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What potential ethical issues arise with a B2B transaction as opposed to a B2C transaction? What types of company policies are typically included in corporate standards policies? State and federal laws, as well as organizational policies and guidelines, must be understood by B2B marketers. They need to be aware of these parameters because:. The legal liability a manufacturer or trader incurs for producing or selling a faulty product is known as:. In what areas do marketing professionals most often address ethical issues?

Types of Product Defects. Privacy Laws. Email Spam Managing Customer Data. Fraud in Marketing. Product Price Promotion Place. The privacy disclosure guidelines should be followed when conducting online marketing and should be transparent to the customer or potential market. The guidelines that say that customers should be given:. B2B sales processes generally have fewer controls than B2C processes for a number of reasons:. Three Dimensions of Evaluating Gifts.

Content Context Culture. Ethics for Marketing Employees. For most companies and organizations, integrity and ethics start or fail:. Social Responsibility Programs. Sustainable Products. If a company or organization encourages employees but not the executives to participate in its social responsibility objectives and strategies, what is the probable effect? The marketplace in general and consumers are changing their attitude toward products and companies. What is the marketplace starting to tell companies about what they want from them?

Which is an example of an ethical issue that marketing professionals address? A company that makes ski lifts has a responsibility to build extremely reliable lifts for safety concerns. If a lift failed, passengers may fall to the ground, resulting in injury or death. Because of this, the lift is regularly checked for safety and has regular maintenance provided by the company. This is an example of a company being actively aware of what laws and regulations? The email says, "Hi. Just writing to let you know my trip to Manila, Philippines with my family has been a mess…I need you to loan me some money.

I'll refund it to you as soon as I arrive home.


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You have just received an example of a: legitimate email from your friend. Greg has just landed a complex and large sale of goods to his new client. His personalization to reach this deal touched all of the areas of the marketing mix for the new client. This is an example of what type of sales transaction?

In the business gift-giving world, if a company gives a gift to a potential client for the purpose of influencing their behavior in their favor, it is unethical. What are the three criteria and dimensions of evaluating a business gift? The Fandango corporation grouped its areas for its Code of Business Conduct into stakeholder groups: company, people, customers, shareholders, and communities. The company can now address a wide range of behaviors in groups. This is an example of a company:. Kim is a marketing professional for an online learning company.

Taylorism was born, and time-motion studies were used to optimize processes. These ideas also spilled over into domestic kitchen architecture because of a growing trend that called for a professionalization of household work, started in the midth century byCatharine Beecher and amplified by Christine Frederick's publications in the s. Working class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family's survival, as the men's wages often did not suffice.

Social housing projects led to the next milestone: the Frankfurt Kitchen. Developed in , this kitchen measured 1. It was built for two purposes: to optimize kitchen work to reduce cooking time and lower the cost of building decently equipped kitchens. The initial reception was critical: it was so small that only one person could work in it; some storage spaces intended for raw loose food ingredients such as flour were reachable by children. But the Frankfurt kitchen embodied a standard for the rest of the 20th century in rental apartments: the "work kitchen".

It was criticized as "exiling the women in the kitchen", but post-World War IIeconomic reasons prevailed. The kitchen once more was seen as a work place that needed to be separated from the living areas. Practical reasons also played a role in this development: just as in the bourgeois homes of the past, one reason for separating the kitchen was to keep the steam and smells of cooking out of the living room. The equipment used remained a standard for years to come: hot and cold water on tap and a kitchen sink and an electrical or gas stove and oven.

Not much later, the refrigerator was added as a standard item. The concept was refined in the "Swedish kitchen" using unit furniture with wooden fronts for the kitchen cabinets. Soon, the concept was amended by the use of smooth synthetic door and drawer fronts, first in white, recalling a sense of cleanliness and alluding to sterile lab or hospital settings, but soon after in more lively colors, too. Some years after the Frankfurt Kitchen Poggenpohl presented the "reform kitchen" in with interconnecting cabinets and functional interiors. The reform kitchen was a forerunner to the later unit kitchen and fitted kitchen.

Poggenpohl presented the form , declared as "the world's first unit kitchen", at the imm Cologne furniture fair in Unit construction since its introduction has defined the development of the modern kitchen. Units which are kept on the floor are called "floor units", "floor cabinets", or "base cabinets" on which a kitchen worktop, originally often formica and often now made of granite, marble, tile or wood is placed.

The units which are held on the wall for storage purposes are termed as "wall units" or "wall cabinets". In small areas of kitchen in an apartment, even a "tall storage unit" is available for effective storage. In cheaper brands, all cabinets are kept a uniform color, normally white, with interchangeable doors and accessories chosen by the customer to give a varied look.

In more expensive brands, the cabinets are produced matching the doors' colors and finishes, for an older more bespoke look. Technicalization Stainless steel home appliances popular in modern western kitchens A trend began in the s in the United States to equip the kitchen with electrifiedsmall and large kitchen appliances such as blenders, toasters, and later alsomicrowave ovens. Parallel to this development in tenement buildings was the evolution of the kitchen in homeowner's houses.

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There, the kitchens usually were somewhat larger, suitable for everyday use as a dining room, but otherwise the ongoing technicalization was the same, and the use of unit furniture also became a standard in this market sector. Such extravaganzas remained outside the norm, though. In the former Eastern bloc countries, the official doctrine viewed cooking as a mere necessity, and women should work "for the society" in factories, not at home.

Also, housing had to be built at low costs and quickly, which led directly to the standardized apartment block using prefabricated slabs. Open kitchens Starting in the s, the perfection of the extractor hood allowed an open kitchen again, integrated more or less with the living room without causing the whole apartment or house to smell. Before that, only a few earlier experiments, typically in newly built upper-middle-class family homes, had open kitchens. Both had open kitchens, with high ceilings up to the roof and were aired by skylights. The extractor hood made it possible to build open kitchens in apartments, too, where both high ceilings and skylights were not possible.

