Ants are as social as humans, which probably accounts for their success as a species. An ant colony is a superorganism, a social unit. As long as the queen lives, the gene pool is secure. The individual worker, warrior, caregiver is nonreproductive and completely expendable. The colony is immortal, churning out queens and males year after year. Solitary insects are pioneers. They can go to strange places and live for a long time. Ant colonies take time to grow and they move slowly but once they get going it is difficult to halt their progress.
An ant begins as an egg, which if fertilized will be female diploid. There is a complete metamorphosis, larval and pupal stages before adulthood. The larva is largely immobile and is fed and cared for by workers. Food is given to the larvae by trophallaxis. Larvae may also be fed solid food such as pieces of insects brought back to the nest. The larvae molt several times and then begin the pupal development.
Their appendages are free, unlike butterflies at the same stage. Whether the larva becomes a queen, a worker, and what caste she belongs to is determined in some species by what kind of food she is given. Larvae and pupae need to be kept at fairly constant temperatures to ensure proper development, and so often, are moved around among the various brood chambers within the colony. A new worker spends her first few days of adult life caring for the queen and young.
She then graduates to digging and other nest work, and later to defending the nest and foraging. These changes are sometimes fairly sudden, and define what are called temporal castes. An explanation for the sequence is suggested by the high casualties involved in foraging, making it an acceptable risk only for ants who are older and are likely to die soon of natural causes.
Ant species in general have a system in which only the queen and breeding females have the ability to mate. Colonies of these ants are called queen-right. Some ant nests have multiple queens while others may exist without queens. During the species-specific breeding period, new reproductives, females and winged males leave the colony in what is called a nuptial flight. The males generally fly up into the heavens before the females. Males then look around to find a common mating ground, for example, a landmark such as a pine tree to which other males in the area converge.
Males secrete a mating pheromone that females follow. Females of some species mate with just one male, but in some others they may mate with as many as ten or more different males. After they mate, females then seek a suitable place to begin a colony. They break off their wings and begin to lay and care for eggs. The first workers to hatch are weak and smaller than later workers, but they begin to serve the colony immediately. They enlarge the nest, forage for food, and care for the other eggs. Ant bites are often said to have curative properties.
This is an Alex Wild photograph, copyright, all rights reserved. The use of pheromomes as chemical signals is more developed in ants than in other hymenoptera. Ants perceive smells with their long, thin, and mobile antennae. The paired antennae provide information about the direction and intensity of scents. Most ants live on the ground, so they use the soil surface to leave pheromone trails that may be followed by other ants. In species that forage in groups, a forager that finds food marks a trail on the way back to the colony; this trail is followed by other ants, these ants then reinforce the trail when they head back with food to the colony.
When the food source is gone, no new trails are marked by returning ants and the scent slowly dissipates. When an established path to a food source is blocked by an obstacle, the foragers leave the path to explore new routes. If an ant is successful, it leaves a new trail marking the shortest route on its return.
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Successful trails are followed by more ants, reinforcing better routes and gradually identifying the best path. An injured or crushed ant emits an alarm pheromone that sends nearby ants into an attack frenzy and attracts more ants from farther away. Pheromones also are exchanged, mixed with food, and passed by trophallaxis, transferring information within the colony.
Trophallaxis regurgitation allows other ants to detect what task group foraging or nest maintenance, for example to which other colony members belong. In ant species with queen castes, when the dominant queen stops producing a specific pheromone, workers begin to raise new queens in the colony. The latest movement in myrmecology is the study of these pheromones using very delicate instruments.
If she were doing this quicker and it were a higher pitch, it would sound like a grasshopper, a cricket, a cicada… all stridulating insects. Some ants produce sounds by stridulation, using the gaster segments and their mandibles. Sounds may be used to communicate with colony members or with other species. You can just about hear ant stridulation in one or two species, although you can hear it very well in crickets and cicadas. I have always loved the sound which seems to be hypnotic in the way that chanting is.
Ants attack and defend themselves by biting and, in many species, by stinging, often injecting or spraying chemicals such as formic acid. This sting is given the highest rating on the Schmidt Sting Pain Index. Their stings are painful and can be dangerous to hypersensitive people. Before striking, the ant opens its mandibles extremely widely and locks them in this position by an internal mechanism.
The mandibles also permit slow and fine movements for other tasks. Photo: Alex Wild. All rights reserved. The worker subsequently dies. Nests may be protected from physical threats such as flooding and overheating by elaborate nest architecture. Camponotus anderseni, which nests in the cavities of wood in mangrove habitats, deals with submergence under water by switching to anerobic respiration. The leading tutor teaches the follower.
The leader is acutely sensitive to the progress of the follower and slows down when the follower lags and speeds up when the follower gets too close. A generation of identical workers was divided into two groups whose outcome in food foraging was controlled. One group was continually rewarded with prey, while it was made certain that the other failed. As a result, members of the successful group intensified their foraging attempts while the unsuccessful group ventured out fewer and fewer times. A month later, the successful foragers continued in their role while the others had moved to brood care.
Ants generally build complex nests, but some species are nomadic and do not build permanent structures. Ants may form underground nests or build them in trees. These nests may be found in the ground, under stones or logs, inside logs, hollow stems, or even acorns. Temnothorax albipennis avoid sites with dead ants since these may indicate the presence of pests or disease. They are quick to abandon established nests at the first sign of threats. This is called a bivouac. The weaver ants Oecophylla build nests in trees by attaching leaves together, first pulling them together with bridges of workers and then inducing their larvae to produce silk as they are moved along the leaf edges.
Some species of Polyrhacis nest similarly. Other ant species build nests in and on buildings. Interior spaces in walls, windows, and even electric appliances such as clocks, lamps, and radios in the interior of buildings may be used as sites for nests. They collect leaves which are taken to the colony, cut into tiny pieces and placed in fungal gardens.
The largest of these ants cut stalks, smaller workers chew the leaves and the smallest tend the fungus. Leafcutter ants are sensitive enough to recognise the reaction of the fungus to different plant material, apparently detecting chemical signals from the fungus. If a particular type of leaf is found to be toxic to the fungus, the colony will no longer collect it. The ants feed on structures produced by the fungi called gongylydia. The white clumps are gongylydia. Day-foraging ants in hot, dry places can easily die from the heat, so the ability to find the shortest route back is essential.
