order of rising qedusha: Pentateuch on top of Prophets, and Writings on top of Talmud volumes, on top of prayer books, etc.
For a mere point or tangent, in this reckoning, inevitably expands with the wish to press further and touch more: to appropriate, to penetrate or to grasp. I will pursue the first question, about contamination, and defer for a moment the second, about hands and touch. On contemporary Cuban Jewry, see Abel R. It also suggests a transferential property of exposition and commentary inasmuch as a Torah scroll or canonized scripture does not exist secluded from bodily human contact—an inert totem or untouchable sacral object—but, on the contrary, is imbued with touch as the sanctifying effect of transitivity for reading eyes, reciting mouths, listening ears, and holding hands.
What is so singular about the combination of hand and book, each its own metonym of the human, the two together conducting a circuit of tactile, cognitive, and affective energies? This returns us to the second question I left suspended: how might we think about this whole tactile matter of the hands, as the specifically material point of contact for an ethics of reading?
If a Torah scroll can join the commu- nity of persons and thus, by itself, serve to fulfill the statutory mandate of communal prayer, then perhaps we too easily construe our relation to the texts we bear in hand, the texts that accompany us, side-by-side, marking the seam between, on one hand, corporeal, worldly event and, on the other, the enigma of tact, in the doubled sense of touch and regard.
This intimacy between person and page is captured by medievalist Valerie Allen in direct connection with the Levinasian hermeneutic of sollicitation, of an agitated and agitating text, an integumentum or skin that solicits reading as rubbing. Knuth and edited by Olivier Joseph. Biographical treatments include J.
For literary critics at least, this embarrassment can, or should, stem from taking ourselves as spokespersons for self-congratulatory values in reading that are extremely difficult to state in any public language. In literary studies, the ethical turn, as it has been called, has been revolving for a while: there is no shortage of books and articles and requests for papers on the matter, nor any sign of the post- ethical—as this special issue of arcadia attests.
Nor does it concern itself with whether a text is licit or illicit, or virtuous and thus advanta- geous for its readers , or else somehow deleterious objectionable on some moral ground and thus disadvantageous. All states of being, not just overt, physical activity but even what appear to be forms of physical inactivity like reading or perceiving or feeling-inevitably entail reciprocal jostling with the world. But with that dialectic between concussiveness and largesse as specifically ethical correlates for the act of reading, I will now pivot to the third and concluding section of this article, the Prestige, where the magician, artist, or critic supposedly brings something back.
That something is still the book-in-hand, the one we must rub to arrive at the life it conceals—even if in contact it becomes a somewhat different book. For once pledged, nothing truly remains un-altered. It has long been a matter of national custom for public monuments to the dead—in particular, those to victims of collective calamity—to display their names in memorialization. At the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall, the 58, names of American soldiers killed in action in the Southeast Asia theater of operations are etched chronologically into the granite wall according to the casualty dates.
Other memorials list names in the most common and democratic manner: alphabetically. This is its feat of leger e demain, and its prestige. Around the perimeter of the two colossal cubic voids that mark the footprints of the destroyed towers—each of which are ringed by waterfalls cascading into a sunken pool that encloses a smaller, central draining pool—is a bronze balustrade of five-foot by ten-foot panels on which are inscribed the names of the 2, victims from ninety countries of the attacks on September 11, and February 26, Each name is handfinished.
Name adjacency depends on patterns of affiliation. So complex was the entire arrangement that an algorithm was required to sort the multiple permutations of nearness. But a casual visitor is free to absorb, intone, litanize the names as a pure collectivity, not so differently from how those names are publicly recited on each anniversary: the martyred dead. That is, just as the restless hand that reads these names could be said to perform an ethics of reading, so rhetoricizing it as a scene of reading among a community of readers also limns an ethics of criticism.
The rubbing itself solicits rubbing. For is that not one of the cathartic purposes of an artwork, and a reason why we raise monuments to the dead: to touch us, unfathomably, and therefore perhaps purge us of pity, of fear, or of just the casualness that we take to be our natural relationship to the world? In the face of such demurrals, I want to propose another set of possible consequences. Beyond affect or pathos, beyond spontaneity defended and preserved, we are given the chance to enact something by being asked to make connections, even if the traces are ultimately ineffable. In reading the names engraved upon the National September 11 Memorial, we do more than just record them: we open a space for proximity to them.
While one is not asked to sign an affidavit after visiting the memorial, one can still opt to touch and physicalize it to a greater degree of permanence, namely, by penciling it—as is common when one needs to retrieve lost information. Marks, and Mark Patterson. A series of tropes organizes the constellation of chapters, functioning as both structural armature and cladding.
What invites the hand into movement and contact with the bronze parapets at the National September 11 Memorial is the regress of name to person to material surface—each element, both explicably and inexplic- ably, standing for the other. But the magic process by which writing becomes altered reading, the way it both marks and invites marking, and solicits tact—touch and regard—is what explains the transformative move from eye to restless hand, and the turning of its pledge into an always-receding prestige. Works Cited and Consulted Ajzenstat, Oona. Allen, Valerie.
Ann W. Astell, and J. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, September 21, , p. Todd F. Davis, and Kenneth Womack. Charlottes- ville: U of Virginia P, Behar, Ruth. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, Benjamin, Walter. Berlin Childhood around Howard Eiland. Brooks, Peter with Hilary Jewett Eds. Surface: Matters of Aesthetics, Materiality, and Media. Capuano, Peter J. Chalier, Catherine. David J. Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, Chartier, Rogier, and J. Cohen, William A. Francis, Anne Cranny. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, Cole, J.
The Ark of Speech. Andrew Brown. New York: Routledge, The Call and the Response. Anne A. New York: Fordham UP, DeArmitt, Pleshette. On Touching: Jean-Luc Nancy. Christine Irizarry. Stanford: Stanford UP, The Work of Mourning. Pascale-Anne Brault, and Michael Naas. Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Margaret Cardwell. Edwards, Elizabeth. The Book of Touch. Oxford: Berg: — Figueroa, Abel R. Quo vadis, Cuba? Bloomington: Palibrio, Goodman, Martin. Gopnik, Adam. Heckscher, William. Nicolaas Tulp: An Iconological Study. Greenblatt, Stephen. Gritz, David. The Beautiful Face.
Kavka, Martin. Pascale-Anne Brault. Levinas, Emmanuel. Difficult Freedom: Essays on Judaism. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, Ethics and Infinity, Conversations with Philippe Nemo. Richard Cohen.
- Tracing Paradigms: One Hundred Years of Neophilologus.
- (PDF) Leger(e)demain: Reading and the Restless Hand | Adam Zachary Newton - dequsyjeme.ml!
- The Bible Revealed From The Ascended Masters’ Perspective: A Compilation.
- Contract Law Minimalism (Law in Context);
- Apple of His Eye.
- Atlantis and the Atlanteans (The Emerald Tablets and Other Texts)!
Michael B. Alphonso Lingis. Pittsburgh: Duquesne UP, , 1— Annette Aronowicz. Bloomington: Indiana UP, , 30— Lin, Maya. May — Hillis Miller, J. Mandell, Hinda. Marks, Laura U. Touch: Sensuous Theory and Multisensory Media. The Fictional Christopher Nolan. Austin: U of Texas P, Miller, Patricia Cox. Richard A. The Inoperative Community. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, Blaise Pascal: Reasons of the Heart. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, Pascal, Blaise. The Memorial. Elizabeth T. Olivier Joseph August London: Penguin Classics, Paterson, Mark. New York: Berg,