Congress for its approval. Capitol before traveling from there to the presidential reviewing stand at the White House to watch the parade. As former President and Mrs. Bush began their journey to their Texas home, the Obamas and Bidens joined several congressional guests for the inaugural luncheon in National Statuary Hall at the U. Guests included top Washington lawmakers as well as former Presidents and Vice Presidents. Commemorating the Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial , the red and white china used during the luncheon were replicas of those used in the Lincoln White House. A luncheon at the U.
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Capitol has been part of the inaugural program since before that time, the luncheon was usually held at the White House and hosted by the outgoing President and First Lady. Since , a painting has served as a backdrop for the head table. For the inaugural luncheon, the featured painting was Thomas Hill's View of the Yosemite Valley , a painting that commemorated Abraham Lincoln's signing of the Yosemite Grant , which was the first time the federal government protected park lands for public use.
During the luncheon, Senator Ted Kennedy collapsed after suffering a seizure , and he was transported to a hospital for medical treatment. Capitol, ending at the north face of the White House. During most of the parade, President Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama traveled in the new armored limousine because of potential security threats. The parade lasted more than two hours during the afternoon and early evening following the inaugural ceremony.
Vice President Joe Biden invited several groups from Delaware to march in the parade. Walheim marched in the parade carrying an American flag and wearing a prototype of NASA's next generation spacesuit. Gernhardt drove a prototype lunar rover in the parade.
Traditionalists considered this a fashion faux pas, as a white tie is conventionally only worn with a white waistcoat and tails. The nine other official inaugural balls attended by the Obamas that evening included: . President Obama and the First Lady also attended one inaugural ball during the evening of January 21, Jill Biden, gathered at the Washington National Cathedral for a national day of prayer. Congress, diplomats and other dignitaries.
The theme of the interfaith worship service reflected inclusiveness and religious diversity, with a mix of Protestant pastors, female Hindu and Muslim religious leaders, rabbis and Catholic and Episcopal bishops who delivered scripture readings and prayers throughout the service. Watkins, general minister and president of the Christian Church Disciples of Christ and the first woman to deliver the sermon for the inaugural prayer service.
Bush , Bill Clinton and George W. Bush and former Vice Presidents Walter Mondale , Dan Quayle , Al Gore and Dick Cheney , along with their respective wives, attended the inauguration, including Hillary Clinton , who had been Obama's main opponent in the Democratic primaries Clinton was attending as a former First Lady , not as the losing candidate.
Eighty-seven-year-old Sarah Obama led a group of Obama's Kenyan relatives from his father's home village of Kogelo. Joe Biden's son, Beau , Attorney General for the state of Delaware and an officer and Judge Advocate in the Delaware Army National Guard , received a special furlough from serving in Iraq to participate in the ceremonies. Celebrity guests included the actors Dustin Hoffman , Samuel L. Government agencies and federal officials, who coordinated security and traffic management, determined the attendance count to be 1. The Washington Post reported the estimated crowd size for the inaugural ceremony, and the National Park Service said it did not contest the estimate.
Stephen Doig , a professor at Arizona State University , estimated that 1. I'm wholly prepared to think it was the largest crowd. Johnson in Amid the massive crowds that arrived at the U. Capitol for the inauguration, about 4, ticket holders were unable to gain entry to reserved areas on the Capitol grounds after security personnel closed the gates at the start of the formal ceremony. Many ticket holders were stuck in underground tunnels where pedestrian traffic was directed to and from the National Mall. People dubbed one such tunnel "the Purple Tunnel of Doom ", after the purple tickets that would-be viewers held.
Inauguration Day broke several records for the Washington Metropolitan Transit system. The 1,, estimated Metrorail riders broke the record of , trips set the day before which had broken the record set on July 11, , and marked the first million trip day in the system's history. In addition, the Sunday events helped Metro set a Sunday single-day record of , that is still largest Sunday crowd. As with the 54th and 55th Presidential Inaugurations, in and , respectively, the 56th Presidential Inauguration in was designated as a National Special Security Event NSSE , resulting in the United States Secret Service being the lead Federal agency for the development and implementation of the overall security plan;  the Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI being the lead Federal agency for counter terrorism, intelligence, and criminal investigation; and the Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA being the lead Federal agency for crisis management in the aftermath of any terrorist attack, natural disaster or other catastrophic incident.
No one from the crowds at the swearing-in ceremony or parade was arrested on Inauguration Day. More than a dozen counter-sniper teams were stationed along the inauguration parade route in response, and the criminal records of nearby employees and hotel guests were scrutinized, but no such attack took place. Kessler also reported a number of perceived inadequacies in the security during the inauguration, including an instance in which more than major campaign donors and VIPs were able to board "secure" buses without being checked.
Nielsen television ratings indicated that Although the Obama inaugural events achieved an average U. Measurements of television viewership in Europe showed that Germany drew the largest audience for the Obama inauguration at 11 million viewers, followed by France at 7 million and the United Kingdom at 5. The Obama inauguration resulted in a surge of Internet traffic to news and social networking websites and a record number of video streams. The international community paid unprecedented attention to the inauguration of Barack Obama. Millions of people, including citizens of numerous countries around the world and American expatriates living in those countries, watched the Obama inauguration live on television and on the Internet.