The compound eyes of ants have cells that detect polarised light from the Sun, which is used to determine direction. In some army ant species, a group of foragers who become separated from the main column sometimes may turn back on themselves and form a circular ant mill. The workers may then run around continuously until they die of exhaustion. Such wheels have been observed in other ant species, notably when a group has fallen into or been overcome with water, whereby the group rotates in a partially submerged circle on the surface of the water, which might allow for survival of a brief flooding.
Worker ants do not have wings and reproductive females lose their wings after their mating flights. Therefore, unlike their wasp ancestors, most ants travel by walking. Ants with this ability are able to control the direction of their descent while falling.
Photo copyright Alex Wild. Some ants can form chains to bridge gaps over water, underground, or through spaces in vegetation. Some species, such as fire ants, also form floating rafts that help them survive floods. These rafts may also have a role in allowing ants to colonise islands. Ants have different kinds of societies. They are eusocial, that is very social, but their behavior is poorly developed compared to other species. Each individual hunts alone, using her large eyes instead of chemical senses to find prey. Photo: Alex Wild, all rights reserved.
Others invade colonies to steal eggs or larvae, which they either eat or raise as workers or slaves. Amazon ants are incapable of feeding themselves and need captured workers to survive. Ants know their relatives through their scent, which comes from hydrocarbon-laced secretions that coat their exoskeletons. If an ant is separated from its original colony, it will eventually lose the colony scent.
Any ant that enters a colony without a matching scent will be attacked. Ants attack each other even if they are of the same species because the genes responsible for pheromone production are different between them. This form of parasitism is seen across many ant genera, but the parasitic ant is usually a species that is closely related to its host.
A variety of methods are employed to enter the nest of the host ant. A parasitic queen may enter the host nest before the first brood has hatched, establishing herself prior to development of a colony scent. Other species use pheromones to confuse the host ants or to trick them into carrying the parasitic queen into the nest. Some simply fight their way into the nest. The sperm of the male ant appears to be able to destroy the female DNA within a fertilized egg, giving birth to a male that is a clone of its father.
Meanwhile the female queens make clones of themselves to carry on the royal female line. Ants are partners with many other beings including other ant species, other insects, plants, and fungi. There are arthropods who spend part of their lives within ant nests, either preying on them, their larvae, their eggs, consuming the food stores of the ants, or hiding from predators.
Alex Wild, photographer, all rights reserved. Alex Wild, copyright. Other cases show Wasmannian mimicry, normally seen only in inquilines. Then, in a sense, ants prey on other animals, sometimes rather benignly. The sugars in honeydew are a high-energy food source, which many ant species collect, almost as we collect milk from cows.
The aphids secrete the honeydew in response to ants tapping them with their antennae. The ants in turn keep predators away from the aphids and will move them from one feeding location to another. A human being can tap an aphid with a hair of the head and the same secretion will happen. Many colonies will take the aphids with them when they move to a new area, thus ensuring a continued supply of honeydew. The caterpillars have a gland which secretes honeydew when the ants massage them. Some caterpillars produce vibrations and sounds that are perceived by the ants. Other caterpillars have evolved from ant-loving to ant-eating: these myrmecophagous caterpillars secrete a pheromone that makes the ants act as if the caterpillar is one of their own larvae.
The caterpillar is then taken into the ant nest where it feeds on the ant larvae. As usual with species one is attracted to those who are somewhat bizarre or even extraordinary and Allomerus decemarticulatus are extraordinary in that they build traps for catching their prey. The ants wait by the entry to these holes and when the insect puts its legs there… they catch it!
Although some ants obtain nectar from flowers, pollination by ants is somewhat rare. Studies suggest that plants also obtain nitrogen from the ants. In return, the ants obtain food from protein- and lipid-rich Beltian bodies. The ants are collecting a protein rich material attached to the seed. They do not eat the actual seed, which is later discarded in the ant midden. This makes a perfect seedbed. This symbiotic relationship is called myrmecochory. Many plants have elaiosomes that attract ants, which take the seed to their nest and feed the elaiosome to their larvae.
Some plants in fire-prone grassland systems are particularly dependent on ants for their survival and dispersal because the seeds are transported to safety below the ground. They have an edible elaiosome-like structure and are taken into the ant nest where the young hatch. Most ants are predatory and some prey on and obtain food from other social insects including other ants. Some termites, including Nasutitermes corniger, form associations with certain ant species to keep away predatory ant species. The pedicel is the part at the top that attaches the nest to a tree or a building.
It is suggested that many tropical wasps may build their nests in trees and cover them to protect themselves from ants.
Their name is slightly misleading as male bees and bees of other species, such as those in the family Andrenidae, can not sting. Meliponines have stingers, but they are highly reduced and cannot be used for defense. Most of what you see in the lower of the two photoes above are larvae of army ants of the genus Aenictus.
Ants react to their infection by climbing up plants and sinking their mandibles into plant tissue. The fungus kills the ants, grows on their remains, and produces a fruiting body. Strepsipteran parasites also manipulate their ant host to climb grass stems, to help the parasite find mates.
A nematode Myrmeconema neotropicum that infects canopy ants Cephalotes atratus causes the black-coloured gasters of workers to turn red. The parasite also alters the behaviour of the ant, causing them to carry their gasters high. The droppings of the bird are collected by other ants and fed to their young, leading to further spread of the nematode. This Central American species Dendrobates occurs from southeastern Nicaragua to northwestern Colombia.
Though mostly distributed in humid lowlands and premontane rainforests from m elevation, some montane morphs can be found up to m elevation. Army ants forage in a wide roving column, attacking any animals in that path that are unable to escape. Another shared feature is that, unlike most ant species, army ants do not construct permanent nests; an army ant colony moves almost incessantly over the time it exists.
All species are members of the true ant family, but several groups have independently evolved the same basic behavioral and ecological syndrome. The objective of the army-ant-following birds is simple: to devour the grasshoppers, katydids, crickets and other insects that think they are escaping death by flying away from the swarm. These adaptations include long, sticky tongues to capture ants and strong claws to break into ant nests.
Brown bears Ursus arctos have been found to feed on ants. The life of ants is as strange as anything in science fiction. They are fascinating animals. During the writing of this I have imagined myself as an ant being raised from an egg in a colony. I have dreamed that I became an ant. When are you going to figure it out about guns? How many shootings is it going take?
They are occurring almost daily now. People see the past as better than it was, the present worse than it is, and the future less resolved than it will be. The world will freely offer itself to you to be unmasked, it has no choice, it will roll in ecstasy at your feet. I make music to please myself first, and if the audience likes it, all the better. Interviews are all right with me. The proper union of vodka and vermouth is a great and sudden glory; it is one of the happiest marriages on earth, and one of the shortest lived.
