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When Free as a Bird and Real Love play, the emotional hit is massive, you can feel the Weight of all the genius those guys had to Carry. Or is this just me? Thank you for organizing this site. It can only be described as awesome! And to Hippy Hippy Shake in the list of songs? After 40 years, were still talking about these great songs. This will lead to everything being reissued again. Any body got any ideas? This is an excellent site. Many thanks for it all!

This site is like a paradise for The Beatles fans. Well, for me anyway. Although Paul liked it a lot, and mentioned it a few times that he wishes to finish it himself, and release it. Joe, thank you for the monsterous job you are doing! It needs more than aknowledgement and good will for it. And I respect you for that. Joe, I love this thread. I hope when you have more time, you will ad more pictures of the Parlophone or Apple singles instead of using the black Past masters pics on some of these songs.

I have most of these pics if you are interested. Ok when I got the , and there was a Beatles discography enclosed that mentions Thingamabob as a b side of I believe Let it Be. Where can I find this song? Especially from Sgt. Pepper on? Or George chose to remove himself? Remember: the biggest break he got was getting into The Beatles. The second biggest break was getting out of them. Seems to be an on going question! And because he thought it was funny he decided to write a song with a very confusing meaning.

Is that story true? If yes wich is that song? Thank you so much for this list. A friend ask me how many Beatles songs have womans names in them. This list made it super easy to figure out. Also having the composer helped. Latest Comments. Beatles in the Blood Sunday 20 January Phillip Anderson Wednesday 7 June I have never heard of those two songs. Noam Friday 30 June Margaret Worrall Saturday 13 October How about their studio jam of St. Louis Blues? Sigurjon Myrdal Friday 16 November Igor Wednesday 23 January Joe Thursday 24 January Igor Thursday 24 January Beatles in the Blood Saturday 26 January Joe are the ones I sugested real Beatles songs Loading Joe Saturday 26 January Beatles in the Blood Monday 28 January Luke Rominiecki Wednesday 24 April Shan Rumsey Wednesday 31 January Carlos Sunday 9 September Igor Monday 21 October I wish I would see all unreleased Beatles songs.

Rick Saturday 30 November The Celebrated Mrs. Wednesday 6 June Yes, Commonwealth should totally be on here! TMW Wednesday 21 May Thanks, Loading Julian Tuesday 25 November Jon Wednesday 10 June Stoutman Sunday 5 July Jakob Sunday 23 April Bob booblay Tuesday 29 August Ringo played the drums Loading Nick Sunday 20 July Timothy Miller Wednesday 6 June I have found that amusing. TimNm Loading Adam Monday 15 December Travis Friday 21 April Pascal Monday 26 January Correct: I like that Beatles song.

Again, Beatles is an adjective, modifying song. Joe Monday 9 March MikeP Friday 9 June Beautiful response and, of course, absolutely correct. Darrel Tuesday 18 July And one yahoo answers said he believes it was johnie b goode Loading Finally, CMM coordinates the gathering of data on victims of human trafficking in Denmark. During the project, approximately professionals will be given the opportunity to expand their working relationships through 19 workshops. The project aims to foster cooperation between state institutions, NGOs, and regional stakeholders in small communities. Potential victims are identified mainly by task forces and mobile units and, in turn, potential victims are referred to either the national police or the Permanent Group, a five-member board comprising NGOs and international organizations.

Both authorities have the ability to grant official victim status and full state services and support. This approach creates a much needed alternative to law enforcement controlled identification procedures for victims who do not want to work with state authorities.

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It also alleviates many law enforcement controlled identification issues like forced cooperation in investigations, penalization, and re-traumatization. Building from the community assessments, an anti-trafficking working group or task force can then take steps to create a protocol to ensure comprehensive care.

A community protocol can be used in a number of ways. It can be a directory of contacts for both government national law enforcement, immigration services, child protective services and community shelters, legal service providers, doctors. In addition, a protocol can outline a step-by-step process to help ensure comprehensive and consistent care for victims. It can also serve to provide information on national, sub-national, and local anti-trafficking laws; and it can outline the importance of a victim-centered and trauma-informed approach, the nuances of trafficking, the factors of control, facts and myths, and indicators, among many other important elements.

Finally, it can outline national benefits available to victims of human trafficking, such as immigration relief, and describe how advocates can ensure access to these benefits. Across the world, in communities both large and small, individual stories of suffering and injustice make up the ugly mosaic of human trafficking. While many cases share similarities, each is as unique as those forced to endure it, meaning that responses to human trafficking must be both comprehensive and nuanced. Communities should be emboldened to recognize their own strengths in the fight against human trafficking and take steps to make it a priority.

National governments, for their part, should welcome those communities as partners and allies. In some cases, national governments may clear the way for community action; in others, the initiative may rest on the shoulders of a single individual who steps forward to start a conversation at a town hall, provincial assembly, or tribal council meeting. No matter the impetus, communities are not defenseless in the fight against human trafficking.

They are a powerful part of the solution. They characterize the many—though not all—forms of human trafficking and the wide variety of places in which they occur, although each could take place almost anywhere in the world. In most cases, the photographs that accompany the stories are not images of confirmed trafficking victims.

