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The Fletchers built company housing at Hindsford and a model village at Howe Bridge which included pit head baths and a social club for its workers. The company became part of Manchester Collieries in Matthew Fletcher's family owned most of Clifton in [4] including the Ladyshore and Wet Earth collieries. Pit brow lass from Wigan on the Lancashire Coalfield. Gibfield Colliery was a coal mine owned by Fletcher, Burrows and Company in Atherton, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

On 11 February , workers descended the pit and discovered the presence of gas which they tried to disperse with their jackets. The gas fired at the flame of a lighted candle causing an explosion which killed five men and burned several others. A third shaft was sunk after accessing nine workable coal seams between the Arley and the Victoria or Hell Hole mines and the original Gibfield shaft was used for ventilation. The Hulton Colliery Company was a coal mining company operating on the Lancashire Coalfield from the mid 19th century in Over Hulton and Westhoughton, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

Coal mining disasters in England

Background 'To The Hulton Colliers who have "Turned Out"' In the early 19th century the mines were owned by William Hulton who was High Sheriff of Lancashire in and in sentenced four men, including a year-old boy, to be executed for their part in a Luddite attack on Westhoughton Mill. His orders led to the Peterloo Massacre in He remained opposed to permitting the right to free assembly and was vehemently opposed to miners congregating with the object of forming a union.

Agecroft Colliery was a coal mine on the Manchester Coalfield that opened in in the Agecroft district of Pendlebury, Lancashire, England. The colliery had two spells of use; the first between and , when the most accessible coal seams were exploited, and a second lease of life after extensive development in the late s to access the deepest seams. First colliery — Andrew Knowles acquired the lease of coal under the Agecroft estate in and his colliery is shown on an plan alongside the Manchester, Bolton and Bury Canal not far from old workings near Park House Bridge.

The colliery's screens and surface buildings were modernised in the early s[1] and No 3 and No 4 shafts were sunk to yards to the Trencherbone mine in [2] and worked an area to the south of the Pendleton Fault. The fault to the north, with a displacement o. Geology The underlying geology of Astley and Tyldesley comprises the sandstones, shales and coal seams of the Middle Coal Measures laid down during the Carboniferous period more than million years ago and which outcrop from Shakerley to New Manchester where coal was mined from seams between the Worsley Four Foot and Arley mines.

History Coal was got in Tyldesley in when a dispute over "seacole" was recorded. It was used in the smithies of the Shakerley nailers. Some of the earliest small coal pits belonged to Francis Egerton, 3rd Duke of Bridgewater, and his successors the Bridgewater Trustees, a. Bedford, a suburb of Leigh, Greater Manchester is one of three ancient townships, Bedford, Pennington and Westleigh, that merged in to form the town of Leigh. Historically, Bedford was in Lancashire. It was recorded as Beneford in —21 and Bedeford in and Bedford Hall never assumed the role of a manor house and was occupied by tenants of the Kighleys who were absentee landlords.

In half of the manor was held by the Kighleys, a quarter by the Sales who lived at the moated Hopecarr Hall and the rest by John Waverton of Brick House. Thomas Shuttleworth lived at Sandypool which was taken from the Kighley share. Historically part of Lancashire, Leigh was originally the centre of a large ecclesiastical parish covering six vills or townships. When the three townships of Pennington, Westleigh and Bedford merged in forming the Leigh Local Board District, Leigh became the official name for the town although it had been applied to the area of Pennington and Westleigh around the parish church for many centuries.

The first town hall was built in King Street and replaced by the present building in Originally an agricultural area noted for dairy farming, domestic spinning and weaving led to a considerable silk and, in the 20th century, cotton industry. Leigh also exploited the underlying coa. The mines rescue station is Grade II listed and at the centre of a conservation area.

A two-storey building which fronts onto Ellenbrook Road contained a garage, shower rooms, laboratory, oxygen and equipment storage areas and offices, A board room and aviary for the station's canaries were located on the first floor. At the rear, a single-storey section contained U-shaped training galleries representing underground workings. Observation halls overlooked the galleries so that training taking place in the galleries could be inspected. The galleries could be filled with smoke or heated to simulate the conditions.

It is the administrative seat of Borough of Copeland district council, and has a town council for the parish of Whitehaven. The population of the town was 23, at the census. It was also a major port for trading with the American colonies, and was, after London, the second busiest port of England by tonnage from to This prosperity led to the creation of a Georgian planned town in the 18th century which has left an architectural legacy of over listed buildings and Whitehaven has been designated a "Gem Town" due to the historic quality of the town envir.