Growing old is an interesting process. The best medicine may be laughter, if laughter is any kind of medicine at all. The universe is truly large. From here to Alpha Centauri is an unimaginable distance, and that is just a tiny, tiny corner in this whole universe, almost imperceptible. So, now, what were you worrying about again? History is full of examples of people who were almost going to die, and yet, because of some unlooked for miracle, survived and went on to do such great things that benefited us all.
Anyone who reads biographies will be very conscious of this. There is only the most tenuous thread between life and death for us all. Accidents play a much larger part in life than we are willing to recognize. What if Jimi Hendrix had been killed in Viet Nam? I wanted to write about a normal young girl whose only difference was that she behaved in the way a boy might, without any sense of guilt on a moral or sexual level.
May your trails be crooked, winding, lonesome, dangerous, leading to the most amazing views. May your mountains rise into and above the clouds. The tragedy of war is that young soldiers die fighting each other, instead of their real enemies back home in the capitals. The trouble with returning to a place where you once were is that you can never repeat the same experience. Our neoconservatives are neither new nor conservative.
Ignorance, apathy, hate, fear, greed, as long as these things are in human nature the Republicans will get some votes. I think when I practice, but feel when I play. The playing occurs ahead of my ability to understand it. Aeschylus said that it is in the character of very few men to honor without envy a friend who has prospered, but I think I have this quality. Several of my friends have gone on to fame and glory and I very seldom want to kill them. If you get the quality right, then the marketability or whatever; your ability to sell videos or your ability to earn money or whatever, will follow naturally.
But try to be creatively lead rather than market lead. In those days, boxing was very glamorous and romantic. You listened to fights on the radio, and a good announcer made it seem like a contest between gladiators. I told my psychiatrist that everyone hates me. Do you ever really look at people in a health food store. They are pale, skinny and look half dead.
In a steak house you see robust, ruddy people. I more have a gentle shyness. Like, I have a little trouble mingling at parties. In the beginning there was nothing. I am essentially a rather quiet, dull person who just happens to be a performer. As I get older, I get smaller. Other points of view. I see outside myself more. Journalists were so unkind to me. They said I knew only three chords, but they were wrong. I knew four.
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Sometimes the best songs come all at once in twenty minutes or half an hour. Chords, words, melody, everything. There is nothing that will get your mind off everything like golf. Actually, I doubt this very much. People who complain about President Obama should consider how things would be if Romney and Ryan were running the country. I always wanted to be a physicist, but it seemed that I was doomed to be nothing more than a very silly person. Names are fascinating. They are capsules of history and drama.
Everyone has a name and every name has a meaning. Some names have many meanings. To the Romans, this man would be Nero Falco. How about Rock River Lake Color? Wolfway LoveGod?
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Wolfgang Amadeus. Pedro Aguilar is rock eagle, and so it goes. Lee is the most frequently heard family name surname on Earth, because it is very common in China where it is the second most popular name and also well known in the West Robert E. In the Old Testament, the names of individuals are meaningful, just as they are everywhere else. A change of name indicates a change of status. Saul became Paul on his way to lawyering for Christ. Jews in the Torah did not have surnames which were passed from generation to generation but instead used patronymics, that is, they were typically known as the child of their father.
Toponymy or toponomastics, the study of place names, is one of the principal branches of onomastics. The name above is Yamada Taro. Japanese names are usually written in kanji, as they are here. There are usually, but not always, two characters for the surname which comes first and two characters for the given name. Japanese names are often written in kanji, which are characters of Chinese origin. I love to use this color when I paint. Aguilar comes from a word that means eagle. Tiene el mismo origen que Aguiar. Maybe Aguiar came first.
At any rate, both from aquila , Latin, eagle. Albin comes from albus white and is also from and related to Albanus, Alba n. The Rathaus is the central building in every German town and is the city hall. The Ratskeller is down in the basement cellar where food and drink are served. The red in Alfred is the same as rat, rad, red. Kein Wort reden. According to historian Bernard Bachrach, the Alans settled in parts of what is today France, including Brittany, in the early Middle Ages.
El alma, el dia, el programa, el artista, la mano. These are tricky for the beginning Spanish learner. In French, la main. This is because manuus in Latin is a fourth declension feminine noun. Also la mano in Italian. Andrew was the first apostle mentioned in the New Testament. He was the brother of Peter. The surname Andrew was one of the earliest settler names in America, Anthony Andrew being recorded in the first listings for the state of Virginia in The very first recorded spelling of the family name anywhere, is probably that of William Andreu, which was dated , in the ancient charters of the county of Buckinghamshire, England, in the year The Irish meaning is spear.
Also, a nickname for Bartholemew, Baruch. When facing east, the right hand is on the south, so Yemen means Southland. The name was so popular for Irish girls that Biddy nickname for Bridget was used as a slang term for an Irish girl in English speaking countries. A caution here: burg is city and berg is mountain. They are easily confused. The second Indo European element in Burkhardt is kar hard, hardy, bold, strong. In German, this element is often spelled hart, hard, hardt.
Thus, Burkhardt can mean a citadel on a hill, or a strong inhabitant of a hill city. As his son Bruce writes, Ralph was a Renaissance man in the grandest sense with diverse interests in the arts: theatre, sculpture, puppetry, painting, writing and music. He married or lived with a slave named Justine Olivier in and subsequently moved to New Orleans. Bienville was the one responsible for the original survey to determine where the city of New Orleans would be located. First records of the name are found in 12th century England.
The name has many variants. Still today, clerk is pronounced clark in Britain. Also Clio. A Neanderthal was someone from the Neander valley in Germany. God is my judge. God rules me. Danilo is one way to say Daniel in Spanish. The oldest recorded surname dates to the period of — in Lincolnshire. The English city Derby is pronounced darby. My friend Dario is Italian from Belluno. Ciro Cyrus is also an often used Italian name.
Romani language nickname of Jean Reinhardt. Django gave himself this name when he was quite young. The materfamilias, the woman who was in charge of her Roman household was called the domina. This word came down into the Romance languages. The name has the idea of house domus and so is familiar and eternal. Dom in French, don in Spanish. In Church, we used to say Dominus vobiscum , Lord go with you. The response was Et cum spiritu tuo. And with thy spirit. Notice that Dorothy and Theodore are really the same name with the basic elements reversed.
My God is an oath. Emily is the English form of the Latin Aemilia. The name is derived from the Roman clan name Aemilius, one of the five ruling clans of Rome descended from Mamercus Aemilios. Mamercus was given the surname of Aemilios for his eloquence and refinement. Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome, named his fourth son Mamercus Aemilios and the great lineage of the Aemilios clan was from him.