Still, they illustrate the myriad forms of human trafficking and the variety of situations in which trafficking victims are found. When Raul was in high school in the Dominican Republic, he jumped at the opportunity to go to the United States to continue his education. A family friend offered to be his sponsor and hire Raul in his restaurant while Raul attended school. Raul was forced to live in filthy conditions in the restaurant. Faith was approached by a woman who promised her a job at a Nigerian restaurant in Italy. Faith thought this was her chance to begin a new life, especially as she saw some fellow Nigerians return from Europe better off than when they left.

Her traffickers forced her into prostitution, telling Faith they would kill her if she did not comply. Faith felt like she was always in danger and was even stabbed several times. She managed to escape and now works to help other women trapped in sex trafficking in Italy. When Taylor was 16 years old, she met some older men at the local mall. One of the men started taking Taylor on dates and buying her clothes and meals. Not long after they started dating, he coerced Taylor into sex trafficking, convincing her that if she complied, she would never need to rely on anyone ever again.

Most of the money went to her traffickers. When she could no longer afford to feed her boys, she sold them to a man who put them to work on a fishing boat. This man was abusive, often hitting Emmanuel and Isaac with the boat paddle. Emmanuel and Isaac would often split one meal a day between them. The brothers were able to escape when their trafficker heard authorities were arresting people who had kids working on the boats.

Emmanuel and Isaac now live with a neighbor who sends them to school. Kyi and his family fled Burma to escape suppression of the Rohingya by the Burmese military. While in a refugee camp in Bangladesh, an agent offered jobs to him and his family. The jobs were located in Agra, in northern India, and seemed to provide a good opportunity to be safe and rebuild their lives. When they arrived in Agra, they found themselves trapped for a year working as rag pickers and collecting plastic bottles from garbage piles. They worked long hours for no wages.

An anonymous tip to law enforcement led to authorities removing Kyi and his family from the situation. The orphanage did not provide the children with extra clothes or shoes, and they were not able to bathe. Jae-Un slept in a small room that she had to share with more than 45 other children; they could barely move while sleeping.

During the day, all of the children had assigned jobs doing manual labor, and each day were forced to work very long hours. Several years later, a missionary helped Jae-Un and her sister escape to China. Ashik was struggling to support his family in Bangladesh when he saw an ad for chefs in London. When he arrived in London, he was put on a bus to Scotland where he was forced to work in a remote hotel.

Ashik was the only employee responsible for dozens of hotel rooms and tour groups. He slept either on the floor of empty rooms or in an old caravan behind the hotel. Ashik was eventually able to leave but he was never paid for his work. He is still afraid to return home because of the money he owes recruiters. Maria had left the Philippines several times to take domestic service jobs in other countries, and was excited to explore a new country.

Working with a recruiter in Brazil, she accepted a job as a domestic worker in a Brazilian household.

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After she began her new job, Maria realized that the job was not as promised and she felt exploited by her employers. She consistently had to work hour days, was forced to stay in the house, and had little access to food. Maria found a way to escape the home, but is still in debt to the recruitment agency that placed her in Brazil. Joan, a young woman with mental disabilities, was lured from school by two elderly women from her hometown who offered her a job.

She was then held against her will in their house, where they sedated and deprived her of food. The women forced Joan to have sex with many individuals who paid with money, gifts,and food. Joan was eventually found and helped by the police.

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The two elderly women were arrested and charged with sex trafficking. In Canada, the province of Ontario demonstrated sub-national initiative and leadership in combating human trafficking when it announced on June 30, , the Strategy to End Human Trafficking. This office is the first of its kind in Ontario and is dedicated to ensuring collaboration across more than 10 federal agencies. Focusing on the four key pillars of Prevention and Community Support, Enhanced Justice Sector Initiatives, Indigenous-Led Approaches, and Provincial Coordination and Leadership, Ontario has engaged with hundreds of partners, including survivors, to ensure a collaborative and coordinated approach to strengthen the systems that help to prevent and address human trafficking, ensure that the appropriate resources are available to victims, and raise awareness in the community.

These funds will be used for locally driven solutions to address human trafficking, with a focus on prevention and survivor support. Since the Strategy to End Human Trafficking was launched, Ontario has undertaken an impressive number of actions under each pillar. A few of them are listed below. In the weeks and months after a human trafficking situation has ended, survivors experience significantly different levels of support from country to country. The resources and services available to survivors during this time depend on what actions governments take.

Responses range from governments that provide access to comprehensive services to those that simply provide transportation costs for a survivor to return home or that even deport survivors who lack legal status. To minimize vulnerabilities to re-trafficking and empower survivors, governments should work to increase access to longer-term economic and educational opportunities in addition to initial, immediate support services.

Limited resources and inadequate understanding of the array of services survivors may need often result in insufficient assistance for survivors in the critical weeks and months after a trafficking situation. After this initial period, economic and educational opportunities can further prevent re-victimization, provide resources to rebuild, and assist in the transition from victim to survivor.

Additionally, when individually tailored and self-selected services include family and community support, a survivor is more likely to transition from vulnerability—where they may face stigma and risk of further exploitation—to a position of self-sufficiency and dignity. Key factors likely to contribute to long-term successful recovery and re-entry into a community include:. After a human trafficking situation, it is important to provide survivors with adequate time to develop trust in government agencies and service providers to foster their empowerment and informed decision-making about their recovery and re-entry into a community.