History The ancient district of Hulton, contained three townships, Over Hulton, Middle Hulton and Little Hulton, it was recorded as Helghtun and Hulton in , Hilton in and , Hulton in although Hilton was still used until the 17th century. It is possible they were joining family who were in the township from At Hulton he built Hulton Hall which was surrounded by a 1,acre 5. The estate was rich in coal mines. The last surviving member of the Hulton family was Sir.

It is around 5 miles 8. At the Census the population of the civil parish was 8,,[1] reducing to 7, at the Census. History Rainford is well known for its industrial past when it was a major manufacturer of clay smoking pipes. The nearby coal mines became worked out and closed prior to the Second World War. Until the mids, it was also a location for sand excavation, for use in the glass factories of St Helens. One of the noteworthy buildings in Rainford is the Rookery, a large 17th-century manor house situated off the 'Pottery Padds'; the house was formerly a school and workhouse and has since become home to a tenant.

Burnley is a town in Lancashire, England, with a population of 73, The town is partially surrounded by countryside to the south and east, with the smaller towns of Padiham and Nelson to the west and north respectively. It has a reputation as a regional centre of excellence for the manufacturing and aerospace industries.

The town began to develop in the early medieval period as a number of farming hamlets surrounded by manor houses and royal forests, and has held a market for more than years. During the Industrial Revolution it became one of Lancashire's most prominent mill towns; at its peak it was one of the world's largest producers of cotton cloth, and a major centre of engineering. Burnley has retained a strong manufacturing sector, and has strong economic links with the cities of Manchester and Leeds, as well as neighbouring towns along the M65 corridor.

Coppull is a village and civil parish in Lancashire, England. Its population is around 8,, having been counted at 7, in the Census. History It is possible that a Roman road between Wigan and Walton-le-Dale passed over Coppull Moor according to the Chorley and District Historical and Archaeological Society after excavating a site there in and Wigan is the largest settlement in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan and is its administrative centre.

The town has a population of ,, whilst the wider borough has a population of , The Brigantes were subjugated in the Roman conquest of Britain during the 1st century, and it is asserted that the Roman settlement of Coccium was established where Wigan lies. Wigan is believed to have been incorporated as a borough in following the issue of a charter by King Henry III of England. At the end of the Middle Ages, it was one of four boroughs in Lancashire established by Royal charter.

During the Industrial Revolution. It is situated to the west of the Hindsford Brook, an ancient boundary between the townships of Atherton and Tyldesley cum Shakerley, and east of the Chanters Brook in the ancient parish of Leigh. History Historically in Lancashire, Hindsford developed in the middle of the 19th century when large cotton mills were built on both sides of the Hindsford Brook in Hindsford and Tyldesley by James Burton and Sons. Rows of terraced housing were built for the influx of workers, many from Ireland. Lodge Mill and Westfield Mill closed in the s but the site of Atherton Mill was used by Ward and Goldstone who made electrical items.

The company became Fletcher, Burrows and Company in and in the company who owned Athe. Whelley is an area of northeast Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. Whelley also had its own non-acute hospital which specialised in rehabilitation of the elderly, and was part of the Wrightington, Wigan and Leigh NHS Trust. The site is currently being developed with numerous houses, apartments and bungalows.

In terms of local elections, Whelley is grouped with New Springs and Aspull, and is consistently a Labour supporting area, as with the majority of the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan. Ordnance Survey. Hulton Hall c The Hulton family of Hulton lived and owned land in Lancashire for more than eight hundred years from the lateth to the lateth centuries. Mary's Church, Deane The Hultons regained. The disaster happened when a series of explosions caused by firedamp ripped through the workings. It is the worst mining accident in England and the second worst mining disaster in the United Kingdom, after the Senghenydd colliery disaster in Wales.

Oaks Colliery The first shaft at the Oaks Colliery was sunk in the early s. In two separate explosions occurred at the colliery. On both occasions few men were below ground and no more than three or four workers died. Of the men underground, 73 were killed and 26 were rescued. The downcast shaft[a] was converted to upcast with a furnace at its foot. People congregating at Pendleton Colliery after the accident. From the Illustrated London News, 20 October Pendleton Colliery was a coal mine operating on the Manchester Coalfield after the late s on Whit Lane in Pendleton, then in the historic county of Lancashire, England.