From Turkish roots, its meaning is joy, bliss, happiness. One meaning of fledger, still today in English, is someone who puts the feathers on arrows. Jordi in Catalan. As a Jewish name it can also be an ornamental name or one of names selected at random from vocabulary words by government officials when surnames became compulsory.
The hind is the female. Heath is a male version. Heather is also a color, a light purple shade with a hint of grey. Heid is a noun maker in German. Pagus is the Latin word for district and it refers to a non city environment, the country. So, a paganus , a rural dweller, was not civilized and was a pagan. Similarly, with someone who lived on the heath , there was a sense of not having city ways and thus the person was a heathen.
Thus, pagan is Latin and heathen is Germanic. Frisian is the language spoken in Friesland, a province of the Netherlands. Comprised of the northwestern portion of the Netherlands mainland, along with a major portion of the Frisian Islands a chain which extends from the Netherlands into Germany , this province is populated by an ethnic people whose language and customs are more closely related to the English than the Dutch. The Hoekstras may have lived at a crossroads corner, hook or that their ancestors originated from the Hoek of Holland. Located on the Orontes River, Homs is also the central link between the interior cities and the Mediterranean coast.
Town might be the oldest word in the English language. Yet another derivation is haward , high guardian. Jacob can also therefore mean supplanter. The time when James I came to the throne of England from Scotland, where he was James VI, is called the Jacobean Period to distinguish that time from the Elizabethan which came before and the Hanoverian which came after. Jill was used as a short form of the female given names Jillian and Gillian, and now it is often an independent name.
Yahweh Has Been Gracious. Yahweh Is Gracious. The Lord Graciously Gave. Kurt is nominative and accusative. Kurts is genitive and Kurti is dative. As long as possible. When a woman is graduated from a university in Italy, she is said to be laureata, and instead of a cap and gown she wears laurel leaves. The leeside of the island is the opposite side from windward. A legend about the Li family is that those who are the directly descended from rebel Emperor Zhuanxu have a genetic trait noticeable in their feet. The last toe on each foot would be pointing inward a little rather than being straight like the rest of the toes.
In addition, the nail on this foot has two sections, with one section appearing to override the other. Place name, which meant meadow land, fallow land, pasture ground in Old English. There is a Japanese concept that has the same connotation of cute, small, clean that Linda does. It often seems as if teenage girls, who are very kawai themselves, use this word in every other sentence. All of which describe Linda very well. By the way, these are construction barriers at Narita airport in Tokyo. Can you imagine such a thing here in the macho USA?
Margherita Italian. A tequila margarita looks very like a pearl. From c. Melina was the name of a nymph that cared for the young Zeus. The earliest reference to the name is found in ancient Numidian inscriptions. The town of Nice in France is named for this goddess. It is a fairly common Luo name, and it is derived from Swahili referring to members of the Luo tribe who converted to Islam. The third line is written in kanji and the first character is o little.
The second character is hama beach. Japanese sound laws are such that when you put o and hama together, the pronunciation is obama little beach. This is Obama written in katakana , the alphabet used for foreign names, and it specifically refers to the President and not to the town of Obama. This Oscar is English. The name is first found in Ross-shire where the Pattersons had a family seat from early times and the first mentions come from census rolls taken by the early kings of Britain to determine tax rates for their subjects. Patterson, Paterson, Pattersen, Pattison.
Another possible origin: pater father in Latin and son. After his humbling conversion experience, Saul of Tarsus became known as Paul, a man who wrote over half of the New Testament. Perry was recorded as a surname from the late 16th century in villages near Colchester, Essex, East England, such as Lexden and Copford.
I always thought that Pettigrew had a common origin with pedigree. They were able to cause landslides and floods, but their greatest power, if you could call it that, was their appetite. Piliwale reigned as the titluar chieftain or King of the island of Oahu and all the territories Oahu claimed at the time. His wife was the High Chiefess Paakanilea, descent not known.
He is something of a legend in the Hawaiian Islands. Many streets, valleys and other geographical sites there are named for him. Strong power, strong ruler, strong kingdom. Examples of Rolf or Rollo are to be found in the surviving church registers of the city of London, including Andrieu Rolin Andrew Rollins! Thus, to the Italians Russo calls to mind Slavic tribes who migrated into Italy very early.
However that may be, I am still holding out for Russo being at least partially related to Rosso , red. The name is very common in Italy, and it also calls to mind the French name Rousseau. Ruthie, Tootie, Tootsi, Tuti are all variants of Ruth. It became a given name in honor of prominent members of the New York family, such as Philip Schuyler, and so became the given name of Schuyler Colfax, the 17th vice president of the United States.
There are many, many interesting variants of Shane in many, many languages. Iron was a precious commodity in Greece, but you could also make a case for this name meaning Smithson , since a smith is an iron worker. The daughter of a Sidiros would be a Sidiropoulou, but Greeks now keep the same surname over the generations. Papadopoulos , for example, the most common Greek surname, means son of a priest. This can be a given name Stavros or a family name. Both given name and family name are very common in Greece.
Esteban or Estavan in Spanish. Sometimes Steffen and Steven in English. She was especially venerated in Orthodox Christianity, and the name has been common in Russia and Eastern Europe. The name Tatiana was not regularly used in the English-speaking world until the s. Another notable saint by this name was the 13th-century Italian philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas, who is regarded as a Doctor of the Church.
Thorstein is most often used as a male name. The name was popular with Christians as a symbol of their belief in eternal life, and was borne by a dozen early saints; it became especially popular in Emilia-Romagna because of two saints, San Vitale of Bologna and Ravenna. Compare Hyams. I have explored the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, a beautiful place. The suffix is -ton, a town. I would have thought wall town. This is my beautiful mother and she was named for the queen of the Netherlands.
See how Pennsylvania made that little portal out to Lake Erie? Croatia has outlets to the Adriatic Sea much narrower than this, maybe a mile in length. Many other ports, Savannah, Boston, were more important at the time, but with a way to get goods over the Appalachians Alleghenies and to Ohio and points farther west, New York City became the dominant Eastern doorway to and from the rest of the country.
I used to sing this song in my folk music days. This printed music, however, is very odd, with B going into C. Both are the same notes. Anyway, I loved this haunting melody and the history embodied in the song. This song is rather like what The Volga Boatman must have been to the Russians. Minor key, strongly pentatonic, a chant, really, primitive, strong, good for keeping time while rowing. This version makes a lot more sense. I think I used to sing it in D minor.