The re-integration of the kitchen and the living area went hand in hand with a change in the perception of cooking: increasingly, cooking was seen as a creative and sometimes social act instead of work. And there was a rejection by younger home-owners of the standard suburban model of separate kitchens and dining rooms found in most houses.

Many families also appreciated the trend towards open kitchens, as it made it easier for the parents to supervise the children while cooking and to clean up spills. The enhanced status of cooking also made the kitchen a prestige object for showing off one's wealth or cooking professionalism. Some architects have capitalized on this "object" aspect of the kitchen by designing freestanding "kitchen objects". However, like their precursor, Colani's "kitchen satellite", such futuristic designs are exceptions.

Another reason for the trend back to open kitchens and a foundation of the "kitchen object" philosophy is changes in how food is prepared. For others, who followed the "cooking as a social act" trend, the open kitchen had the advantage that they could be with their guests while cooking, and for the "creative cooks" it might even become a stage for their cooking performance. The "Trophy Kitchen" is equipped with very expensive and sophisticated appliances which are used primarily to impress visitors and to project social status, rather than for actual cooking.

Ventilation The ventilation of a kitchen, in particular a large restaurant kitchen, poses certain difficulties that are not present in the ventilation of other kinds of spaces. In particular, the air in a kitchen differs from that of other rooms in that it typically contains grease, smoke and odours.

Materials The Frankfurt Kitchen of was made of several materials depending on the application. The built-in kitchens of today use particle boards or MDF, decorated with veneers, in some cases also wood. Very few manufacturers produce home built-in kitchens from stainless-steel. Until the s, steel kitchens were used by architects, but this material was displaced by the cheaper particle board panels sometimes decorated with a steel surface.

Domestic kitchen planning Kitchen in Vietnam before a lunch. Domestic or residential kitchen design per se is a relatively recent discipline. The design included regular shelves on the walls, ample work space, and dedicated storage areas for various food items. Beecher even separated the functions of preparing food and cooking it altogether by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen. Christine Frederick published from a series of articles on "New Household Management" in which she analyzed the kitchen following Taylorist principles, presented detailed time-motion studies, and derived a kitchen design from them.

While this "work kitchen" and variants derived from it were a great success for tenement buildings, home owners had different demands and did not want to be constrained by a 6. Nevertheless, kitchen design was mostly ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. In theU. It was there that the notion of thekitchen work triangle was formalized: the three main functions in a kitchen are storage, preparation, and cooking which Catharine Beecher had already recognized , and the places for these functions should be arranged in the kitchen in such a way that work at one place does not interfere with work at another place, the distance between these places is not unnecessarily large, and no obstacles are in the way.

A natural arrangement is a triangle, with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each. This is not optimal, but often the only solution if space is restricted. This may be common in an attic space that is being converted into a living space, or a studio apartment. This is the classical work kitchen. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it does not intersect the triangle. This is a typical work kitchen, too, unless the two other cabinet rows are short enough to place a table at the fourth wall.

The G- kitchen provides additional work and storage space, and can support two work triangles. A modified version of the G-kitchen is the double-L, which splits the G into two L-shaped components, essentially adding a smaller L-shaped island or peninsula to the L-kitchen.


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Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where an L or U kitchen would have a table, in a free-standing "island", separated from the other cabinets. In a closed room, this does not make much sense, but in an open kitchen, it makes the stove accessible from all sides such that two persons can cook together, and allows for contact with guests or the rest of the family, since the cook does not face the wall any more. Additionally, the kitchen island's counter-top can function as an overflow-surface for serving buffet style meals or sitting down to eat breakfast and snacks.

In the s, there was a backlash against industrial kitchen planning and cabinets with people installing a mix of work surfaces and free standing furniture, led by kitchen designer Johnny Grey and his concept of the "Unfitted Kitchen". Modern kitchens often have enough informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dining room. Such areas are called "breakfast areas", "breakfast nooks" or "breakfast bars" if the space is integrated into a kitchen counter.

Kitchens with enough space to eat in are sometimes called "eat-in kitchens". They are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they do not meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. Canteen kitchens and castle kitchens were often the places where new technology was used first. For instance, Benjamin Thompson's "energy saving stove", an earlyth century fully closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for large kitchens; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use.

Today's western restaurant kitchens typically have tiled walls and floors and use stainless steel for other surfaces workbench, but also door and drawer fronts because these materials are durable and easy to clean. Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allowcooks to regulate the heat more quickly and more finely than electrical stoves. Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers, steamers, or a bain-marie. As of , steamers — not to be confused with a pressure cooker — are beginning to find their way into domestic households, sometimes as a combined appliance of oven and steamer.

The fast food and convenience food trends have also changed the way restaurant kitchens operate. There's a trend for restaurants to only "finish" delivered convenience food or even just re-heat completely prepared meals, maybe at the utmost grilling, ahamburger, or a steak. Especially in the early history of railways this required flawless organization of processes; in modern times, the microwave oven and prepared meals have made this task much easier. Galleys are kitchens aboard ships or aircraft although the termgalley is also often used to refer to a railroad dining car's kitchen.

On yachts, galleys are often cramped, with one or two burners fueled by an LP gas bottle, but kitchens oncruise ships or large warships are comparable in every respect with restaurants or canteen kitchens. On passenger airliners, the kitchen is reduced to a mere pantry, the only function reminiscent of a kitchen is the heating of in-flight meals delivered by a catering company. An extreme form of the kitchen occurs in space, e.