After conducting a needs assessment, project staff worked with the young men and women to identify their vocational and social strengths to provide tailored, follow-up support, including shared apartments, life skills training, counseling, and job placement into full-time jobs in the community. The organization also supports victims with reintegration by training and hiring them at its bagel shop, the proceeds of which support other victim support programs. The bagel shop, which raises awareness of human trafficking in the community, is one of only a handful of economically sustainable social enterprises in Serbia.

The project helps shelter residents conduct a market analysis of the local community to identify types of businesses the local economy could support. As a result, dozens of survivors can coordinate resources through local cooperatives to build microenterprises in catfish farming, mushroom cultivation, food processing, and tailoring services. Although there is greater availability of services found in some countries immediately following removal from a trafficking situation, tailored, longer-term, and community-based assistance would decrease the risk of being re-trafficked and contribute to greater likelihood of long-term success.

Close coordination between survivors and, wherever possible, destination and home country service providers, is also more likely to improve chances of success. Learning from successful models that actively promote economic self-sufficiency, emotional and social resilience, and support from local communities can provide survivors with a greater chance of building a life of their choice. Governments should evaluate those models to strengthen their efforts to provide lasting protections for survivors. The international community agrees that a family caregiving setting, or an alternative solution that is appropriate and culturally sensitive, is the most conducive environment for the growth, well-being, and safety of children.

Removal of a child from the family should only be considered as a temporary, last resort. Studies have found that both private and government-run residential institutions for children, or places such as orphanages and psychiatric wards that do not offer a family-based setting, cannot replicate the emotional companionship and attention found in family environments that are prerequisites to healthy cognitive development. Yet, about eight million children worldwide live in these facilities, even though an estimated 80 to 90 percent of them have at least one living parent.

The physical and psychological effects of staying in residential institutions, combined with societal isolation and often subpar regulatory oversight by governments, place these children in situations of heightened vulnerability to human trafficking. Children in institutional care, including government-run facilities, can be easy targets for traffickers.

Children are especially vulnerable when traffickers recognize and take advantage of this need for emotional bonding stemming from the absence of stable parental figures. In addition, the rigid schedules and social isolation of residential institutions offer traffickers a tactical advantage, as they can coerce children to leave and find ways to exploit them. Children are more at risk for human trafficking in ill-managed facilities that allow traffickers to operate in or around the facility with impunity. Residential institutions that are complicit or directly involved in human trafficking take advantage of unfettered access to the children, knowing they have nowhere to turn for support.

Several orphanages, including in Oceania, Central America, and Eastern Europe, have been found in recent years to be doubling as brothels. In one instance, children of an orphanage as well as international NGOs reported detailed cases of staff forcing some of the girls, especially those from rural or indigenous communities, out at night to engage in commercial sex.

Institutional complicity can even extend to the practice of recruiting children for the facility. Instead of fulfilling those promises, many orphanages use the children to raise funds by forcing them to perform shows for or interact and play with potential donors to encourage more donations. Orphanages have also kept children in poor health to elicit more sympathy and money from donors. Volunteering in these facilities for short periods of time without appropriate training can cause further emotional stress and even a sense of abandonment for already vulnerable children with attachment issues affected by temporary and irregular experiences of safe relationships.

In addition, it is rare that background checks are performed on these volunteers, which can also increase the risk of children being exposed to individuals with criminal intent. Voluntourism not only has unintended consequences for the children, but also the profits made through volunteer-paid program fees or donations to orphanages from tourists incentivize nefarious orphanage owners to increase revenue by expanding child recruitment operations in order to open more facilities.

These orphanages facilitate child trafficking rings by using false promises to recruit children and exploit them to profit from donations. This practice has been well-documented in several countries, including Nepal, Cambodia, and Haiti. Even when a child leaves or ages out of a residential institution, the vulnerability to human trafficking continues, in part due to the physical and psychological damage many of these children have suffered. The societal isolation of residential institutions often prevents children from building stable, long-term familial, or social relationships.

Some traffickers, in recognizing the heightened vulnerability of these children, wait for and target those who leave or age out of institutions. In response, governments can take steps to protect children from these vulnerabilities, starting with providing assistance to families who find it difficult to provide their children with food, education, and healthcare and may be at risk of losing custody of their children as a result.

Also, governments can develop, coordinate, and encourage family-based care options over institutional care whenever appropriate. Governments can also evaluate their laws to increase protections for children with disabilities and strengthen parental rights and abilities to promote children staying with families when it is in the best interest of the child. Donor countries can ensure foreign assistance prioritizes support for programs or initiatives that preserve family-based care and do not support residential institutions that are not in compliance with international standards.

Donor countries can also look at ways to increase oversight of organizations and charities funneling money to residential institutions abroad. Moreover, awareness-raising efforts can counter social media campaigns promoting voluntourism in orphanages, as well as educate well-intentioned groups, such as tourism companies and religious organizations that unintentionally perpetuate the demand for children in residential institutions.