There is a lot of history in songs, all songs. Caro Viaggiatore. I put Elise and me in there. I learned how to paint by copying painters before me. Self portraits are invariably serious because the artist is looking so intensely into the mirror. He and Sarah made Adyson Graham who is impossibly beautiful.
Meanwhile, farther upstream, the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers are flowing together at Cairo, Illinois. When I think of Florida, I think of the coasts. Sarasota where Elise used to live and Melbourne, home of my brother Stephen and his family. Elise and I moved into this house where we live now in The Hawaiian archipelago is actually much longer than this, extending some 1, miles over the Pacific.
Midway Island, that small two mile long dot there on the globe, is at the northwestern end of the Hawaiian archipelago. It is one third of the way to Tokyo from Honolulu. My family traveled once in a propeller plane that actually refueled at Midway en route to Okinawa. James Gurley and I lived on the beach at Makena off and on for a couple of years. I wrote the song Maui there. Summer in Alaska, Winter in Maui, not a bad life.
Tristan Avakian played guitar with us and Todd Zimberg was on drums. Tristan is now with Jennifer Espinoza in some incredible Queen scene. A beautiful place. Actually, when you think about it, the whole world is a beautiful place. The banyan tree downtown Lahaina, Maui. This tree just keeps on going and growing. I filled notebooks with them. The Museum still looked a lot like this when I first visited there in James Gurley always called me mon jumeau malveillant , or, when he spoke English, my evil twin. In the s, he called himself The Archfiend of the Universe , a much more interesting appellation, not necessarily more accurate, just more interesting.
Our guitar player on this gig was Mick Taylor, and he did a great job. While the Idiosyncrasies table above is extensive, the GM should by no means consider it to be exhaustive. The GM should feel free to add whatever little quirks occur to him to expand this table. The more he adds, the longer the table, and the less frequently results repeat.
The GM should be careful about using these idiosyncrasies, and particularly about making them too extreme. This is as far as the GM generally needs to go in defining any walk-on for any brief encounters restricted to a short exchange on basically impersonal matters. Only when the GM sees the encounter at hand headed for a wide-ranging or prolonged conversation, beyond the scope of the immediate encounter reaction, will he actually start roleplaying the NPC in any serious manner requiring him to work-up a true NPC personality profile.
These tables can provide a variety of traits, attitudes, and dispositions which might he brought out the longer a conversation goes on. The GM should use the archetype if he has picked one as a frame of reference and try to keep it in mind while working-up a more specific profile. Any such results should be ignored by the GM. If the NPC leans towards Virtue, this will be his weakness, the one place he falls short, but it should not be a terribly high score, maybe only 1d5 in value. Many of the table results should be interpreted as indicative of a score in one of the Conscious Attributes, starting with average and counting up one point for each entry removed from that point the result is on the table.
Others indicate a score in either a Virtue or a Vice. The GM should use a bit of thought and care in accepting and interpreting the results from these tables, however. Although unlikely to happen terribly often, some of the results may at times seem to be at odds with others. Later, though, he should try to think up the circumstances under which those attributes might be brought into agreement, and make some notes of how they will influence certain situations in tandem.
The medieval attitude that everyone and everything bas a proper and appointed place in the world and the grand Divine Plan, the Golden Chain, incumbent on all men to know and stick to, spurred the theologians, philosophers, and especially those scholars who wished to continue to enquire further into the nature of the mortal world trained by the Church-run universities and dutifully obedient to it to come to the conclusion that there are actually two sorts of knowledge: the secular and the divine.
This had the added benefit of keeping the scholars out of the canon courts on charges of heresy for their later theories and findings. This theory and attitude of the great scholars slowly filtered down to the common people, eventually through all levels of society, and thus became applied to all aspects of life.
This was not by any means considered hypocritical in the medieval point of view, however. The theoretical, ideal world of the Divine Nature is believed by the medieval people to be at least as real as the mortal world, if not more so. They believe the mortal world is but a reflection of the Divine, and a poor and imperfect reflection, at that. For that very belief, duller minds would naturally stick to ground on which they were more sure, unwilling to take the risk to their souls. Like any real person, it is quite possible for a NPC to be one way on the inside and present other, more pleasant and palatable, traits to the public.
Or not. Some of the categories for the traits are a little too closely linked for that to be convenient. Alternately, the GM might make the rolls for the traits in order of precedence, taking those rolls made first as hard and fast, and simply rerolling any results that come up after them which would seem to conflict or give him trouble. It is important in using the trait tables that the GM pay attention to the strict meanings of the word or words in the entries in the context of their specific tables; furious as a life pace has absolutely nothing whatever to do with being angry, nor does agile as applies to intellect have anything to do with acrobatics except perhaps as regards performing mental gymnastics to arrive at odd conclusions from scant information.
The Traits discussed previously are best used in conjunction with them. Prudence, Humility, and Charity are Virtues themselves, the result of the rolls for them indicating the nature of the score for them, if any. The Generosity table sheds further light on Charity, as well, and the Honesty and Loyalty tables on Faith. The results of the Vices table should be interpreted as described in the note following that table.
For the Adolescent category, the GM should throw a d10 again, and on the result of 7 to 10 should throw 2d5 to determine how many points the NPC earned during that age period towards either Virtue or Vice. For the Adult category and all further age categories, the GM should throw a d10 again, and on the result of 5 to 10 the GM should throw 3d5 to determine how many points the NPC earned during each age period the NPC has achieved towards either Virtue or Vice.
On the result of 1 to 5 the points will be allotted to Vice s , on the result of 6 to 10 the points will be allotted to Virtue s. The roll to allocate points to either Virtue or Vice will be modified according to the number of dice in points each receives as the GM goes through the age categories. For example , if the NPC is determined to have accumulated a d5 of points during the Child category and the d10 to determine whether it goes to Vice or Virtue indicates Virtue results of 6 to 10 , the next time the dice indicate that points have again been accumulated regardless if for the Adult, Middle Aged, etc.
IF the die indicates they go again to Virtue s , the next time the dice indicate that points have again been accumulated, on the roll of 4 to 10 the points will go to Virtue again, and only on the roll of 1 to 3 will the points go to Vice. Only those for whom skills and abilities will be needed will require deeper and more specific mechanical definitions, in the manner of a PC.
The name chosen for a character makes an impression on those he meets and says something to the players about the character, even if only on a gut level. The player can always go to the GM to get a list of place names for the area he plans the first adventure to take place in to put to this use. These sobriquets also tend to be very descriptive or convey an impression.