In , Fitzgerald forme. List of mining disasters in Lancashire. Monument to the Pretoria Pit disaster in which men died in Fundraising postcard issued after the Maypole Colliery disaster. Four years after the Mines and Collieries Act had passed into law, three of the nine victims of an explosion were girls. Date Colliery Location Notes Deaths 11 February Gibfield Colliery Atherton The workers descended the pit belonging to Fletchers and discovered the presence of gas which they tried to disperse with their jackets.

Candles were in use in the pit even though the men had run away from a fire the day before. Six men were working in the pit when one man went to check for gas with a safety lamp but before he signalled it was safe, another man removed the top from his lamp causing an explosion that killed them all. An explosion killed 16 or 17 workers.

The pit had a single shaft. About twenty five colliers were at work in the Riley mine seam when a roof fall broke the wire gauze of a Davy lamp causing an explosion.


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The men worked with candles and the pit was not routinely inspected for gas before work started. According to the inspector's report by Mr Dickinson, an explosion of firedamp killed one man and injured eight more, five of them subsequently died from their injuries. The pit was 54 yards deep and the main drift yards long. Some men near the shaft bottom managed to get into the cage and were drawn to the surface. Eight men were drowned in the rising water but two men and two boys in the upper workings ran until they reached the top of the drift but before the water reached them it subsided and they escaped.

An explosion in the Engine Pit on a Friday night when most of the colliers had left the pit, claimed twelve lives, mostly boys aged 15 and under who worked as drawers. It had two shafts but the small furnace for ventilation at the bottom of the upcast shaft was seldom used. A shaft sunk after the previous explosion to increase ventilation was yards deep and yards from the Coppull shaft. The colliery worked the fiery Arley mine.

The colliers and drawers had to provide their own safety lamps and some risked using candles. An explosion on killed 36 men and boys, the oldest aged 41 and the youngest a boy of 9 whose father also died. Although it was a fiery seam, the coal was worked with naked lights and on 24 March an explosion killed fifty men and boys. A second shaft was sunk but another explosion killed 20 men and boys, 13 were suffocated by afterdamp and seven were burnt to death. Ventilation had been improved but the Arley mine was notoriously "fiery" and explosions had occurred in other pits where it was mined.

The explosion cost 89 lives, 37 of the victims were burnt and the rest died from suffocation by the afterdamp. Three men and four boys were killed by falling down the shaft in the cage when a link in the coupling chain at the end of the shaft rope broke. It was the worst mining disaster to occur in the town.

Twenty men were waiting to be raised to the surface at about 9. Four boys aged from 12 to 16 years and three men, the oldest 60 and the youngest aged 20, were in the cage when it overwound at speed and was pulled into the headgear. The safety catch failed and the cage plunged down the shaft killing all on board.

Its shaft was sunk to yards and candles were permitted in the workings. An explosion of firedamp killed 13 men and boys. All the victims were overcome by afterdamp. The explosion was caused by gas coming into contact with an open flame. Shaft sinking began in and by a depth of yards had been reached. Eight men were being lowered to the workings in a hoppet a large bucket when it stopped in the shaft for no apparent reason.

A second hoppet was attached to the winding gear and men were lowered into the shaft to investigate. Explosives used in sinking had caused the shaft walling at the pit bottom to collapse burying the first hoppet and the men. Working parties removed load after load of bricks and rubble and three men were rescued but five who had been thrown out were killed. At the end of the shift, men and boys working the Arley mine at yards below the surface, began ascending the shaft.

The two-decker cage raised the workers in groups of eight. After many colliers had been raised, and the cage once again rose in the shaft, the steel winding rope slipped off the drum causing it to snap and plunged the cage down the shaft. Workers waiting at the pit bottom had just enough time to rush back before the cage plunged into the sump followed by the steel rods that guided the cage in the shaft.

An explosion killed seven men in May The pit was considered to be safe as little methane had been encountered and the men used candles. The explosion resulted when gas was ignited by an open flame. An explosion in the colliery's Springs Pit occurred in the Arley mine at 8. Rescue teams were organised and some men and boys were raised from the workings, some suffering from the effect of afterdamp.

The rescue party found 62 men and boys had been suffocated by afterdamp and some were badly burned by flames from the ventilation furnace. Seven men and the pony were killed when gas exploded. It probably occurred after gas released by roof falls was ignited by shot firing. At the time of the accident No.

The ventilation furnace set fire to coal at the upcast shaft and spread to the down brow. Water pipes were lowered into the downcast shaft. The fire caused an explosion of gas. Nine men died.