In some countries, the Obama inauguration garnered as much viewership as the opening ceremony of the Summer Olympics. Celebrations surrounding the inauguration, praise of the event's significance and congratulations to Obama on his inauguration were internationally diverse. In Kenya , the home country of Obama's father, people celebrated the inauguration as a public holiday. Leaders of some countries reserved enthusiasm for the Obama inauguration, with coverage of the event even muted in some places. When President Obama mentioned "earlier generations faced down fascism and communism ", Chinese state television officials cut away abruptly from the televised speech and switched to a discussion in the studio.
Ordinary citizens in Iraq even viewed the new president with cautious optimism. One Iraqi citizen opined that "If [Obama] can do as well as he talks, then all our problems are over", adding a belief that "[Obama] is a good man, but many people in Iraq believe all American presidents are the same and that we are a playground for their interests. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. First presidential inauguration of Barack Obama.
Barack Obama takes the oath of office as the 44th President of the United States. This article is part of a series about. Cabinet Judges. One of the one million public invitations to the inaugural ceremony of Barack Obama . Main article: Invitations to the first inauguration of Barack Obama. See also: United States presidential inauguration. Taking the Oath at the U. Re-taking Oath at the White House. Inaugural address of Barack Obama. Play media. Barack Obama delivers his inaugural address on January 20, Duration: 21 minutes, 21 seconds.
Inaugural address of Barack Obama audio-only version. Main article: List of unofficial events for the first inauguration of Barack Obama. Main article: International reaction to the United States presidential election, Politics portal. Politics portal United States portal. The New York Times. Retrieved November 5, BBC News. November 13, Retrieved November 14, Retrieved December 15, PBS NewsHour. Public Broadcasting Service.
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Media General News Service.
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January 7, Retrieved December 26, Gadsden Times. Gadsden, AL. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved May 9, Retrieved January 18, Retrieved January 20, Retrieved January 25, Corporation for National and Community Service. January 23, Archived from the original on October 10, Chicago Tribune. Hartford Courant. Archived from the original on June 11, Retrieved April 15, Archived from the original on November 21, King's Legacy and Serving America".
White House. Archived from the original on November 17, Retrieved January 26, Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved February 13, Retrieved October 2, January 11, United States Marine Corps. March 6, Archived from the original on October 19, Retrieved March 7, U-T San Diego. Copley News Service. December 19, Retrieved March 6, January 29, CQ Politics. Archived from the original on April 26, World News Australia. Retrieved February 12, Sun Sentinel. Broward County, FL. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies. Ambiguous and enigmatic utterances, metafictional or metanarrative configurations and narrative tension generate intriguing and self-reflexive texts.
In the end, it appears that O'Brien's spectropoetics reads like a hantissage imbued with baroque traits and thanatological quintessence that provide the author with symbolic immortality.
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We will define Dickensian Gothic. Actually, Dickens stages a twofold familiar universe. One universe belongs to the past - a real world that is well known to the readers. The second universe shows an insertion in literary history of an intertextual fabric - described as typical and easily shared by his readers. We will then deal with the effects of this violent collision upon the characters' memories and will define the expression of trauma in Dickens's fiction.
Trauma primarily rests upon identity confusion. It originates from a sense of failure of identity belonging together with a sense of loss of society bearings that Dickens's characters experience and thought to be immutable. Finally, we will show how Gothic and Detective fictions interact in Dickens's fiction. We will analyse the societal elements that explain this almost against nature meeting for we could assume that the rational explanation that comes at the end of the detective novel should solve the Gothic tensions. But in fact, the solving of the inquests doesn't free the fiction from a Gothic aftermath.
We will then study the transfer of powers from lawyers to detective police officers. This transfer of powers is noticeable both in Victorian society and the Dickensian text. We will then conclude with the persistence of Gothic in Dickens's fiction that makes detective police officers some sort of antiquarians of a new genre. Often addressed from a perspective of global learning, school adaptation processes specific to traumatized children in war are shortly analysed.
The variability of the psychosocial adaptation of children invited the present research to consider the role of factors internal and specific to the children and external factors that depend on others, namely the family and the school environment. The views of children on their psychosocial well-being and the opinion of educators on their school situation reflect characteristics that may explain the variability in the context of fortitude as well defined as Boris Cyrulnik , , , Researched in the context of the devastating July war between Hezbollah and Israel, this study will identify the internal and external factors adopted, by students in primary classes in schools on the border with Israel, to face a stressful, brutal and often repetitive or prolonged trauma.
This study will also assess contributions respective of these factors to their school adaptation. The dynamics of education of these students was apprehended through the views of educators and of these children who, when back to school, follow and finish in time the same curriculum designed for the entire Lebanese territory. Perceptions of educational attitudes, the structuring of educational practices will influence the lives of students. Our analysis shows correlations between internal resources.
It leads us to postulate that the support of the Community family, school, social network appears to offer protective factors for children who have experienced the trauma of the war. The child protected by their family will also need protection by the school, the place of schooling and socialization crossroads, to complete the process of resilience and to prevent an early school drop-out.