It will not be uncommon, either to see a name bearing both surname and sobriquet, in an effort to assure that there will be no confusion over identity. Naming can be key in establishing the medieval-fantasy flavor of the identity of the character, so the player should be as free and creative as he likes in coming up with a name.
Then it becomes a useful joke. Perhaps the character will be a prideful coward, and when he gains the strength in skill and knowledge that comes with advancing in his trade he will be a force with which to be reckoned and his name will no longer be a joke. A character can always be set up to fulfill the promise of a name this way, in ways never imagined by his parents and siblings. The more common and popular of these will be readily available. Some are hold-overs from the Anglo-Saxon period and others are French imports brought by the Norman conquerors. The player should keep in mind the fact that England was a melting pot, historically, with Celtic roots, the influence of Roman-brought Latin scholarship, Anglo-Saxon remnants, and Norman French traditions.
While the names included reflect these varied heritages, they are NOT divided according to their cultural heritage. These can be discerned fairly readily in most instances, though. When the scores of the members of the party violate the demographics for their occurrence, the GM will know when and how many of the party members to stipulate as visiting foreigners when bringing the party together.
The tables provided show the scores next to one another by score range and then relates them to the proportion of their occurrence among the populations whose scores run in those ranges. For example , the occurrence of scores of 20 in the range, 25 in the , range, 30 in the range and 32 in the range will all be the same, or 1 in 10,, people whose scores run in the applicable range.
That is an area about the size of an entire medieval country. The population of all of Europe on the eve of the Black Death was in the neighborhood of ,, The GM should look at the scores in which both PC and NPC strengths lie and take these proportions based on population, considering the demographics for those who are above average separately from those below average, and not just on a racial basis, but also on a score by score basis.
Especially high or low scores in particular attributes should probably be made to run in families, though it were probably best if not in every generation. Thus, the number of specific characters with high scores might not violate demographic guidelines if they are made the members of a limited number of families, or closely related families.
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The GM must be sure he breaks these demographics down by individual race population rather than by the total population, all races inclusive. The racial demographics represented by the table provided for the GM to determine NPC race can be applied to find out what portion of the populations of individual races will have what scores once they have been separated out. These demographics must then be adjusted according to the average score for each race in each attribute, as follows. The 1 : 10 demographic would be used to describe dwarfs with a STR of 18 or 19 which with an overall population of , would be about 40, That is a strong horde to come up against if there should be war.
Even the average dwarf would be a fearsome foe against any of the weaker races. They would be able to field about 4, with STR scores of ; with scores ; 40 with scores human maximum ; and 4 with scores For scores greater than this the GM will need to step back and look at the dwarfish population over a larger area several countries , maybe bring in a dwarf hero from a neighboring country with STR As it stands, there are a total of 44, dwarfs in that population of , that have above average or exceptional STR, and the same number with below average STR.
That leaves , dwarfs with truly average STR for their race, with a score of These are the proportions and demographic figures on which the method for determining scores later was based. It is probably even more important that those with multiple high scores be similarly limited in number. Of course, the GM can fudge all the NPC scores he wants, or bump the results here and there, making them whatever he wishes or just more appropriate to the grade of NPC.
The GM might actually consider knocking the magnitude of NPC scores down by one or two when the NPC has multiple extraordinary scores, so that not ALL his higher-than-average scores stand in the same range. If it is important to the GM that a NPC have a higher score in a particular attribute due to an important skill, the GM can always fudge the score to get it where he wants it, BUT compensating with a higher SL in the skill is perhaps a better option.
Skills are learned and practiced and perfected by hard work alone and, while few have the drive to devote that sort of work to them, there is always a new generation being trained. A high score in CHM can be used to very powerful effect if one knows how to use the Presence skills in roleplaying situations, and these are directly influenced by high BTY scores. Even in those cultures, it will generally be the quick and clever and charismatic among the big and strong who will triumph, through their tactics in battle if nothing else, on the climb to the top.
Physical scores should correspond not only to the grade of the NPC, but to the physical role the NPC may have to fill. This is made up of components taken from the PC record sheet. That way, if he has a use for them later, he can throw in the extras when recapping the description, which can only help add depth for the players later.
When this happens, the GM should transfer the information from the sheet for the lesser form to a sheet for the greater grade and then finish adding the additional information. The old sheet should then be stapled or paper-clipped behind the new sheet. When a NPC starts getting less and less use and its role falls off to that of a lower grade, the GM should just let it stay where it is in his filing system.
This is as it should be. The GM needs to have a feel for how rare both the high and low scores are. If the game runs long enough, it is quite possible that the GM will exhaust the number of above and below average characters PC and NPC that should occur according to statistical probability. The GM will have a great deal of latitude if he is careful about age ranges, because these statistics apply separately to each generation. For the purposes of the game a generation will be considered about 15 years, rather than 20 as is common today.
He will also have more latitude in regards lower above average scores, due to their greater occurrence. This is the same principle that is applied in determining demographics between the different races, based on the overall populations, in Chapter 2 of Part II. This applies to EACH generation, though. When the character reaches the age of , his own generation will be about the business of bearing the next. High or low scores can run in families in particular attributes, though it were probably best not to have it equally high in every generation.
The GM can always fudge the demographics. They are the ones the average scores are meant to represent. These can be found on the tables recapped above from Chapter 4. If a NPC is supposed to have knowledge or skill in a particular trade, the GM should look up that trade to find the attribute s governing its use and determine if the NPC will have any sort of natural talent for it, according to his attribute score s. Otherwise he will be well and truly average. Scores will be important only for those attributes which will see use in play.
Since the incidence of higher or lower than average scores for a given race is the same for all races across the board, this process can be followed for all equally. If the GM determines that the NPC will see combat, that is one of the few reasons to go through the trouble of generating scores and skills.
There is one that is provided so the GM can keep track of several on a page. Each of successively greater skill and better armor. To provide some individuality, there are simple variations of armoring the GM can use on the group Record Sheets.. Because they will usually only be created at need, the GM should start the character with all the requisite attributes at 14 or racial average, whichever is greater, before checking the d10 to determine if the scores will be any higher.
Alternately, if he has no specific skills or trade in mind, the GM may roll a d10 and on the result of a 1 pick one attribute to raise the score for. This should be open-ended, so every 1 the GM rolls in succession will indicate another score which will be above average. The GM should roll for above average scores first, and below average after, stopping when the dice indicate an end to the open-ended roll a number other than 1 or 10 being rolled or all attributes have been accounted for, whichever occurs first.