A paradigm shift away from institutional care to a family caregiving setting has its own challenges, beginning with recognizing that family members may be complicit in human trafficking and finding the resources and expertise to develop a solution that is most conducive to the health and safety of children.

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The international community has acknowledged that certain community care options, such as small group homes and kinship and community care where appropriate, can serve as alternatives while working toward a permanent placement in a family setting. Aftercare plans that include ongoing support from community resources can help children continue to thrive after being discharged. The depth of research documenting these risks stands as a compelling reason for governments to consider how to transition away from institutional care, while also providing resources for children transitioning from institutional care to successful adulthood.

Survivors of human trafficking have often endured a degree of trauma significant enough to have lasting psychological and physical effects. To appropriately support survivors, a trauma-informed approach should be incorporated across all anti-trafficking efforts, including during the criminal justice process and while providing victim services. It is also critical to use a trauma-informed lens when carrying out prevention strategies and when engaging with survivors in the context of public awareness activities and media reporting.

Trauma is an emotional response to a terrible event. Most people have experienced some degree of trauma over the course of their lives, but every person responds to a traumatic event differently. A range of stress responses may be exhibited after experiencing a traumatic event; many individuals recover without lasting consequences while others experience long-term effects, including depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation.

Trauma disrupts the rational thought process and impairs the ability to handle stress, perceive when a threat is in the past, and manage emotions. A survivor who may appear to be uncooperative, combative, or difficult could be experiencing such overwhelming symptoms related to trauma. A sense of stability and security must be attained before the individual can be expected to engage constructively with any systems or services.

All those engaged in anti-trafficking work must understand the vast impacts of trauma and incorporate a trauma-informed approach to their work to more effectively support victims of trafficking. Law enforcement officials, prosecutors, service providers, and other allied professionals will likely observe a wide range of reactions related to trauma during the course of their work with survivors.


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Without a trauma-informed approach, criminal justice professionals and service providers may miss important cues and unintentionally re-traumatize the individual. Personal safety and self-preservation are the primary focus of the trafficking victim; concerned with basic matters of survival, victims may seem unresponsive or reluctant to engage.

Many survivors may not self-identify as victims, and may even make initial statements that seem to protect the offenders, or even run away from or avoid law enforcement and service providers who are trying to assist them. Such realities require a greater investment of time, patience, and rapport-building than in traditional cases. It requires recognizing symptoms of trauma and designing all interactions with victims of human trafficking in such a way that minimizes the potential for re-traumatization. In particular, this approach emphasizes creating physical, psychological, and emotional safety and well-being to address the unique experiences and needs of survivors.

It involves creating a safe physical space in which to interact with survivors as well as assessing all levels of service and policy to create as many opportunities as possible for survivors to rebuild a sense of control. Most importantly, it promotes survivor empowerment and self-sufficiency.

Victims of human trafficking should be empowered with choice whenever possible, including the ability to determine whether to participate in the criminal justice process. They should also have access to services that promote autonomy and are comprehensive, victim-centered, and culturally appropriate. Additionally, trafficking survivors share that one of the most important steps to being trauma-informed is to be survivor-informed.

A survivor-informed practice includes meaningful input from a diverse community of survivors at all stages of a program or project, including development, implementation, and evaluation. Whenever possible, law enforcement officials, prosecutors, service providers, and other allied professionals should solicit feedback from survivors on organizational policies and programming. Survivors should also be involved in evaluation activities, focus groups, and other efforts to assess the effectiveness of service delivery.

Moreover, when sought out to provide input or consultation, survivors should be paid for their expertise and time. Following is a checklist developed by the Trauma Center at the Justice Resource Institute for implementing a trauma-informed approach across prosecution, protection, and prevention efforts.

Governments face a special challenge in addressing domestic servitude in diplomatic households, a form of human trafficking involving domestic workers employed by diplomats and international organization officials posted abroad. Although it is rare that diplomats subject domestic workers to involuntary servitude or other forms of exploitation, on those occasions when it does occur, the problem is a grave and challenging one for host governments to address. Foreign mission personnel and their family members can enjoy various forms of immunity from jurisdiction in the country in which they are posted.

Diplomats and their immediate family members also enjoy personal inviolability, meaning they cannot be arrested or detained. The typical immunities for members of a diplomatic mission are enshrined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, a treaty based on the reciprocal interests of all States that both host foreign diplomats and send their own abroad.

Domestic workers often face circumstances that leave them extremely vulnerable to exploitation by their diplomat employers. They are usually legally resident in the country in which they are working only by virtue of their employment by the diplomat. Thus, they may remain in exploitative situations because they feel they have no other options.

There is a significant power disparity between a diplomat, who is a government official of some standing, and a domestic worker, who likely has a modest background and may have limited education or language skills. In addition, domestic workers are usually made aware of the special status of diplomats and may believe that rules of accountability do not apply to their employers and that it is hopeless to seek help. An international consensus has begun to take shape, but it should acknowledge that diplomats should be held accountable for exploitation of domestic workers. For instance, it is increasingly understood that there is a temporal limit to the immunity enjoyed by diplomats and their family members.

