Guide Eleven Variations on an Theme by Ernest Hemingway

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He fights only within the confines of the gym until his rage and frustration make him lash out at Romero and Jake.

The Theme of Death in Selected Works of Ernest Hemingway Essay

He plays hard at tennis, but if he loses he accepts defeat gracefully. Furthermore, he cannot believe that his affair with Brett has no emotional value.


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Hence, he acts as a foil for Jake and the other veterans in the novel; unlike them, he holds onto traditional values and beliefs, likely because he never experienced World War I firsthand. His tearful request that Romero shake his hand after Cohn has beaten him up is an absurd attempt to restore the validity of an antiquated code of conduct. His flight from Pamplona is symbolic of the failure of traditional values in the postwar world.

Themes Motifs Symbols Key Facts. Robert Cohn Cohn has spent his entire life feeling like an outsider because he is Jewish. Previous Lady Brett Ashley Next. By Elodie.

Hemingway and Mary left Cuba for the last time on July 25, He set up a small office in his New York City apartment and attempted to work, but he left New York for good soon after. He then traveled alone to Spain to be photographed for the front cover of Life magazine. A few days later, the news reported that he was seriously ill and on the verge of dying, which panicked Mary until she received a cable from him telling her, "Reports false.

Enroute Madrid. Love Papa. She quickly took him to Idaho, where physician George Saviers met them at the train. At this time, Hemingway was constantly worried about money and his safety. He became paranoid, thinking that the FBI was actively monitoring his movements in Ketchum. Edgar Hoover had an agent in Havana watch him during the s. Hemingway was back in Ketchum in April , three months after being released from the Mayo Clinic, when Mary "found Hemingway holding a shotgun" in the kitchen one morning. She called Saviers, who sedated him and admitted him to the Sun Valley Hospital; from there he was returned to the Mayo for more electroshock treatments.

Mary called the Sun Valley Hospital, and a doctor quickly arrived at the house who determined that Hemingway "had died of a self-inflicted wound to the head". Mary was sedated and taken to the hospital, returning home the next day where she cleaned the house and saw to the funeral and travel arrangements. Bernice Kert writes that it "did not seem to her a conscious lie" when she told the press that his death had been accidental. Family and friends flew to Ketchum for the funeral, officiated by the local Catholic priest, who believed that the death had been accidental.

Hemingway's behavior during his final years had been similar to that of his father before he killed himself; [] his father may have had the genetic disease hemochromatosis , whereby the inability to metabolize iron culminates in mental and physical deterioration.

A memorial to Hemingway just north of Sun Valley is inscribed on the base with a eulogy that Hemingway wrote for a friend several decades earlier: []. It is a truly gripping story, told in a lean, hard, athletic narrative prose that puts more literary English to shame.

Henry Louis Gates believes Hemingway's style was fundamentally shaped "in reaction to [his] experience of world war". Because he began as a writer of short stories, Baker believes Hemingway learned to "get the most from the least, how to prune language, how to multiply intensities and how to tell nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling more than the truth. Hemingway believed the writer could describe one thing such as Nick Adams fishing in "The Big Two-Hearted River" though an entirely different thing occurs below the surface Nick Adams concentrating on fishing to the extent that he does not have to think about anything else.

About 70 percent of the sentences are simple sentences —a childlike syntax without subordination. Jackson Benson believes Hemingway used autobiographical details as framing devices about life in general—not only about his life. For example, Benson postulates that Hemingway used his experiences and drew them out with "what if" scenarios: "what if I were wounded in such a way that I could not sleep at night?

What if I were wounded and made crazy, what would happen if I were sent back to the front? If you leave out important things or events that you know about, the story is strengthened. If you leave or skip something because you do not know it, the story will be worthless. The test of any story is how very good the stuff that you, not your editors, omit. The simplicity of the prose is deceptive. Hemingway offers a "multi-focal" photographic reality. His iceberg theory of omission is the foundation on which he builds. The syntax, which lacks subordinating conjunctions , creates static sentences.

The photographic " snapshot " style creates a collage of images. Many types of internal punctuation colons, semicolons, dashes, parentheses are omitted in favor of short declarative sentences. The sentences build on each other, as events build to create a sense of the whole.

Multiple strands exist in one story; an "embedded text" bridges to a different angle. He also uses other cinematic techniques of "cutting" quickly from one scene to the next; or of "splicing" a scene into another. Intentional omissions allow the reader to fill the gap, as though responding to instructions from the author, and create three-dimensional prose. Hemingway habitually used the word "and" in place of commas.

This use of polysyndeton may serve to convey immediacy. Hemingway's polysyndetonic sentence—or in later works his use of subordinate clauses—uses conjunctions to juxtapose startling visions and images. Benson compares them to haikus. Strangle them. Hemingway thought it would be easy, and pointless, to describe emotions; he sculpted collages of images in order to grasp "the real thing, the sequence of motion and fact which made the emotion and which would be as valid in a year or in ten years or, with luck and if you stated it purely enough, always".

Eliot, James Joyce, and Proust. The popularity of Hemingway's work depends on its themes of love, war, wilderness, and loss, all of which are strongly evident in the body of work. Fiedler believes Hemingway inverts the American literary theme of the evil "Dark Woman" versus the good "Light Woman". Feminist critics attacked Hemingway as "public enemy number one", although more recent re-evaluations of his work "have given new visibility to Hemingway's female characters and their strengths and have revealed his own sensitivity to gender issues, thus casting doubts on the old assumption that his writings were one-sidedly masculine.