The astronauts' food is generally completely prepared, dehydrated, and sealed in plastic pouches, and the kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module. Outdoor areas in which food is prepared are generally not considered to be kitchens, even though an outdoor area set up for regular food preparation, for instance when camping, might be called an "outdoor kitchen". Military camps and similar temporary settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents. In schools where home economics HE or food technology previously known as "domestic science" are taught, there will be a series of kitchens with multiple equipment similar in some respects to laboratories solely for the purpose of teaching.

These will consist of six to twelve workstations, each with their own oven, sink, and kitchen utensils. Daidokoro is the place where food is prepared in a Japanese house. When separating a family, it was called Kamadowowakeru, which means "divide the stove". Kamadowoyaburu lit. Biodegradable plastic utensils made frombioplastic A kitchen utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool or utensil that is used in the kitchen, for food-related functions.

A cooking utensil is a utensil used in the kitchen for cooking. Other names for the same thing, or subsets thereof, derive from the word "ware", and describe kitchen utensils from a merchandising and functional point of view: kitchenware, wares for the kitchen; ovenware andbakeware, kitchen utensils that are for use inside ovens and for baking;cookware, merchandise used for cooking; and so forth. A partially overlapping category of tools is that of eating utensils, which are tools used for eating c. Some utensils are both kitchen utensils and eating utensils.

Cutlery i. Other cutlery such as forks and spoons are both kitchen and eating utensils. These latter categorizations include utensils — made of glass, silver, clay, and so forth — that are not necessarily kitchen utensils. Materials science Benjamin Thompson noted at the start of the 18th century that kitchen utensils were commonly made of copper, with various efforts made to prevent the copper from reacting with food particularly its acidic contents at the temperatures used for cooking, including tinning, enamelling, and varnishing.

He observed that iron had been used as a substitute, and that some utensils were made of earthenware. By the turn of the 20th century, Maria Parloa noted that kitchen utensils were made of tinned or enamelled iron and steel, copper, nickel, silver, tin, clay, earthenware, and aluminum. The latter, aluminium, became a popular material for kitchen utensils in the 20th century. Copper Copper has good thermal conductivity and copper utensils are both durable and attractive in appearance.

However, they are also comparatively heavier than utensils made of other materials, require scrupulous cleaning to remove poisonous tarnish compounds, and are not suitable for acidic foods Iron Iron is more prone to rusting than tinned copper. Cast iron kitchen utensils, in particular, are however less prone to rust if, instead of being scoured to a shine after use, they are simply washed with detergent and water and wiped clean with a cloth, allowing the utensil to form a coat of already corroded iron and other material that then acts to prevent further corrosion a process known asseasoning.

Furthermore, if an iron utensil is solely used for frying or cooking with fat or oil, corrosion can be reduced by never heating water with it, never using it to cook with water, and when washing it with water to dry it immediately afterwards, removing all water. Since oil and water are immiscible, since oils and fats are more covalent compounds, and since it is compounds such as water that promote corrosion, eliminating as much contact with water reduces corrosion. For some iron kitchen utensils, water is a particular problem, since it is very difficult to dry them fully.

In particular, iron egg-beaters or ice cream freezers are tricky to dry, and the consequent rust if left wet will roughen them and possibly clog them completely. When storing iron utensils for long periods, van Rensselaer recommended coating them in non-salted since salt is also an ionic compound fat or paraffin. However, as noted, they rust comparatively easily. Earthenware and enamelware Earthenware utensils suffer from brittleness when subjected to rapid large changes in temperature, as commonly occur in cooking, and the glazing of earthenware often contains lead, which is poisonous.

Thompson noted that as a consequence of this the use of such glazed earthenware was prohibited by law in some countries from use in cooking, or even from use for storing acidic foods.

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Van Rensselaer proposed in that one test for lead content in earthenware was to let a beaten egg stand in the utensil for a few minutes and watch to see whether it became discolored, which is a sign that lead might be present In addition to their problems with thermal shock, enamelware utensils require careful handling, as careful as for glassware, because they are prone to chipping. But enamel utensils are not affected by acidic foods, are durable, and are easily cleaned. However, they cannot be used with strong alkalis.

Earthenware, porcelain, and pottery utensils can be used for both cooking and serving food, and so thereby save on washing-up of two separate sets of utensils. They are durable, and van Rensselaer notes "excellent for slow, even cooking in even heat, such as slow baking".

However, they are comparatively unsuitable for cooking using a direct heat, such as a cooking over a flame. Aluminium James Frank Breazeale in opined that aluminum "is without doubt the best material for kitchen utensils", noting that it is "as far superior to enameled ware as enameled ware is to the old-time iron or tin".

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He qualified his recommendation for replacing worn out tin or enameled utensils with aluminum ones by noting that "old- fashioned black iron frying pans and muffin rings, polished on the inside or worn smooth by long usage, are, however, superior to aluminum ones". However, its disadvantages are that it is easily discoloured, can be dissolved by acidic foods to a comparatively small extent , and reacts to alkaline soaps if they are used for cleaning a utensil.

In the European Union, the construction of kitchen utensils made of aluminium is determined by two European standards: EN Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Castings — Chemical composition of castings for use in contact with foodstuffs and EN Aluminium and aluminium alloys — Wrought products — Chemical composition of semi-finished products used for the fabrication of articles for use in contact with foodstuffs. At top: a spice rack with jars of mint, caraway, thyme, andsage.

Lower: hanging from hooks; a small pan, a meat fork, an icing spatula, a whole spoon, a slotted spoon, and a perforated spatula. Before the 19th century "Of the culinary utensils of the ancients", wrote MrsBeeton, "our knowledge is very limited; but as the art of living, in every civilized country, is pretty much the same, the instruments for cooking must, in a great degree, bear a striking resemblance to one another".