Ian Winstanley (Author of Weep Mothers Weep)

An explosion of gas in the Six Feet seam caused by shotfiring killed 27 men and boys and started an underground fire. The fire was extinguished after the pit was flooded with water taken from the aqueduct that supplied Liverpool with water from the Rivington Reservoirs. Date Colliery Location Notes Deaths 4 February Pendleton Colliery Pendleton An explosion caused when powder was blown out of a shot firing hole resulted in the death of six men.

A hoppet large bucket was set up to raise about miners working in another part of the mine before search parties could begin the task of exploring for survivors and victims. Fifteen survivors found suffering from afterdamp were raised to the surface and twenty men died. Two sinkers were descending the upcast shaft in a hoppet large bucket when an explosion damaged the headgear and discharged large volumes of smoke.

After fixing the winding gear the hoppet was drawn uop and found to be empty. It was lowered again and returned with five colliers from the Cannel mine who said the explosion was in the Nine Foot. Manchester achieved city status in The Manchester Ship Canal opened in , creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea , 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War , owing to deindustrialisation , but the IRA bombing in led to extensive investment and regeneration. In , the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city , the highest-ranked British city apart from London.

Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh , it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the Commonwealth Games ; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians.

These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma. Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in.

Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield ; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.

Thomas de la Warre , lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in The church is now Manchester Cathedral ; the library, which opened in and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen , by about , had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire.

Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley , who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals. He was a diligent puritan , banning the celebration of Christmas. The Bridgewater Canal , Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in , bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th.

Protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved; the term "protected area" includes Marine Protected Areas , the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean, Transboundary Protected Areas that overlap multiple countries which remove the borders inside the area for conservation and economic purposes.

There are over , protected areas in the world with more added daily, representing between 10 and 15 percent of the world's land surface area.

List of mining disasters in Lancashire

By contrast, only 1. Protected areas are essential for biodiversity conservation providing habitat and protection from hunting for threatened and endangered species. Protection helps maintain ecological processes that cannot survive in most intensely managed landscapes and seascapes. Protected areas are understood to be those in which human occupation or at least the exploitation of resources is limited.

The definition, accepted across regional and global frameworks has been provided by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its categorisation guidelines for protected areas; the definition is as follows: A defined geographical space, recognized and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The objective of protected areas is to conserve biodiversity and to provide a way for measuring the progress of such conservation.

A protected area or an entire network of protected areas may lie within a larger geographic zone, recognised as a terrestrial or marine ecoregions, or a crisis ecoregions for example. As a result, Protected Areas can encompass a broad range of governance types. Indeed, governance of protected areas has emerged a critical factor in their success.

Subsequently, the range of natural resources that any one protected area may guard is vast. Many will be allocated for species conservation whether it be flora or fauna or the relationship between them, but protected areas are important for conserving sites of cultural importance and considerable reserves of natural resources such as. Of all global terrestrial carbon stock, Rainforests: Mountains: Nationally designated protected areas cover Annual updates on each of these analyses are made in order to make comparisons to the Millennium Development Goals and several other fields of analysis are expected to be introduced in the monitoring of protected areas management effectiveness, such as freshwater and marine or coastal studies which are underway, islands and drylands which are in planning.

Through its World Commission on Protected Areas , the IUCN has developed six Protected Area Management Categories that define protected areas according to their management objectives, which are internationally recognised by various national governments and the United Nations. The categories provide international standards for defining protected areas and encourage conservation planning according to their management aims.

Protecting places and resources is by no means a modern concept, whether it be indigenous communities guarding sacred sites or the convention of European hunting reserves. Over years ago, royal decrees in India protected certain areas. In Europe and powerful people protected hunting grounds for a thousand years.

Moreover, the idea of protection of special places is universal: for example, it occurs among the communities in the Pacific and in parts of Africa. The end of the First Civil War, in , left a partial power vacuum in which any combination of the three English factions, Independents of the New Model Army , Presbyterians of the English Parliament , as well as the Scottish Parliament allied with the Scottish Presbyterians, could prove strong enough to dominate the rest.

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Armed political Royalism was at an end, but despite being a prisoner, King Charles I was considered by himself and his opponents as necessary to ensure the success of whichever group could come to terms with him, thus he passed successively into the hands of the Parliament and the Army. The King attempted to reverse the verdict of arms by "coquetting" with each in turn. On 3 June Cornet George Joyce of Thomas Fairfax's horse seized the King for the Army, after which the English Presbyterians and the Scots began to prepare for a fresh civil war, less than two years after the conclusion of the first, this time against "Independency", as embodied in the Army.