The following sections outline some of the innovative approaches currently implemented by the U. Governments, in partnership with civil society and the private sector, can use forensic accounting strategies that enable financial institutions to identify and flag activity that may be consistent with human trafficking schemes. There are a number of identifiable stages of a human trafficking scheme during which traffickers may interact with the financial system. Providing financial systems with guidance on red flag indicators to detect suspicious financial activities can greatly assist law enforcement and other authorities in their efforts to identify and prosecute human trafficking.

In recent years, governments around the world have established financial intelligence units FIUs to receive and analyze reports of suspicious financial activity that may be indicative of embezzlement, money laundering, and, increasingly, human trafficking. FIUs are able to detect transactions, track money flows, and collect evidence tied to human trafficking crimes.

They can also work closely with financial institutions to add red flag indicators of human trafficking to the list of suspicious activities warranting further scrutiny. While every context is unique, groups like the Egmont Group—of which more than FIUs are members—serve as a venue for international collaboration to combat crimes with a financial component, and recent advances make it clear human traffickers should be among the targets. Governments can develop procedures and precedents to use the information from suspicious transactions to hold human traffickers accountable.

In , for example, the Government of Thailand convicted a high-ranking government official for his involvement in human trafficking crimes. In this case, the government uncovered his role in the scheme in part due to its tracking of suspicious financial transactions. In the United States, the U. Department of the Treasury uses its authorities, partnerships with law enforcement, and international engagement to combat human trafficking through targeted sanctions.

The Department of the Treasury also protects the U. As recently as January , the United States sanctioned the Zhao Wei transnational criminal organization, a Laos-based group involved in numerous criminal activities, including child sex trafficking. In October , the U. The major objectives of this project include strengthening knowledge about financial flows related to human trafficking and identifying and disrupting these illicit flows.

The Human Trafficking Project Team will work to enhance bilateral information-sharing to produce actionable information to disrupt these illicit financial flows and prosecute human trafficking. Monitoring the daily activity of local and global industries for evidence of illicit activity is a monumental task and governments cannot do it alone. To mitigate risk, financial institutions, brands, and suppliers often turn to internal and third-party risk assessment, due diligence, and compliance firms for data on entities with which they are doing business and on potential perpetrators of financial crimes.

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Law enforcement and government regulatory bodies also rely on these firms and their databases for investigative purposes and to coordinate with other agencies. Other actors can also be a part of the solution. For example, a small Hong Kong-based NGO collaborates with financial institutions to increase the amount of quality data on potential perpetrators of human trafficking. It operates a media monitoring program that collects media reports and other reliable data directly and through NGO partners , vets, and then packages the most trustworthy data for further review by these firms.

In the last two years, this organization has introduced more than 5, names of suspected individuals and companies to these databases, and currently supplies on average more than submissions per month, working with a growing number of global research partners spanning over 20 countries. Expanding the amount of data within this existing and effective institutional framework promises to help disrupt significantly financial flows and supply chains tainted by human trafficking, making it an effective tool for the prevention of human trafficking and the prosecution of perpetrators of human trafficking.

Collaboration, data-gathering, and information-sharing within existing institutional frameworks can be used to effectively disrupt financial flows related to trafficking in persons, and thus provide effective tools for both the prevention of human trafficking and the prosecution of human traffickers. The Political Declaration includes a directive to examine the progress achieved and the continuing challenges for international organizations and officials at the national, regional, and global levels.

The Political Declaration also strengthens the capacity of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to collect information in order to connect and harmonize anti-trafficking efforts across UN programs and policies. To implement the Global Plan of Action a working group was established to advise and assist in the implementation of the Palermo Protocol.

The UN Security Council the Council adopted its first resolution on human trafficking in , which called on member states to investigate, disrupt, and dismantle criminal networks by utilizing anti-money laundering, anti-corruption, and counterterrorism laws. It also emphasized the importance of international cooperation in law enforcement and strong partnerships with the private sector and civil society.

In , the Council reiterated its condemnation of this crime by unanimously adopting resolution , which strongly emphasizes its concern in particular for the heightened vulnerability of children to exploitation and abuse and the unlawful recruitment and use of children in armed conflict. It also requested the Secretary-General to further explore the links between child trafficking in conflict situations and the grave violations against children affected by armed conflict, with the view to addressing all violations and abuses against children in armed conflict.

The Council stressed the importance of cooperation in enforcing international law in the investigation and prosecution of trafficking cases and further emphasized that peacekeeping and political missions can support the efforts of host states in combating human trafficking. The declaration, among other things, promotes psychological, social, medical, and legal assistance for victims; calls for the update of national anti-trafficking legislation to define and criminalize the specific acts, means, and purpose of human trafficking as required by the Palermo Protocol; and calls for cooperation with the private sector and civil society to combat trafficking.

The Second Work Plan also underlines supply chains, not previously highlighted in the first work plan, encouraging codes of conduct to ensure the protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of workers. In , the OSCE created the Office of Special Representative and Coordinator for Combating Trafficking in Human Beings to promote a victim-centered and human rights-based approach to combating human trafficking and to assist participating states in implementing effective policies.

Of note is the Addendum to the OSCE Action Plan, which includes commitments addressing domestic servitude in diplomatic households, internal trafficking, and the prevention of human trafficking in the tourism industry and in supply chains. In , the OSCE Ministerial Council adopted new commitments addressing preventing human trafficking in government procurement supply chains, as well as strengthening efforts to combat child trafficking.

