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A spokeswoman for Mayor Rahm Emanuel said his administration is taking steps to keep African-Americans in the city. She pointed to expanded mentoring and jobs for African-American youth and investments in businesses and shopping corridors on the predominantly black South and West sides.

But some academics blame city officials for making it harder for poor African-Americans, in particular, to live in Chicago: They closed neighborhood schools and mental health clinics ; failed to rebuild public housing, dispersing thousands of poor black families across the region, and inadequately responded to gun violence, unemployment and foreclosures in black communities. The Sanders family moved from a two-bedroom apartment on the West Side of Chicago to a single-family home in Gary, Ind. When Brittany first moved to Gary, the abundance of abandoned buildings surprised her.

Mass layoffs followed. Soon after, Gary elected its first African-American mayor and many white residents fled. Now, tens of thousands of buildings are vacant or blighted. Northwest Indiana is the top destination for African-Americans who leave Cook County but stay in the greater Chicago area. Since Brittany arrived in Gary, her grandmother, uncle and great-uncle have moved there, too.

Denise Comer Dillard, a lifelong Gary resident and the board president of a local charter school, first noticed the influx of cars with Illinois license plates in the s and s as Chicago tore down its public housing. At school, reminders of Chicago are everywhere. Ken has a classmate who transferred in from a Noble high school in Pullman. Little, who requires every transfer student to meet with him, estimates 10 of every out-of-district transfers to his school is from Chicago.

Her son and younger brother attend high school with Brittany and Ken.

Black History Milestones

As African-American families leave Chicago, the percentage of poor black students in the suburbs has grown dramatically, straining already cash-strapped school districts. Most districts were among the worst-funded in the state and have been shortchanged even more than CPS. To correct inequities, the state soon will send more money to districts with higher-need students. Three-quarters of the 50 Illinois districts most impacted by transfers from predominantly poor, black Chicago schools are also in dire need of more state education funding.

Officials say the high transfer rate makes it hard to know how many teachers the small district of 2, needs. On top of that, the level of financial need has intensified with few new resources. Fifteen years ago, the district was about two-thirds low-income, but now nearly every student is poor.

The students could be dealing with health or emotional issues.

Impact of gun violence on young people: A national overview

And many move around a lot, which causes children to fall behind academically. Gary Orfield, who co-directs The Civil Rights Project at the University of California, Los Angeles, says attending poor segregated suburban schools can pose more challenges for students. Danville School District is about miles from downtown Chicago and it, too, has taken in hundreds of CPS students from segregated black and poor schools. Just over half of all students were considered low-income 15 years ago, now more than three-quarters are.

The 10 school districts listed above took in the most transfers from poor black CPS schools over the last eight academic years. Though Gary has its share of gun violence, the Sanders family feels safer in their new neighborhood than they did in Austin.

Life for black Americans - CCEA - Revision 2 - GCSE History - BBC Bitesize

Sanders started a business breeding German shepherds. On Facebook, he posts photos of his year-old daughter, Yasheica, caring for the dogs. Even Dillard, the charter board president, says charters squeeze the district financially.

Life for black Americans

The budget crunch has manifested in large and small ways for students. But Brittany disagrees. Brittany Sanders, 16, and her brother Ken Sanders, 17, get ready for school. Brittany Sanders, 16, and Ken Sanders, 17, walk to their bus stop before school. Brittany Sanders, 16, and her friend Aliyahna Turnage, 15, who also moved to Gary from Chicago, recently co-wrote a letter to their principal asking him to find a certified science teacher, instead of a long-term substitute, to teach their biology class.


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Tillery says that her organization consults with trans women on promoting safety. Tillery says that providing these resources to trans women can serve a dual purpose in communities. The Trump administration has taken a number of actions which transgender activists have decried as discriminatory, including banning transgender people from serving in the military; changing a Bureau of Prisons policy that requires prisoners to be housed in facilities for the sex they were assigned at birth; and introducing new Department of Health and Human Services rules to allow hospitals and insurance companies to deny patients care based on religious or moral beliefs.

David J. This prevents them from going to places where they can access more LGBTQ services, and a community where they can fully express their identities.

Louis Mitchell, an African American trans man, works as the executive director of Transfaith, a non-profit that supports transgender spiritual leadership. Following the high profile homicides of Booker and Lindsey in Dallas, Reverend Mitchell says there needs to be a bigger conversation about the role of the patriarchy- a system in which men, particularly cisgender men, control a disproportionate amount of power. He believes that contributes to the violence, domestic and otherwise, that seriously affects the lives of trans women of color.

This is not so much an issue just in the Dallas area, but an international pandemic. An African-American trans woman, she says the community is past the point of being sad. Some of it happens to be an argument that blows up, and then suddenly a gun comes out.

Introduction and summary

For Roberts, one of the main steps to ending the violence is having black leadership, which she believes is mostly silent when it comes to issues affecting the trans community, speak up in their defense. Roberts has also been on the frontline of trying to add gender identity to the list of protected classes in the James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Act. She says the exclusion of transgender people from legislation that protects people from hate crimes motivated by race, religion and disabilities makes it easier for trans women of color to be targeted.

The original version of this story misstated the name of a transgender activist group.