Archaeologists and historians have studied the kitchen utensils used in centuries past. Ownership and types of kitchen utensils varied from household to household. Very few such people owned any kitchen utensils at all. In fact only seven convicted felons are recorded as having any. One such, a murderer from , is recorded as possessing only the one kitchen utensil: a brass pot one of the commonest such kitchen utensils listed in the records valued at three shillings. Similarly, in Minnesota in the second half of the 19th century, John North is recorded as having himself made "a real nice rolling pin, and a pudding stick" for his wife; one soldier is recorded as having a Civil War bayonet refashioned, by a blacksmith, into a bread knife; whereas an immigrant Swedish family is recorded as having brought with them "solid silver knives, forks, and spoons [ Maria Parloa's Cook Book and Marketing Guide listed a minimum of kitchen utensils without which a contemporary kitchen would not be considered properly furnished.

Parloa wrote that "the homemaker will find [that] there is continually something new to be bought". A growth in the range of kitchen utensils available can be traced through the growth in the range of utensils recommended to the aspiring householder in cookbooks as the century progressed. Earlier in the century, in , Frances ByerleyParkes Parkes had recommended a smaller array of utensils. By , Elizabeth H. As Messrs Slack themselves, however, publish a useful illustrated catalogue, which may be had at their establishment gratis, and which it will be found advantageous to consult by those about to furnish, it supersedes the necessity of our enlarging that which we give: 1 Tea-kettle 6s.

Candlesticks 3s. Stand 6s.

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Sarah Tyson Rorer's Philadelphia Cook Book Rorer listed more than kitchen utensils that a well-furnished kitchen should have. James Frank Breazeale decried the explosion in patented "labour-saving" devices for the modern kitchen—promoted in exhibitions and advertised in "Household Guides" at the start of the 20th century—, saying that "the best way for the housewife to peel a potato, for example, is in the old-fashioned way, with a knife, and not with a patented potato peeler".

The "labour-saving" devices didn't necessarily save labour, either. While the advent of mass-produced standardized measuring instruments permitted even householders with little to no cooking skills to follow recipes and end up with the desired result and the advent of many utensils enabled "modern" cooking, on a stove or range rather than at floor level with a hearth, they also operated to raise expectations of what families would eat.

So while food was easier to prepare and to cook, ordinary householders at the same time were expected to prepare and to cook more complex and harder-to-prepare meals on a regular basis. The labour-saving effect of the tools was cancelled out by the increased labour required for what came to be expected as the culinary norm in the average household. List of food preparation utensils. An assortment of utensils A kitchen utensil is a hand-held, typically small tool that is designed for food-related functions. Food preparation utensils are a specific type of kitchen utensil, designed for use in the preparation of food.

Some utensils are both food preparation utensils andeating utensils; for instance some implements of cutlery — especially knives — can be used for both food preparation in a kitchen and as eating utensils when dining. In the Western world, utensil invention accelerated in the 19th and 20th centuries.


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  7. It was fuelled in part by the emergence of technologies such as the kitchen stove andrefrigerator, but also by a desire to save time in the kitchen, in response to the demands of modern lifestyles. An implement resembling a simplepipette, consisting of a tube to hold the liquid, and a rubber top which makes use of a partial vacuum t Used during cooking to o control the Baster — cover meat in its own liquid's intake juices or with a sauce.

    The process of drizzling the liquid over meat is calledbasting — when a pastry brush is used in place of a baster, it is known as abasting brush. Biscuit mould, Some biscuit Biscuit Cookie cutter, Shaping biscuit dough cutters simply cutter Cookie mould cut through dough that has been rolled flat, others also imprint or mould the dough's surface. It consists of a cylinder with a plunger on one end which is used to extrude cooki e dough through a small hole at the other end.

    A disc with a raised rim, designed to ensure an even distribution of temperature throughout the pot. This preventing Preventing liquids from bubbles from Boil over Milk watcher, boiling over outside of the forming in preventer Milk guard, Pot minder pot liquids such as milk, or water which contains starch for instance if used to cook pasta. Can be made of metal, glass or ceramic materials. Bottle Twists the metal cap off of opener a bottle A round, open topped To hold food, including container, Bowl — food that is ready to be capable of served holding liquid.

    A serrated blade made of metal, and long enough to slice across a large loaf of bread. Using a sawing motion, Bread knife — To cut soft bread instead of pushing force as with most knives, it is possible to slice the loaf without squashing it. Generally made of glass or porcelain to absorb heat, Browning Browning plate, Used in a microwave oven which helps — tray Browning bowl to help turn food brown colour the layer of food in contact with its surface.

    Butter Used to produce curler decorativebutter shapes. Cheese Used to cut cheese. Originally used to slice large cuts of beef, it is now Chef's knife the general utility knife for most Western cooks. Used for the removal of Cherry Olive stoner pits stones from cherries pitter or olives. Used for draining It differs from a Colander substances cooked in sieve due to its water larger holes, allowing larger pieces of food, such as pasta, to be drained quickly. Pierces and removes a Corkscrew cork from a bottle. A clamping device, similar in design to a Crab Used to crack the shell of a nutcracker but Lobster cracker — cracker crab or lobster larger, with ridges on the inside to grip the [2] shell.

    Most dough scrapers consist of handle wide To shape or cut dough, Dough enough to be Bench scraper, Scraper and remove dough from a scraper held in one or worksurface two hands, and an equally wide, flat, steel face. Pierces the air pocket of an eggshell with a small needle to keep the shell from cracking during hard- Egg piercer boiling. If both ends of the shell are pierced, the egg can be blown out while preserving the shell for crafts.