The OSCE is currently working on strengthening its policies to prevent human trafficking in its own institutional procurement of contracts for goods and services. The Bali Process is a non-binding forum for policy dialogue, information-sharing, and practical cooperation to assist countries in the Indo-Pacific region and beyond to address shared challenges on a regional basis.

It raises awareness regarding migrant smuggling, trafficking in persons, and related transnational crimes. It also serves to encourage cooperation and coordination among member states, the private sector, and with other regional and global initiatives to address effectively these crimes. The Bali Process Government and Business Forum, which launched in , is a business-government partnership to combat human trafficking that highlights the critical role of the private sector in preventing trafficking in supply chains. The Bali Process has also established a Regional Support Office, which supports an ad hoc working group on human trafficking and strengthens practical cooperation to combat trafficking in persons, among other issues.

When an adult engages in a commercial sex act, such as prostitution, as the result of force, threats of force, fraud, coercion, or any combination of such means, that person is a victim of trafficking. Under such circumstances, perpetrators involved in recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, obtaining, patronizing, or soliciting of a person for that purpose are guilty of sex trafficking of an adult. Even if an adult initially consents to engage in commercial sex, it is irrelevant: if an adult, after consenting, is subsequently held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force, he or she is a trafficking victim and should receive benefits outlined in the Palermo Protocol and applicable domestic laws.

When a child under 18 years of age is recruited, harbored, transported, provided, obtained, patronized, or solicited for the purpose of a commercial sex act, proving force, fraud, or coercion is not necessary for the offense to be prosecuted as human trafficking. There are no exceptions to this rule: no cultural or socioeconomic rationalizations alter the fact that children who are exploited in prostitution are trafficking victims. The use of children in the commercial sex industry is prohibited under U.

Forced labor, sometimes also referred to as labor trafficking, encompasses the range of activities—recruiting, harboring, transporting, providing, or obtaining—involved when a person uses force or physical threats, psychological coercion, abuse of the legal process, deception, or other coercive means to compel someone to work. Migrants are particularly vulnerable to this form of human trafficking, but individuals also may be forced into labor in their own countries. Female victims of forced or bonded labor, especially women and girls in domestic servitude, are often sexually abused or exploited as well.

One form of coercion used by traffickers in both sex trafficking and forced labor is the imposition of a bond or debt. Others fall victim to traffickers or recruiters who unlawfully exploit an initial debt assumed, wittingly or unwittingly, as a term of employment. Traffickers, labor agencies, recruiters, and employers in both the country of origin and the destination country can contribute to debt bondage by charging workers recruitment fees and exorbitant interest rates, making it difficult, if not impossible, to pay off the debt.

Involuntary domestic servitude is a form of human trafficking found in distinct circumstances—work in a private residence—that create unique vulnerabilities for victims. It is a crime in which a domestic worker is not free to leave his or her employment and is abused and underpaid, if paid at all. Many domestic workers do not receive the basic benefits and protections commonly extended to other groups of workers—things as simple as a day off. Moreover, their ability to move freely is often limited, and employment in private homes increases their isolation and vulnerability.

Labor officials generally do not have the authority to inspect employment conditions in private homes. Domestic workers, especially women, confront various forms of abuse, harassment, and exploitation, including sexual and gender-based violence. These issues, taken together, may be symptoms of a situation of domestic servitude. Although children may legally engage in certain forms of work, children can also be found in slavery or slavery-like situations.

Anti-trafficking responses should supplement, not replace, traditional actions against child labor, such as remediation and education. When children are enslaved, their exploiters should not escape criminal punishment—something that occurs when governments exclusively use administrative responses to address cases of forced child labor. Child soldiering is a manifestation of human trafficking when it involves the unlawful recruitment and use of children—through force, fraud, or coercion—by armed forces as combatants or other forms of labor. Perpetrators may be government armed forces, paramilitary organizations, or rebel groups.

Many children are forcibly abducted to be used as combatants. Others are made to work as porters, cooks, guards, servants, messengers, or spies. Both male and female child soldiers are often sexually abused or exploited by armed groups and such children are subject to the same types of devastating physical and psychological consequences associated with child sex trafficking.

These determinations cover the reporting period beginning April 1, , and ending March 31, Governments identified on the list are subject to restrictions, in the following fiscal year, on certain security assistance and commercial licensing of military equipment.

The CSPA, as amended, prohibits assistance to governments that are identified in the list under the following authorities: International Military Education and Training, Foreign Military Financing, Excess Defense Articles, and Peacekeeping Operations, with exceptions for some programs undertaken pursuant to the Peacekeeping Operations authority. The CSPA also prohibits the issuance of licenses for direct commercial sales of military equipment to such governments.

Beginning October 1, , and effective throughout Fiscal Year , these restrictions will apply to the listed countries, absent a presidential national interest waiver, applicable exception, or reinstatement of assistance pursuant to the terms of the CSPA. The determination to include a government in the CSPA list is informed by a range of sources, including first-hand observation by U.