After making use of the Army's sword, its opponents attempted to disband it, to send it on foreign service and to cut off its arrears of pay; the result was that the Army leadership was exasperated beyond control, remembering not their grievances but the principle for which the Army had fought, it soon became the most powerful political force in the realm. From to the breach between Army and Parliament widened day by day until the Presbyterian party, combined with the Scots and the remaining Royalists, felt itself strong enough to begin a Second Civil War.

In February Colonel John Poyer , the Parliamentary Governor of Pembroke Castle , refused to hand over his command to one of Fairfax's officers, he was soon joined by some hundreds of officers and men, who mutinied , ostensibly for arrears of pay, but with political objectives.

Furthermore, many of the royalist survivors had ganged up and wanted the monarchy back in power and control. Rebels from all over Ireland and Scotland had joined in with this act. At the end of March, encouraged by minor successes, Poyer declared for the King. Oliver Cromwell was at once sent off at the head of a strong detachment to deal with Laugharne and Poyer, but before he arrived Laugharne had been defeated on 8 May by Colonel Thomas Horton at the Battle of St.

Fagans ; the English Presbyterians found it difficult to reconcile their principles with their allies when it appeared that the prisoners taken at St Fagans bore "We long to see our King" on their hats. The former were disturbers of no more. Nearly all the Royalists who had fought in the First Civil War had given their parole not to bear arms against the Parliament, many honourable Royalists, foremost amongst them the old Lord Astley , who had fought the last battle for the King in , refused to break their word by taking any part in the second war.

Those who did so, by implication those who abetted them in doing so, were to be treated with the utmost brutality if captured, for the Army was in a less placable mood in than in , had determined to "call Charles Stuart, that man of blood , to an account for the blood he had shed".

A precursor to Kent's Second Civil War had come on Wednesday, 22 December , when Canterbury's town crier had proclaimed the county committee's order for the suppression of Christmas Day and its treatment as any other working day. However, a large crowd gathered on Christmas to demand a church service, decorate doorways with holly bushes, keep the shops shut; this crowd — under the slogan "For God, King Charles, Kent " — descended into violence and riot, with a soldier being assaulted, the mayor's house attacked, the city under the rioters' control for several weeks until forced to surrender in early January.

On 21 May , Kent rose in revolt in the King's name, a few days a most serious blow to the Independents was struck by the defection of the Navy, from command of which they had removed Vice-Admiral William Batten , as being a Presbyterian. Though a former Lord High Admiral , the Earl of Warwick a Presbyterian, was brought back to the service, it was not long before the Navy made a purely Royalist declaration and placed itself under the command of the Prince of Wales.

But Fairfax had a clearer purpose than the distracted Parliament, he moved into Kent, on the evening of 1 June, stormed Maidstone by open force, after which the local levies dispersed to their homes, the more determined Royalists, after a futile attempt to induce the City of London to declare for them, fled into Essex. Before leaving for Essex, Fairfax delegated command of the Parliamentarian forces to Colonel Nathaniel Rich to deal with the remnants of the Kentish r.

Its coal seams were formed from the vegetation of tropical swampy forests in the Carboniferous period over million years ago; the Romans may have been the first to use coal in Lancashire and its shallow seams and outcrops were exploited on a small scale from the Middle Ages and extensively after the start of the Industrial Revolution. The coalfield was at the forefront of innovation in coal mining, prompting the country's first canals, use of steam engines and creating conditions favourable for rapid industrialisation ; the pits on the coalfield were at their most productive in when more than 26 million tons of coal were produced.

By just 21 collieries remained. Parkside Colliery in Newton-le-Willows , the last deep mine to be sunk on the coalfield, was closed in ; the geology of the coalfield consists of the coal seams of the Upper and Lower Coal Measures , layers of sandstones and coal of varying thickness, which were laid down in the Carboniferous period over million years ago. The coal seams were formed from the vegetation of tropical swampy forests.

The most significant easterly fault described by Edward Hull throws the strata down to the east, it was worked from Fairbottom in Ashton-under-Lyne across the River Medlock to Oldham and onwards to the west of Rochdale.


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The Red Rock Fault skirts the north-west extremity of the North Staffordshire coalfield towards Macclesfield and Poynton Colliery in Cheshire ; the Irwell Valley or Pendleton Fault passes Clifton and Kearsley , where it throws the coal measures down to the north-east. It has a throw of feet and the area is still geologically active and subject to earth tremors. A fault with a large horizontal but small vertical throw is found at Tyldesley.