    Holds a raw egg, and is Egg placed inside a pot of poacher boiling water to poach an egg. Consists of a slotted dish for holding the egg Slicing peeled, hard-boiled and a hinged Egg slicer — eggs quickly and evenly. Historical designs range considerably, from hourglasse s, to mechanical or electronic Used to correctly time the Egg timer timers, to process of boiling eggs. A long, narrow knife with a finely serrated blade, used Fillet knife to slice fine filet cuts of fish or other meat.

    Typically consists of a bowl, a plate with holes like a colander, and a crank with Used to mash or sieve soft Food mill a bent metal foods. Used to channel liquid or A pipe with a fine-grained substances wide, conical Funnel into containers with a mouth and a [2] small opening. Finely serrated knife for Grapefruit separating segments of knife grapefruit or other citrus [5] fruit. Grater Cheese grater, Shredder A small pouring jug that separates roast Gravy Gravy separator meatdrippings from strainer melted fat, for making [2] gravy.

    Herb Chops or minces raw — chopper herbs. A ladle is a type of serving Ladle spoon used for soup, stew, or other foods. A juicer with a fluted peak at the end of a short Lemon handle, where a half a reamer lemon is pressed to release the juice. Operated by pressing the fruit A juicer, similar in function Lemon against a fluted to a lemon reamer, with squeezer peak to release an attached bowl. A long-handled, narrow pick, used to pull meat out Lobster Lobster fork of narrow legs and other pick parts of a lobster or [2] crab. Operated with a hand- Meat crank, this presses meat Mincer grinder through a chopping or pureeingattachment.

    Generally made from either porcelain or wood, the mortar is shaped as a bowl. The pestle, generally Mortar and To crush food, releasing Molcajete shaped like a pestle flavours and aromas small club, is used to forcefully squeeze ingredients such as herbs against [8] the mortar. Nutmeg A small, specialized grating grater blade for nutmeg. To protect hands from Oven glove Oven mitt burning when handling hot pots or trays. To evenly dispense soft Pastry bag substances doughs, icings, fillings, etc.

    Cuts into pastry ingredients, such as flour and butter, for blending Pastry and mixing while they are blender in a bowl. It is made of wires curved into a crescent shape and held [4] by a rigid handle.

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    Some brushes have wooden handles and Pastry To spread oil, juices, sauce Basting brush natural or brush or glaze on food. Cuts straight or crimped Pastry lines through dough for wheel pastry or pasta. Ingredients are pushed through the mesh. Designs vary considerably; the earliest tin openers were Tin opener Can opener To open tins or cans knives, adapted to open a tin as easily as possible.

    Tomato Used to slice through A small serrated knife tomatoes. Usually used to move items on hot surfaces, Two long arms Tongs such as barbecues, or to with a pivot near select small or grouped the handle. Trussing For pinning, or sewing up, [9] needle poultry and other meat. Most whisks consist of a long, To narrow handle Balloon whisk, gravy blend ingredientssmooth, with a series of whisk, flat whisk, flat coil or to incorporate air into a Whisk wire loops whisk, bell whisk, and mixture, in a process joined at the other types.

    Whisks are as whisking orwhipping also made frombamboo. Wooden For mixing and stirring spoon during cooking and baking. A handle and a curved metal end, the top of For which is Zester obtaining zest fromlemons [5] perforated with and other citrus fruit. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are both cookware and bakeware. The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance and cost , particularly in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use.

    Some choices of material also require special pre-preparation of the surface - known as seasoning - before they are used for food preparation. Both the cooking pot and lid handles can be made of the same material but will mean that when picking up or touching either of these parts oven gloves will need to be worn. In order to avoid this, handles can be made of non heat conducting materials for example Bakelite, plastic or wood.

    It is best to avoid hollow handles because they are difficult to clean or to dry. A good cooking pot design has an 'overcook edge' this is where the lid lays on that way the lid is laying somewhat inside the cooking pot and not on top of it. The pottery may have been used as cookware, manufactured by hunter-gatherers. Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that "When you look at the pots, you can see that they were in a fire.

    Among the first of the techniques believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting. In addition to exposing food to direct heat from either an open fire or hot embers it is possible to cover the food with clay or large leaves before roasting to preserve moisture in the cooked result. Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines. Of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to natural heated water sources, such as hot springs, heated stones could be placed in a water-filled vessel to raise its temperature for example, a leaf-lined pit or the stomachfrom animals killed by hunters.

    In many locations the shells of turtles or largemollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels.

    Тесты и итоговые контрольные работы по английскому языку для студентов гуманитарных факультетов

    He reported witnessing cooking basket use byHavasupai in Roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled withwood coals and the product to be roasted. When the thus hardened clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself. This indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery. Other than in many other cultures, native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware.

    Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals. Native Americans, both in the East and in the West, would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelistLouisL'Amour. As long as the flames did not reach above the level of water in the basket, the leaves would not burn through. The development of pottery allowed for the creation of fireproof cooking vessels in a variety of shapes and sizes. Coating the earthenware with some type of plant gum, and later ceramic glazes, converted the porous container into a waterproof vessel.

    The earthenware cookware could then be suspended over a fire through use of a tripod or other apparatus, or even be placed directly into a low fire or coal bed as in the case of the pipkin. Ceramics including stoneware and glass conduct poorly, however, so ceramic pots must cook over relatively low heats and over long periods of time most modern ceramic pots will crack if used on the stovetop, and are only intended for the oven.

    Even after metal pots have come into widespread use, earthenware pots are still preferred among the less well-off, globally, due to their low production cost. The development of bronze and iron metalworking skills allowed for cookware made from metal to be manufactured, although adoption of the new cookware was slow due to the much higher cost. After the development of metal cookware there was little new development in cookware, with the standard Medieval kitchen utilizing a cauldron and a shallow earthenware pan for most cooking tasks, with a spitemployed for roasting.