This email address provides a means by which organizations and individuals can share information with the Department of State on government progress in addressing trafficking. While Tier 1 is the highest ranking, it does not mean that a country has no human trafficking problem or that it is doing enough to address the problem. To maintain a Tier 1 ranking, governments need to demonstrate appreciable progress each year in combating trafficking.

Indeed, Tier 1 represents a responsibility rather than a reprieve. Tier rankings and narratives in the Trafficking in Persons Report reflect an assessment of the following:. A amendment to the TVPA provides that any country that has been ranked Tier 2 Watch List for two consecutive years and that would otherwise be ranked Tier 2 Watch List for the next year will instead be ranked Tier 3 in that third year.

The Secretary can only issue this waiver for two consecutive years. After the third year, a country must either go up to Tier 2 or down to Tier 3. Governments subject to the automatic downgrade provision are noted as such in the country narratives. Pursuant to the TVPA, governments of countries on Tier 3 may be subject to certain restrictions on assistance, whereby the President may determine not to provide U. In addition, the President may determine to withhold funding for government official or employee participation in educational and cultural exchange programs for certain Tier 3 countries.

Alternatively, the President may waive application of the foregoing restrictions upon a determination that the provision to a Tier 3 country of such assistance would promote the purposes of the TVPA or is otherwise in the national interest of the United States. The TVPA also authorizes the President to waive funding restrictions if necessary to avoid significant adverse effects on vulnerable populations, including women and children. Every country, including the United States, can do more.

All countries must maintain and continually increase efforts to combat trafficking. The above statistics are estimates derived from data provided by foreign governments and other sources and reviewed by the Department of State. Aggregate data fluctuates from one year to the next due to the hidden nature of trafficking crimes, dynamic global events, shifts in government efforts, and a lack of uniformity in national reporting structures. The numbers in parentheses are those of labor trafficking prosecutions, convictions, and victims identified. For purposes of the preceding sentence, suspended or significantly reduced sentences for convictions of principal actors in cases of severe forms of trafficking in persons shall be considered, on a case-by-case basis, whether to be considered as an indicator of serious and sustained efforts to eliminate severe forms of trafficking in persons.

After reasonable requests from the Department of State for data regarding investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences, a government which does not provide such data, consistent with the capacity of such government to obtain such data, shall be presumed not to have vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted, or sentenced such acts. During the periods prior to the annual report submitted on June 1, , and on June 1, , and the periods afterwards until September 30 of each such year, the Secretary of State may disregard the presumption contained in the preceding sentence if the government has provided some data to the Department of State regarding such acts and the Secretary has determined that the government is making a good faith effort to collect such data.

After reasonable requests from the Department of State for data regarding such investigations, prosecutions, convictions, and sentences, a government which does not provide such data consistent with its resources shall be presumed not to have vigorously investigated, prosecuted, convicted, or sentenced such acts.

During the periods prior to the annual report submitted on June 1, , and June 1, , and the periods afterwards until September 30 of each such year, the Secretary of State may disregard the presumption contained in the preceding sentence if the government has provided some data to the Department of State regarding such acts and the Secretary has determined that the government is making a good faith effort to collect such data. B the United States toward agreed goals and objectives in the collective fight against trafficking.

Each year, the Department of State honors individuals around the world who have devoted their lives to the fight against human trafficking. These individuals included NGO workers, lawmakers, government officials, survivors of human trafficking, and concerned citizens who are committed to ending modern slavery. They are recognized for their tireless efforts—despite resistance, opposition, and threats to their lives—to protect victims, punish offenders, and raise awareness of human trafficking trends in their countries and abroad.

Under his leadership, the Government of Bahrain launched its National Referral Mechanism for Victims of Trafficking in Persons, which streamlines the identification of potential victims, ensures proper documentation and referral of cases, and provides assistance to potential victims until the resolution of their cases or voluntary return to their home countries. In addition to his regular duties, Mr. Ango devotes his personal time to serving as the National Coordinator for the Working Group on Child Protection including Trafficking in Persons, which brings together Burkinabe government agencies, and national and international organizations, to coordinate anti-trafficking efforts.

Throughout his career, Mr. Ango has organized and conducted trainings for numerous stakeholders, including government officials, social workers, police officers, and traditional and religious leaders on children rights. He drafted the National Program to Combat Child Labor in the mining sector, which included new provisions to strengthen protections for children.

In addition, Mr. As a survivor of domestic servitude, Ms. Awah Mbuli uses her experience to educate and prevent others in Cameroon from experiencing human trafficking. Since , Ms. Awah Mbuli and her organization have helped 28 women from West and Central Africa free themselves from their situations of forced labor, including debt bondage, in the Middle East. She has provided guidance to more than victims of trafficking, and her organization has helped create economic opportunities for survivors across Cameroon by providing micro-financing to small businesses and income-generating projects as well as job and small business training.

Awah Mbuli has sought out creative ways to reach different communities and socioeconomic groups throughout the country, including through appearances on national and international television and radio stations.


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  6. She has taken every opportunity to advocate for better protections and support services for trafficking victims with Cameroonian and foreign government ministries. Through the outreach campaigns and partnerships formed with international non-profit organizations and her grassroots workshops and programs, Ms. Yanira Violeta Olivares Pineda is the head of the national Specialized Trafficking in Persons Unit in San Salvador, where she leads a team of prosecutors dedicated to holding human traffickers accountable and delivering justice to victims.