The GM should follow the procedure described above for determining how much above average a given score will be, and the same for determining how far below average as well. By using the mass minor NPC record sheet in the back of the book.
Bernard Cornwell: Dunstable / Dunastopol: Place in Bernard Cornwell's Saxon Series ****
This might strike some as highly improper, but to be quite honest, if the GM is doing his job and keeping his preparations to himself, just how are the players to know? If there are foreigners in the party, whatever language they hold in common should be assumed. On the other hand, they might be curvaceous, voluptuous or lush, plumpy or well-rounded. The range of adjectives regarding thinness also expresses a descending degree of muscularity, as well, of which the GM should also be conscious when using the superlatives.
That is what the assessment skills of Perception of the Courtier, the Merchant, and the Rogue are for. But time will also be a factor. The shorter the time, the more basic and abbreviated the description before the encounter begins or the opportunity to begin it passes by. The primary point is that the GM should never allow himself to be drawn into revealing specific scores for attributes to the players in response to their questions on physical appearance just because it is an easy short-cut.
AWA is critical for catching important details and to allow the character always to be on his toes, difficult at best to surprise. BTY and CHM are important not only for charming information out of others, but for exercising leadership under pressure also. Although some races will have higher or lower ranges in some attributes, all the races are compared on the basis of the human standard. The human average for almost all attributes will be Those below 13 will be noteworthy for the opposite reason. The GM must make sure that the scores reflect what he intends for each NPC for whom he generates them.
This should explain what the physical statistics mean in more visual terms. The taller a character who has only average STR and CND is, the longer, bonier, and lankier that character will appear. Of course, a character of average STA and STR with a high CND may also appear thin, but this will due to the fact that his muscles will be longer and leaner with more definition, made for endurance.
High STR provides big muscles, of course, but without a good CND score: they will be smooth, and only the divisions between major muscle groups will be: visible. The shorter the character of high STR is, the larger the muscles will appear. Players trying for the bodybuilder-barbarian look will need high STR for muscle bulk, but also high CND for high definition, and shorter than average height for their race, as well as a couple inches shorter than average for their STA score. Half-trolls, half-ogres, and dwarf characters are thick by nature, Medium-Heavy to Heavy in Build to start with, so following these tactics will yield almost cartoonish results — if that is what the GM is looking for.
From here there are several things that can be observed of the NPC on casual approach. In the cases of the lower clergy station results and mid to lower landbound stations, the results are more ambiguous and the GM should roll on the NPC Fortunes table. If the GM has no preference, he can roll on the table provided for that purpose also, as follows. From here, or when he has no such point of reference in describing an NPC, the GM actually has more freedom to work up character appearance.
The General Appearance table is fairly self-explanatory. Every class and station has its rising and falling stars, those at the top of that level and those just barely maintaining a hold on remaining within it, their glory days past. The low incidence of such marks allows them to retain their value. Some of the entries on the following tables have superstitious significance. Those with a single brow and especially those who are also hirsute are commonly attributed with lycanthropy — werewolves.
Having eyes of two different colors is commonly believed to signify the power of the Evil Eye. The GM will note that, in the case of such deformities as the slit nostril and missing body parts like fingers and toes, noses and ears, arms and legs, it is most likely the NPC has seen the rougher side of the law. If it is a product of an accident, it is likely the NPC will carry a placard or royal warrant attesting to the accidental nature of the injury. There is no PC on which to base all the ages of everyone in the family.
On the lines reading across from the names of the races are the span of years for each category, and underneath each is the number of dice to be rolled to achieve a number in that range. To get the age scores indicated above the dice quoted on the table, simply subtract the minimum yield of the dice from the minimum age in the span for the category. The result should be added to the result of the dice as a base to make the result fall within the range quoted for the category. This will provide the ages of those who are older. The same done in reverse, subtracting the die rolls in turn, will yield the ages of the younger siblings.
IF the character is dwarfish the result of the d5 should be multiplied by 6; if he is elfin, multiply by 15; if dunladdin or irdanni, multiply by 2. For the ages of the parents at their wedding , the GM will need to determine first the age category, accepting only results of Adolescent, Adult, or Middle Age. To this should be added either a d5 again to determine how long after their first child was born. With their unlimited lifespan and immunity to disease, elfs can live any length of time the GM can imagine.
In some cases, the parents of large families, especially those in which the PC is among the youngest, may well have died already, the eldest son having already assumed the reins of the family estate or business, or near death. It is always fun to know where the aunts, uncles, cousins, nieces and nephews are.
It is likely that there will be a great deal of family within a mile radius. This is where the GM will find directions for implementing the effects of age, the slow deterioration of the physical faculties, and sometimes mental, as well. Unless the GM already has definite plans or a strong concept already that defines this aspect of the NPC, it will be important to determine his or her marriage status when a NPC is of the Adolescent or Adult age category or older. When a NPC is married, the PC party may not just be dealing with the NPC himself but his family brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, wife and children, cousins , as well.
New widows can be implacable enemies, and their families after them should they be disposed of. The GM will need to have these details ahead of time if the NPC is important enough to warrant it, OR be ready to fly by the seat of the pants if the players catch him unawares and suddenly start focusing on some NPC the GM had not thought particularly notable.
Because the quality of life and its dangers, multiple marriages and sets of children were not uncommon due to death from disease, accident, misadventure, or childbed for women. Common law marriages were common indeed among the free and landbound common classes, and just as easily abandoned when love faded. If the GM has any preferences for this aspect of his NPC, he should just make the decision and jot down the details, otherwise he will need to determine this information.
If the NPC is married, the GM will want to check and see how many times, and perhaps think about what brought the other marriages to an end annulment through the Church, disease, accident, misadventure, murder, etc. Rolling the percentage or less on d indicates the NPC either is or was married. Once it has been established that the NPC is or was married, the GM will need to know the status of that marriage and how many times the NPC has been married, if even more than once.
It is always good to have the details in order. IF the NPC is of the Adolescent category in age and human, wulver, or pumathar, the GM should assume that this is his first marriage, if the GM determines he is married. The NPC must have had the time to have had multiple marriages. If a 5 is rolled for the first die, the GM should again, open-ended, adding one 1 to the result for each 5 rolled, stopping when he fails to roll a 5. IF the NPC has had multiple marriages, the GM should check to see if there are any children from each of those unions.