    By the 17th century, it was common for a Western kitchen to contain a number of skillets, baking pans, a kettle and several pots, along with a variety of pot hooks and trivets. In the American colonies, these items would commonly be produced by a localblacksmith from iron while brass or copper vessels were common in Europe and Asia.

    Cookware materials Metal Metal pots are made from a narrow range of metals because pots and pans need to conduct heat well, but also need to bechemically unreactive so that they do not alter the flavor of the food. Most materials that are conductive enough to heat evenly are too reactive to use in food preparation.

    In some cases copper pots, for example , a pot may be made out of a more reactive metal, and then tinned or clad with another. It is resistant to many forms of corrosion. Aluminium is commonly available in sheet, cast, or anodized forms, and may be physically combined with other metals see below. Sheet aluminium is spun or stamped into form. Due to the softness of the metal it may be alloyed with magnesium, copper, or bronze to increase its strength.

    Sheet aluminium is commonly used for baking sheets, pie plates, and cake or muffin pans. Deep or shallow pots may be formed from sheet aluminium. Cast aluminium can produce a thicker product than sheet aluminium, and is appropriate for irregular shapes and thicknesses. Due to the microscopic pores caused by the casting process, cast aluminium has a lower thermal conductivity than sheet aluminium.

    It is also more expensive. Accordingly, cast aluminium cookware has become less common. It is used for Dutch ovens, heavyweight baking pans such as bundt pans, and wares such as ladles or handles where low thermal conductivity is desired. Anodized aluminium has had the naturally occurring layer of aluminium oxide thickened by an electrolytic process to create a surface that is hard and non-reactive.

    Sauces containing egg yolks, or vegetables such as asparagus or artichokes may cause oxidation of non-anodized aluminium. Aluminium exposure has been suggested as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. The Rondeau, Commenges et al. Copper saucepans, Vaux-le-Vicomtecastle. Copper In classical Western cooking, pots are formed with thick copper sheets with a thin inner layer of tin. The copper provides the best thermal conductivity of common metals and therefore results in even heating see: Copper in heat exchangers.

    Copper is reactive with acidic foods, which can result in copper toxicity. This was discovered in the new world when tomatoes were cooked in old world copper pots. A tin lining prevents copper from reacting with acidic foods. Lead-free and cadmium-free tin linings are susceptible to tin pest. In some cases unlined copper is desirable, for instance in the preparation of meringues and foams. Copper pots are expensive, require re-tinning and, when made with thick copper plates, are heavy. With modern metallurgical techniques, such as cladding, copper is incorporated into the constructions of cookware, often as an enclosed heat spreading disk see below.

    Cast iron Cast iron cookware is slow to heat, but once at temperature provides even heating. Cast iron can also withstand very high temperatures, making cast iron pans ideal forsearing. Being a reactive material, cast iron can have chemical reactions with high acid foods such as wine or tomatoes.

    Cast iron is a porous material that rusts easily. As a result, it typically requiresseasoning before use. Seasoning creates a thin layer of oxidized fat over the iron that coats and protects the surface, and prevents sticking. Enameled cast iron cookware was developed in the s. In , the French company Cousances designed the enameled cast iron Doufeu to reduce excessive evaporation and scorching in cast iron Dutch ovens.

    Modeled on old braising pans in which glowing charcoal was heaped on the lids to mimic two-fire ovens , the Doufeu has a deep recess in its lid which instead is filled with ice cubes. This keeps the lid at a lower temperature than the pot bottom. Further, little notches on the inside of the lid allow the moisture to collect and drop back into the food during the cooking.

    Although the Doufeu literally, "gentlefire" can be used in an oven without the ice, as a casserole , it is chiefly designed for stove top use. Stainless steel Stainless steel is an iron alloy containing a minimum of Stainless steel's virtues are resistance to corrosion, non-reactivity with either alkaline or acidic foods, and resistance to scratching and denting. Stainless steel's drawbacks for cooking use is that it is a relatively poor heat conductor and contains chromium; a toxic metal considered unsafe when ingested as metal particles.

    This allows for rapid and high heating. Carbon steel does not conduct heat as well as other materials, but this may be an advantage for woks and paella pans, where one portion of the pan is intentionally kept at a different temperature than the rest. Like cast iron, carbon steel must be seasoned before use. Rub a fat on the cooking surface only and heat the cookware over the stovetop. The process can be repeated if needed. Over time, the cooking surface will become dark and nonstick. Carbon steel will easily rust if not seasoned and should be stored seasoned to avoid rusting.

    Non-stick Teflon coated frying pan Steel or aluminum cooking pans can be coated with a substance such as polytetrafluoroethylene PTFE in order to minimize food sticking to the pan surface. There are advantages and disadvantages to such a coating. Coated pans are easier to clean than most non-coated pans, and require little or no additional oil or fat to prevent sticking.

    On the other hand, some sticking is needed to cause sucs to form, so a non-stick pan cannot be used where a pan sauce is desired. And non-stick pans must not be overheated see below. Nonstick coatings tend to degrade over time. In order to preserve the coating, it is important never to use metal implements or harsh scouring pads or chemical abrasives when cleaning.

    The main difference in coating quality is due to the formulas of the liquid coating, the thickness of each layer and the number of layers usedHigher-quality non-stick cookware use powdered ceramic or titanium mixed with the non-stick material to strengthen them and to make them more resistant to abrasion and deterioration. Some non-stick coatings contain hardening agents. Some coatings are high enough in quality that they pass the strict standards of the National Sanitation Foundation for approval for restaurant use.