    Olivares Pineda has been a central and fearless figure in elevating human trafficking as a priority issue for the Salvadoran government and strengthening its efforts to combat this crime. Under her exemplary leadership, the Unit has overcome resource constraints to maintain constant pressure on traffickers. Olivares Pineda personally opened more than cases involving victims, securing more than 30 convictions with punishments ranging from four to 20 years in prison. In her role, Ms. Olivares Pineda has been a strong partner of the U.

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    Maizidah Salas is a leading voice for migrant worker rights in Indonesia. Using her experience as a former migrant worker and survivor of human trafficking, Ms. Salas pioneered the establishment of the Village of Migrant Workers, a community that provides skills training and support to individuals and their families who migrate for economic opportunity and that works to increase awareness about human trafficking among this vulnerable population.

    Her organization employs former migrant workers, including trafficking survivors, to provide training on safe migration practices, economic empowerment, and early childhood education for those working or considering work overseas. The Village has become a model community in Indonesia. Her ambition and drive have also led her to establish a school for children of migrant workers in a village in Wonosobo, which garnered recognition from the Indonesian government. Salas has been a staunch advocate for trafficking survivors and their families, elevating the importance of protecting their rights and offering needed services.

    She has also raised awareness among Indonesians about human trafficking through multiple public outreach campaigns, including through her role in a recent anti-trafficking film. Danuwar has demonstrated an unwavering commitment to empowering other survivors. Under her leadership, Shakti Samuha has expanded its services to provide repatriation assistance, legal aid, vocational and life skill training, livelihood support, job placement services, and psycho-social counseling to more than 20, people in some of the poorest communities across 13 districts in Nepal.

    Danuwar has worked tirelessly to prevent human trafficking in poor and rural Nepali communities, traveling to villages to raise awareness and creating plays depicting human trafficking. From to , Ms. Danuwar headed the Alliance Against Trafficking of Women and Children in Nepal, a national network of NGOs working to raise strong and collective voices against human trafficking, and served as a board member of the Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, a global anti-trafficking network.

    Danuwar has served as a survivor representative on the National Committee on Controlling Human Trafficking. In each of her positions, Ms. Danuwar dedicated herself to giving a voice to trafficking survivors and elevating their perspectives. Blessing Okoedion is an inspirational voice in the fight against modern slavery. Okoedion plays an integral role in pushing Italian authorities to ensure that survivors, especially Nigerian women and girls, receive the services they deserve during their healing process and that law enforcement and service providers engage with survivors in an increasingly culturally informed, victim-centered manner.

    She selflessly devotes her time to ensure survivors feel they have a trusted champion who can advocate on their behalf as they go through the process of reintegrating into society, including through her work as a cultural mediator for trafficking victims staying in a local shelter run by a community of Ursuline sisters.

    Okoedion has demonstrated exceptional courage in drawing from her own experiences as a trafficking survivor to raise awareness about human trafficking in Italy, where she was subjected to sex trafficking. In , she published a book, co-written with an Italian journalist, to tell her story and to shine a light on this abhorrent practice. As a result of Ms. He has worked tirelessly as an attorney to ensure justice for victims of human trafficking and as a researcher whose groundbreaking investigative findings have shed light on the issue of forced labor in South Korea and around the world.

    His findings have increased understanding of forced labor and other human rights abuses across multiple countries and industries, including seafood in East Asia, cotton in Uzbekistan, steel mills in India, electronics in Mexico, palm oil in Indonesia, and garments in Bangladesh. Through Mr. As a recognized subject matter expert on human trafficking, he has worked extensively with South Korean members of parliament to craft a law that strengthens regulations to prosecute traffickers, protect victims, and prevent human trafficking.

    Yosief Abrham Mehari is a practicing medical doctor who has demonstrated an unparalleled commitment to serving survivors of human trafficking in Sudan. Abrham Mehari dedicates his nights and weekends to lend his medical expertise on a volunteer basis at Eritrean and Ethiopian safe houses, where the majority of the beneficiaries are victims of trafficking. Access to medical care is often limited or non-existent for trafficking victims who lack legal status and fear reprisal from traffickers. These challenges are exacerbated when the service providers that do exist lack the medical supplies needed to appropriately care for victims.

    In a demonstration of his extraordinary generosity, Dr. Abrham Mehari often purchases medicine and even medical equipment using his own resources. In addition to volunteering his resources and expertise, Dr. Abrham Mehari coordinates with Sudanese authorities and service providers to see that victims receive proper care and traffickers are held accountable. Countries whose governments do not fully meet the minimum standards and are not making significant efforts to do so.

    Lucia St. The chart below shows the Ratification, Accession a , or Acceptance A of relevant international conventions for those countries that have ratified, acceded to, or accepted any such conventions between April and March The allegations affected victims of which 21 were children under 18 years of age. No reported allegations No reported allegations — NATO relies on contributing countries to report allegations.

    Notes: Local currencies have been converted to U. Department of the Treasury on December 31, In this age of interconnected markets, mobile workforces, and digital communication, human traffickers are developing newer and more sophisticated ways to exploit their victims.