In the deep mines at the southern edge of the coalfield, the Plodder mine in Leigh and the Arley mine in Tyldesley were hot: the miners worked in temperatures of over degrees Fahrenheit. The coalfield on the western side of the Pennines is divided into two parts separated by the Rossendale anticline. The coalfield covers around square miles extending from Stalybridge in the southeast to Ormskirk in the northwest and from Rainhill in the southwest to beyond Burnley in the northeast; the south eastern part extends well into neighbouring Cheshire where significant mining took place around Poynton and Dukinfield.

The area of the coalfield became industrialised as new industries developed, attracted by the availability of fuel. A small area around Todmorden in West Yorkshire is geologically part of the coalfield; the redrawing of administrative county boundaries in resulted in all the South Lancashire Coalfield lying outside the modern-day boundaries of Lancashire.

A quite separate and much smaller coalfield is situated in the Wenning valley in the northeast of the county but is referred to as a part of the Ingleton Coalfield , the main part of, in North Yorkshire. It is possible that the Romans were the first to use coal in Lancashire, but the earliest written record of " minera " was made in when Adam de Radcliffe stole coal belonging to Adam son of Alexander. Small amounts of coal were dug during the Middle Ages , but wood was plentiful and turf was preferred to coal, inferior in quality, it was however used by smiths.

Coal was got in Shakerley in when a dispute over the stealing of "seacoals" was recorded, in there is a record of coal mines in Whiston. Most pits were small and shallow, Wigan and its neighbourhood were noted for having numerous cannel pits which families could access from under their property. John Leland visited Haigh in and observed that "Mr Bradshaw Mining was not a full-time occupation: the work was seasonal and combined with other occupations such as farming or weaving. During the Elizabethan era there were pits throughout the coalfield, mines were recorded at Haslingden , Padiham and Trawden.

Over 50 small collieries operated around Rochdale where coal was got from small pits from the s at Falinge and near Littleborough. Derby Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire , of which it was traditionally the county town. At the census, the population was , Derby gained city status in A market town, Derby grew in the industrial era.

With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Derby became a centre of the British rail industry. Derby is a centre for advanced transport manufacturing, home to the world's second largest aero-engine manufacturer, Rolls-Royce. Toyota Manufacturing UK's automobile headquarters is south west of the city at Burnaston. However, the origin of the name'Derby' has had multiple influences; the town name does appear as'Darbye' in early maps, such as that of John Speed , Modern research into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons would have co-existed, occupying two areas of land surrounded by water; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "Derby is divided by water".

These troops took part in the defence of nearby Nottingham , the Siege of Lichfield , the Battle of Hopton Heath and many other engagements in Nottinghamshire and Cheshire , as well as defending Derbyshire against Royalist armies. A hundred years Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December , whilst on his way south to seize the British crown; the prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, demanded billets for his 9, troops.

He stayed at Exeter House , Full Street where he held his "council of war". A replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre, he had received misleading information about an army coming to meet him south of Derby.


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Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers, he abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby. As a testament to his belief in his cause, the prince — who on the march from Scotland had walked at the front of the column — made the return journey on horseback at the rear of the bedraggled and tired army.

Derby and Derbyshire were among the centres of Britain's Industrial Revolution. In , Derby was the site of the first water-powered silk mill in Britain, built by John Lombe and George Sorocold , after Lombe had reputedly stolen the secrets of silk-throwing from Piedmont in Italy. In , Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose; this attachment was used on the Rev. The patent was obtained in January After three years and Stafford were paid off, Samuel Need — a hosier of Nottingham — joined the partnership; the firm was known as Need and Woollatt.

The patent expired in Messrs Wright, the bankers of Nottingham, recommended that Richard Arkwright apply to Strutt and Need for finance for his cotton spinning mill ; the first mill was driven by horses. In Richard Arkwright, Samuel Need and Jedediah Strutt built the world's first commercially successful water-powered cotton spinning mill at Cromford , developing a form of power, to be a catalyst for the Industrial Revolution. This was followed in Derbyshire by Jedediah Strutt's cotton spinning mills at Belper. They were: South Mill, the first, ; the Belper and Milford mills were not built in partnership with Arkwright.

These mills were all Strutt financed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Newton, Merseyside. St Helens. North West. St Helens North. Neighbouring towns, villages and places. Wilhelmina Henrica wv. Makken Hendrikje wv. Borsheim, having in his hand a rough diamond half as large as a hen's egg which he had picked up in a gravel pit near Denver, where he worked last summer.

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