    Coated and composite cookware Enameled cast iron cooking vessels are made of cast iron covered with a porcelain surface. This creates a piece that has the heat distribution and retention properties of cast iron combined with a non-reactive, low-stick surface. Enamel over steel The enamel over steel technique creates a piece that has the heat distribution of carbon steel and a non-reactive, low-stick surface.

    Such pots are much lighter than most other pots of similar size, are cheaper to make than stainless steel pots, and do not have the rust and reactivity issues of cast iron or carbon steel. Enamel over steel is ideal for large stockpots and for other large pans used mostly for water-based cooking. Because of its light weight and easy cleanup, enamel over steel is also popular for cookware used while camping. Clad aluminum or copper Cladding is a technique for fabricating pans with a layer of heat conducting material, such as copper or aluminum, covered by a non-reactive material, such as stainless steel.

    Some pans feature a copper or aluminum layer that extends over the entire pan rather than just a heat-distributing disk on the base. Aluminum pans are typically clad on both their inside and the outside surfaces, providing both a stainless cooking surface and a stainless surface to contact the cooktop. Copper is typically clad on its interior surface only, leaving the more attractive copper exposed on the outside of the pan.

    This provides much of the functionality of tinned-copper pots for a fraction of the price. Non-metallic cookware Silicone food steamer to be placed in a pot of boiling water. Silicone ladles. Non-metallic cookware can be used in both conventional and microwave ovens. Non-metallic cookware typically can't be used on the stovetop, but some kinds of ceramic cookware, for example Corningware and Pyroflam, are an exception.

    Ceramics Glazed ceramics, such as porcelain, provide a nonstick cooking surface. Some unglazed ceramics, such as terra cotta, have a porous surface that can hold water or other liquids during the cooking process, adding moisture in the form of steam to the food. Historically some glazes used on ceramic articles have contained high levels of lead, which can possess health risks. A lot of ceramic pottery can be placed on fire directly. Glass Borosilicate glass is safe at oven temperatures. The clear glass also allows for the food to be seen during the cooking process.

    However, it can't be used on a stovetop, as it cannot cope with stovetop temperatures. While Pyrex can shatter if taken between extremes of temperature too rapidly, glass-ceramics can be taken directly from deep freeze to the stove top. Their near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion makes them almost entirely immune to thermal shock. Stone a natural stone, or a stone-like substitute can be used to diffuse heat for indirect grilling or baking, as in a baking stone or pizza stone, or the French pierrade. Its flexibility is advantageous in removing baked goods from the pan.

    This rubbery material is not to be confused with the silicone resin used to make hard, shatterproof children's dishware, which is not suitable for baking. Types of cookware and bakeware The size and shape of a cooking vessel is typically determined by how it will be used. Cooking vessels are typically referred to as "pots" and "pans," but there is great variation in their actual shapes. Most cooking vessels are roughly cylindrical.

    Cookware "Saucepan" redirects here. For the unofficial Australian astronomic term, see Pavo constellation. For the geological term, see Caldera. Large and small skillets Electric griddle with temperature control A copper saucepot stainless lined, with cast iron handles Angel Food Cake pan. They typically have two loop or tab handles, and may have a cover. Roasters are usually made of heavy gauge metal so that they may be used safely on a cooktop following roasting in an oven. Unlike most other cooking vessels, roasters are usually oblong oroval.

    There is no sharp boundary between braisers and roasters - the same pan, with or without a cover, can be used for both functions. This helps preserve flavor and nutrients. Having to soak the pot in water for 15 minutes before use is a notable drawback. Depending on their material, casseroles can be used in the oven or on the stovetop. Casseroles are commonly made of glazed ceramics or pyrex. They can be used for stews, braised meats, soups, and a large variety of other dishes that benefit from low heat, slow cooking. Dutch ovens are typically made from cast iron, and are measured by volume.

    It consists of three parts: an aluminum pot shaped like a Bundt pan, a hooded cover perforated with venting holes, and a thick, round, metal disc with a center hole that is placed between the Wonder Pot and the flame to disperse heat. Frypans with a gentle, rolling slope are sometimes called omelette pans. Frypans and grill pans are generally measured by diameter 20—30 cm.

    Ordinary flat-bottomed skillets are also sometimes called spiders, though the term has fallen out of general use. Traditional iron griddles are circular, with a semicircular hoop fixed to opposite edges of the plate and rising above it to form a central handle. Rectangular griddles that cover two stove burners are now also common, as are griddles that have a ribbed area that can be used like a grill pan.

    Some have multiple square metal grooves enabling the contents to have a defined pattern, similar to a waffle maker. Like frypans, round griddles are generally measured by diameter 20—30 cm. In some Spanish speaking countries, a similar pan is referred to as a comal. Crepe pans are similar to griddles, but are usually smaller, and made of a thinner metal. These may be permanently attached to a heat source, similar to a hot plate.

    Saucepans generally have one long handle. Larger pots of the same shape generally have two handles close to the sides of the pot so they can be lifted with both hands , and are called sauce- pots or soup pots 3—12 liters. Saucepans and saucepots are measured by volume usually 1—8 L. While saucepots often resemble Dutch ovens in shape, they do not have the same heat capacity characteristics.

    Very small saucepans used for heating milk are referred to as milk pans, such saucepans usually have a lip for pouring the heated milk. It is more efficient to use saucepans with sloping sides, called Windsor pans, or saucepans with rounded sides, called sauciers. These provide quicker evaporation than straight sided pans, and make it easier to stir a sauce while reducing. Saute pans often have straight vertical sides, but may also have flared or rounded sides. This allows stock to simmer for extended periods of time without reducing too much.