However, it seems that this prominent place fosters questioning as much as empowerment. This paradoxical position seems to stem from the recurrent appearance of members of the professions in texts within which the principles of truth and meaning are undermined. Therefore, we will show how members of the professions, both as narrators and characters, put forward discursive strategies which allow them to manipulate the notion of truth and to destabilize meaning. In order to do so, we will study predominantly short stories, as this genre was favoured by Victorian writers as the locus of narrative and literary experimentation.
Besides, this genre was widely read by Victorian audiences and can be seen as a privileged media for authors to express their doubts and commentaries on contemporary society. We have chosen to study the works of three authors in particular, who played a vital role in the bringing of the middle classes on the forefront of Victorian literary representation. Indeed, we will focus on Joseph Sheridan Le Fanu, the son of a clergyman and a man fascinated by the arcana of theology, Arthur Conan Doyle, a doctor himself, before he became a writer and William Wilkie Collins, who had a passion for science and the transformations its growing influence imposed on Victorian society.
What is more, these three writers' active role in the establishment of the most popular Victorian periodicals attests to their vast contribution to the development of Victorian values. This concept was first highlighted and brought out by UNESCO, and Lebanon it takes on specific and distinctive characteristics that might be extrapolated globally. We want to test whether cultural convergence is a reality or not in a country where many cultural and confessional communities have coexisted for centuries through repetitive internice wars, notably between - To test our theoretical assumptions, a field investigation was done in Tripoli, the capital of North Lebanon.
We have tried to illustrate and clarify the basic data of our problematic. Cultural diversity as it is experienced by the Lebanese people in their daily life, at least in Tripoli, has helped the Christians and Muslims of Lebanon. To regulate their political life and to progress slowly but steadily towards a developed civil society. These tests can be divided into different categories according to their features and function: placement tests, acquisition and progress tests, certification tests and aptitude tests.
It therefore complies with the majority of the parameters laid down in this official document and adheres to an action-oriented approach. The latter is achieved by using language taken from real life situations for the conception of items. The test has been designed for local use on the campus of Bordeaux University and takes into account the specificities of this environment. Its aim is to assess the competence level of secondary school leavers as they enter the higher education system.
POSILANG is able not only to assess the overall language level of participants, but also the level in three separate areas of competence. It has a diagnostic function centered on pinpointing the weaknesses of students. The placement of students according to the different areas of competence enables teachers to form student groups with similar language levels, so as to address the specific instructional needs identified by the test.
These systems based on the missionary education, were aimed at civilizing the Indians through education and assimilating them to the American and Canadian societies, thus offering a solution to the ever present "Indian problem".
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These boarding schools had a very specific curriculum in which the young Indians were taught the English language as well manual training to allow them to find a job and to be integrated in the society of their country later on. These schools were based on the fact that the young Indians could be civilized and educated on the condition that they should be taken away from their family as well as their reservation centers of their traditions they had to forget, to be assimilated faster.
This dissertation will deal with the comparison of the two systems and help underlying the factors that have motivated these educational systems the economic, political and institutional stakes , on the one hand, and on the other hand, with the consequences of the assimilation through education. Contrary to what most people think, the outcomes of the boarding school systems were not detrimental to Indians.
Among the positive aspects one can find the emergence of pan-indianism, since the s, and the creation of Tribal colleges which contribute today to a retribalization. How was the transition from boarding schools to tribal colleges made and what does it imply? Pragmatism and Christian Realism in the Political Thought of Reinhold Niebuhr : An Analysis and Evolution of American Liberalism by James Doughty 1 edition published in in English and held by 1 WorldCat member library worldwide This work aims to analyze the political thought of the American theologian and political scientist Reinhold Niebuhr More specifically, it will analyze the way in which Pragmatism was able to influence Niebuhr's writings.
Critical towards the liberal idealism of John Dewey , Niebuhr's Christian realism was a counter against the optimism that political Pragmatism demonstrated in regards to the nature of man. Despite these criticisms, Niebuhr was unable to escape Pragmatism's influence. This influence is the reason for this research: how political Pragmatism, specifically that of John Dewey was able to have an impact on Reinhold Niebuhr's works and his Christian realism.
This thesis will study the major works of these two thinkers in order to compare the political thought of each thinker. Younger than Dewey, Niebuhr had for a long time considered Dewey's thought as nothing more than an idealized and outdated continuation of Enlightenment optimism which was incapable of accurately analyzing the contemporary world. Nevertheless, Niebuhr was influenced by Dewey. This thesis's goal is to highlight the influences of Pragmatism in Niebuhr's works in order to show that Niebuhrian thought is a continuation of Dewey's pragmatic thought, specifically through the notions of Christian Pragmatism and therefore, fits within an overall framework of American Liberalism.
In spite of the fundamental differences in thought, we are going to attempt to show that Niebuhr was a part of the typically American intellectual tradition, that is to say, Pragmatism; considered to be a uniquely American philosophical movement. It will be analyzed in order to achieve a greater understanding of these important thinkers, but also, of America's political landscape. The focus is accordingly on verbless utterances rather than verbless sentences.