The GM should put a practical limitation on the number of children per marriage of no more than one per year of the marriage, although that number could conceivably be exceeded if the husband were sleeping with other women. It was not uncommon for some great men, especially in the Church, to sire as many as 60 bastards in their hey days. The household of every noble and free commoner of extensive means will be divided into spheres of influence or responsibility called departments. In lesser, common households, however, that will not be practical nor will it be appropriate.
Appearances and dignity of station must be maintained. The noble lord will usually have two stewards, one to deal with the castellarium estates, and the other to tend to the domestic needs of the lord and his household. His military retainers will include household knights rare during the period of the game, unless the knight is filling a household staff position , castle guardsmen, squires, the Watchman who is also responsible for the internal security of the household , the Porter who keeps the doors and is responsible for controlling the traffic in and out of the house, also called a Doorward and various men-at-arms who also have domestic functions.
Each child in the noble or wealthy household will have a wet-nurse, who more often than not will remain in attendance as a sort of chaperone or governess and personal maid after the child is weaned. Older children will have teachers or Magisters, professional scholars with teaching credentials from a Church university. Teachers of noble children will be private tutors required also to accompany their charges everywhere, as chaperones. The greater nobles usually hire a separate master for each child to see to his education and safeguard his well-being, but less lofty households might have a single master for the girl children and another for the boys, or just one for the lot, stressing more their education and having the nurses help in chaperoning the children about.
The household of the Lord of Eresby is considered an average example of a baronial household. It consisted of some 40 persons, broken down in the household departments, as follows :. Where an office is filled with two officials, one will usually accompany the nobleman on progress when he travels and the other will remain at the primary residence. After she died, he scaled back the staff and lived more simply.
Though late in period for our general purposes and the lack of enumeration of the specific positions filled by the household members, it is still helpful to look at the make-up of the household of the 5th Earl Shrewsbury. The GM can still see the large portion of staff that Shrewsbury drew from gentle country families, likely related to him or just in the surrounding area dependant on him. Still late in period , though earlier than the Shrewsbury example, the staff of the household of the influential Earl Marshal later created the 2nd Duke of Norfolk is a little more specific in a different way, and can also help shed light on the domestic staff of the upper nobility.
The GM will note the presence of a small hand of minstrels kept in the household. This a mark of great distinction, to keep such a band on staff in the household to entertain when the mood strikes and to entertain and impress guests. These officers are essential to the smooth functioning of the large household staffs. All wealthy and noble households will reflect the structure of the royal household as far as the dignity of their estates demand and their purses will allow. This should give the GM an idea of the range in the number of household staff such differences in station and wealth entail.
How conscious will they be of their names and reputations? This may seem frivolous to some, BUT domestic staff is the one resource from which all the wealthy and noble draw their guards and the bully-boys who enforce their pleasure. Landed nobles of the rank of Lord baron or higher are required as a condition of the act of homage and oaths of fealty sworn on assuming their estates and titles to maintain a number of knights which they must outfit and bring along with them when summoned by the king in time of war. This is the price of their estates, their wealth, position, and privilege.
These knights are kept either in their own halls and supported as retainers in the household, or sub-infeudated on manors out of their own estates to support themselves. The whole gameworld cannot be made up of wandering adventurers and their foes and one exciting adventure after another without cease. The greater part of the world must be concerned with mundane things like ploughing, sowing, and hoeing to grow the grain to make the bread on which all subsist, and the harrowing of the fields, the reaping in late summer, care and breeding of livestock, butchering it when it cannot be supported through the lean months of winter, cooking, trading handicrafts or produce of the family farm for household needs, and keeping their houses clean.
Furniture is an expensive commodity, and even the noble and royal families cart their favorite pieces along with them from place to place on their travels. Except for a few pieces, especially the monumentally large, ornate, and heavy, all residences not being occupied are left essentially empty. Glass windows are carried about from place to place and installed in each residence occupied, in turn, to provide the lords with light.
Wood shutters are used to fill and close the spaces in their absence. Thus, the king and his nobles are saddled with many carts and horses to carry their things from place to place. This makes their travel excruciatingly slow, especially in inclement weather, and thereby that much more dangerous, since they carry with them their wardrobes and select pieces of their favorite jewelry, as well, and the pack beasts must be kept in working shape, so a sufficient supply of oats must be carried, too.
When travelling, the king and his nobles are required by custom to display their high position by travelling with a retinue. Combined with the members of the household staff with which the king or nobleman also travels, the servants, retainers, entertainers, courtiers, knights, and nobles he brings along to carry his baggage, to serve him, and for company. It must be, for the entire royal court must accompany the king. Even the personnel of the Chancery department of the government ride along with the king. When not engaged in accompanying the king on his travels, their chief duty, many of these guardsmen might be told off assigned throughout the household to guard the entrances to various offices and departments, especially the Wardrobe and Exchequer and those in which the goods and supplies of the royal household were kept i.
Regardless of where they stand duty and despite the fact that they never serve any domestic function at all, these men will always be accounted members of the household. Twice a year the messengers carried writs to the sheriffs, covering the whole of the realm in about 15 days. Since the business of the Chancery is paper-shuffling from office to office and official to official to keep the work of the government going, the Chancellor keeps his own staff of messengers, too.
Such messengers are common to noble households of every rank. When the guards and household men are outfitted for war their number is greater than , closer to In addition to the men in the household itself, many of the officers of the household, being men of means by royal patronage, will also be required to provide their own retinues to the king by custom when his majesty raises arms to ride out on campaign.
This might vary a little from one occasion to the next, but the parameters are pretty clear as to what was expected from the retinues supplied for three campaigns by two officials of the Kings Wardrobe, as follows. The maximum retinue allowed a Keeper of the Wardrobe was 6 knights and 22 esquires, historically. This particular Keeper apparently felt confident enough of his dignity and reputation that be preferred not to.
The Cofferer of the Wardrobe will have a retinue of 5 or 6 squires to contribute, too. When mustered with the obligatory retinues of the officers, the household might yield a mounted force of greater than , or when including footmen in household pay. This might comprise only one battle of a half-dozen in a larger, more important conflict, such as a full-scale war of conquest or over the location and maintenance of borders.
A Parliamentary writ of recorded the following retinue of a knight banneret:. But in the households of the nobility, sergeants and yeomen will all be men the nobleman might take with him on campaign to fight, as well, for whom he would keep war harness in his private armory to outfit in such circumstances. The retinues quoted for these men are similarly composed of dependant nobles and household men. The delineation of households et al. The figures in the above passages on households, retinues, and the like should provide the limits for the total resources on which the Bad Guys can draw.