    Stockpots are typically measured in volume L. Stock pots come in a large variety of sizes to meet any need from cooking for a family to preparing food for a banquet. A specific type of stockpot exists for lobsters, and an all-metal stockpot usually called a caldero is used in Hispanic cultures to make rice. This shape allows a small pool of cooking oil in the center of the wok to be heated to a high heat using relatively little fuel, while the outer areas of the wok are used to keep food warm after it has been fried in the oil.

    In the Western world, woks are typically used only for stir-frying, but they can actually be used for anything from steaming to deep frying. Bake ware Bake ware is designed for use in the oven for baking , and encompasses a variety of different styles of baking pans as cake pans, pie pans, and loaf pans.

    Another type of cake pan is a muffin tin, which can hold multiple smaller cakes. Various types and uses of chemicals and equipment for cleaning and sanitizing 2. Logical and time-efficient work flow 4. Environmental-friendly products and practices in relation to kitchen cleaning Sanitation and cross- contamination issues related to food handling and preparation Actual Demonstration with Oral Questioning: 1. Sanitizing and disinfecting procedures and techniques 2. Using and storing cleaning materials and chemicals 3. Waste management and disposal procedures and practices Institutional Assessment: 1.

    Assessment may be done in the workplace or in a simulated workplace setting assessment centers 2. Detailed procedures must be developed for all food-product contact surfaces equipment, utensils, etc. Cleaning frequency must be clearly defined for each process line i. The type of cleaning required must also be identified. The objective of cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces is to remove food nutrients that bacteria need to grow, and to kill those bacteria that are present.

    It is important that the clean, sanitized equipment and surfaces drain dry and are stored dry so as to prevent bacteria growth. Necessary equipment brushes, etc. Adherence to prescribed written procedures inspection, swab testing, direct observation of personnel should be continuously monitored, and records maintained to evaluate long-term compliance. Rinse 2. Clean 3. Rinse 4. Cleaning Cleaning is the complete removal of food soil using appropriate detergent chemicals under recommended conditions. It is important that personnel involved have a working understanding of the nature of the different types of food soil and the chemistry of its removal.

    Often referred to as clean-in-place CIP. Requires no disassembly or partial disassembly. Can be partially disassembled and cleaned in specialized COP pressure tanks. Requires total disassembly for cleaning and inspection. Appropriate and approved sanitization procedures are processes, and, thus, the duration or time as well as the chemical conditions must be described. The official definition Association of Official Analytical Chemists of sanitizing for food product contact surfaces is a process which reduces the contamination level by The official definition for non-product contact surfaces requires a contamination reduction of The standard test organisms used are Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Water hardness is the most important chemical property with a direct effect on cleaning and sanitizing efficiency. Other impurities can affect the food contact surface or may affect the soil deposit properties or film formation. Water pH ranges generally from pH 5 to 8. This range is of no serious consequence to most detergents and sanitizers. However, highly alkaline or highly acidic water may require additional buffering agents. Water can also contain significant numbers of microorganisms.

    Water used for cleaning and sanitizing must be potable and pathogen-free. Treatments and sanitization of water may be required prior to use in cleaning regimes. Water impurities that affect cleaning functions are presented in Table 1. Cleaning Properties of Food Soils Food soil is generally defined as unwanted matter on food-contact surfaces. Soil is visible or invisible. The primary source of soil is from the food product being handled. However, minerals from water residue and residues from cleaning compounds contribute to films left on surfaces.

    Microbiological biofilms also contribute to the soil buildup on surfaces. Since soils vary widely in composition, no one detergent is capable of removing all types. Many complex films contain combinations of food components, surface oil or dust, insoluble cleaner components, and insoluble hard-water salts. These films vary in their solubility properties depending upon such factors as heat effect, age, dryness, time, etc. It is essential that personnel involved have an understanding of the nature of the soil to be removed before selecting a detergent or cleaning regime.

    The rule of thumb is that acid cleaners dissolve alkaline soils minerals and alkaline cleaners dissolve acid soils and food wastes. Improper use of detergents can actually "set" soils, making them more difficult to remove e. Many films and biofilms require more sophisticated cleaners that are amended with oxidizing agents such as chlorinated detergents for removal. Freshly precipitated soil in a cool or cold solution is usually more easily dissolved than an old, dried, or baked-on deposit, or a complex film.

    Food soils are complex in that they contain mixtures of several components. Fat-based Soils Fat usually is present as an emulsion and can generally be rinsed away with hot water above the melting point. More difficult fat and oil residues can be removed with alkaline detergents, which have good emulsifying or saponifying ingredients. Protein-based Soils In the food industry, proteins are by far the most difficult soils to remove. In fact, casein a major milk protein is used for its adhesive properties in many glues and paints. Food proteins range from more simple proteins, which are easy to remove, to more complex proteins, which are very difficult to remove.

    Heat-denatured proteins can be extremely difficult. Generally, a highly alkaline detergent with peptizing or dissolving properties is required to remove protein soils. Wetting agents can also be used to increase the wettability and suspendability of proteins. Protein films require alkaline cleaners that have hypochlorite in addition to wetting agents. Carbohydrate-based Soils Simple sugars are readily soluble in warm water and are quite easily removed.

    Starch residues, individually, are also easily removed with mild detergents. Starches associated with proteins or fat scan usually be easily removed by highly alkaline detergents. Mineral Salt-based Soils Mineral salts can be either relatively easy to remove or be highly troublesome deposits or films. Calcium and magnesium are involved in some of the most difficult mineral films. Under conditions involving heat and alkaline pH, calcium and magnesium can combine with bicarbonates to form highly insoluble complexes. Other difficult deposits contain iron or manganese.

    Salt films can also cause corrosion of some surfaces.