The theme of women and death is evident in stories as early as " Indian Camp ". The theme of death permeates Hemingway's work. Young believes the emphasis in "Indian Camp" was not so much on the woman who gives birth or the father who kills himself, but on Nick Adams who witnesses these events as a child, and becomes a "badly scarred and nervous young man". Hemingway sets the events in "Indian Camp" that shape the Adams persona. Young believes "Indian Camp" holds the "master key" to "what its author was up to for some thirty-five years of his writing career". Those who face death with dignity and courage live an authentic life.

Francis Macomber dies happy because the last hours of his life are authentic; the bullfighter in the corrida represents the pinnacle of a life lived with authenticity. Emasculation, according to Fiedler, is a result of a generation of wounded soldiers; and of a generation in which women such as Brett gained emancipation. This also applies to the minor character, Frances Clyne, Cohn's girlfriend in the beginning in the book. Her character supports the theme not only because the idea was presented early on in the novel but also the impact she had on Cohn in the start of the book while only appearing a small number of times.

In "Alpine Idyll" the "unnaturalness" of skiing in the high country late spring snow is juxtaposed against the "unnaturalness" of the peasant who allowed his wife's dead body to linger too long in the shed during the winter. The skiers and peasant retreat to the valley to the "natural" spring for redemption. Susan Beegel has written that some more recent critics—writing through the lens of a more modern social and cultural context several decades after Hemingway's death, and more than half a century after his novels were first published—have characterized the social era portrayed in his fiction as misogynistic and homophobic.

Hemingway's legacy to American literature is his style: writers who came after him emulated it or avoided it. Benson believes the details of Hemingway's life have become a "prime vehicle for exploitation", resulting in a Hemingway industry.

Essay on Ernest Hemingway’s Life Compared to A Farewell to Arms

Salinger , although Hemingway masked his nature with braggadocio. In a letter to Hemingway, Salinger claimed their talks "had given him his only hopeful minutes of the entire war" and jokingly "named himself national chairman of the Hemingway Fan Clubs. The extent of Hemingway's influence is seen in the tributes and echoes of his fiction in popular culture.

Montblanc offers a Hemingway fountain pen, and a line of Hemingway safari clothes has been created. Entrants are encouraged to submit one "really good page of really bad Hemingway" and winners are flown to Italy to Harry's Bar. In , Mary Hemingway established the Hemingway Foundation and in the s she donated her husband's papers to the John F. Kennedy Library. In , a group of Hemingway scholars gathered to assess the donated papers, subsequently forming the Hemingway Society, "committed to supporting and fostering Hemingway scholarship". Almost exactly 35 years after Hemingway's death, on July 1, , his granddaughter Margaux Hemingway died in Santa Monica , California.

Three houses associated with Hemingway are listed on the U. His boyhood home, in Oak Park, Illinois, is a museum and archive dedicated to Hemingway. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American author and journalist.

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For other uses, see Hemingway disambiguation. Ernest, Hadley, and their son Jack "Bumby" in Schruns , Austria, , just months before they separated. Hemingway at a fishing camp in His hand and arms are burned from a recent bushfire; his hair was burned in the recent plane crashes. Opening statement of Nobel Prize acceptance speech, [recorded privately by Hemingway after the fact].

If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing about he may omit things that he knows and the reader, if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of those things as strongly as though the writer had stated them. The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who omits things because he does not know them only makes hollow places in his writing. In the late summer that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains.

In the bed of the river there were pebbles and boulders, dry and white in the sun, and the water was clear and swiftly moving and blue in the channels. Troops went by the house and down the road and the dust they raised powdered the trees. The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong in the broken places. But those that will not break it kills. It kills the very good and the very gentle and the very brave impartially.

If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry. Main article: Ernest Hemingway bibliography. See "Hemingway legacy feud 'resolved'". BBC News. October 3, Retrieved April 26, The Kansas City Star. Retrieved November 30, The Atlantic. August 15, Retrieved July 11, Reprinted in Bruccoli, Matthew Joseph, ed. Conversations with Ernest Hemingway. Literary conversations series.

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Retrieved April 14, Interviewed by Alice Hunt Sokoloff. Archived from the original on April 18, Published at Baker, Allie June 28, The Hemingway Project. Archived from the original on April 7, In this clip, Alice Sokoloff asks Hadley if she remembers how the name 'Papa' began, which was sometime during their years in Paris.

The Guardian. The Nobel Foundation. Retrieved December 10, The New York Times. Kindle Edition.

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Los Angeles Times. October 31, Retrieved March 7, Death in the Afternoon. New York: Springer Verlag. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 1, July 3, August 21, Retrieved May 14, Archived from the original on October 10, Retrieved October 8, Chicago Literary Hall of Fame.

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New York: Oxford UP. American Literature. Volume 61, issue 3. Hemingway: the Postwar Years and the Posthumous Novels. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library Online Resources. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Fiedler, Leslie. Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day. Along with Youth: Hemingway, the Early Years. A Farewell to Arms. My Brother, Ernest Hemingway. New York: World Publishing Company. The Hemingway Women. New York: Norton.

New York: Counterpoint. New York: Crown Publishers. Cambridge: Harvard UP. American Literature — London: Routledge. Hemingway: A Life Without Consequences. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein and Company. Hemingway: A Biography. New York: Macmillan. The Hemingway Review , Volume 25, issue 2. Journal of Modern Literature.