This is, perhaps, why their book can play so well the role of restoration for faithful readers. And this is the service that candid biographies do: they give us a human instead of a myth to love. The implication of this restoration of course extends beyond Parley and early Mormonism. We do not mean perfect medium of God. We mean someone like Parley, who was occasionally doctrinally ignorant or inaccurate 88 , insensitive , vain 75 , tactless , self-pitying , and someone who was sometimes in outright disagreement with his direct ecclesiastical authority just as Moses occasionally was with God.
Prophets are human — a frightening and glorious prospect that is through and through Mormon.
Parley P. Pratt - Wikipedia
We love them, we have faith in them, and we find ourselves incredibly rewarded by the intermediary role they play between the heavens and the church body generally and sometimes us individually. Or at least, external pressure, arguments and actions seem so relevant to the specific texture of the subsequent revelation.
Feeling scandalized on account of their permeability, however, requires an assumption that genuine prophetic revelation is culturally ex nihilo. Revelation is almost always in response to context and, similar to good ideas and breakthroughs generally, almost always develops out of dialogue. Their best example concerns the Articles of Faith; but here, as elsewhere, Givens and Grow ignore the Book of Mormon as an obvious source for these ideas, and there is never an obvious case cited where Pratt is the originator. We get revelation as a triangular flow that operates between humans and between those humans and God.
Joseph engaged in revelatory dialogue with God. He also engaged in revelatory dialogue with Parley. As the book makes clear, many other men and women took part in this three-way dialogue as well. Parley was as much as anything else an intellectual — however one wants to define that word.
I loved the account of his wife, Ann Agatha Walker, that while crossing the plains Parley. The slow walk of the team could not keep pace with his active mind. Often he would recollect, turn back to his team, see that all was all right, hurry them up, and do the same thing again. His mind was ever on the alert for the benefit of the company.
For him and many of the early saints this was an important core of what Mormonism was. Nineteenth-century Mormonism was conspicuous in the way it addressed, through both theology and institutional practice, the realms of intellect and heart. I think and certainly hope that our conversations here at Times and Seasons are, however weak, an outgrowth of this very principle.
Intelligence was, and may we insist that it still be the great object of our holy religion. But in saying this I am merely making a descriptive point, not a normative one. The normative point is that, at least for me, reading this biography put the fire of these Restoration principles deep in my bones. Pratt continued his missionary efforts along with Henry Brown. Pratt and Brown went to eastern New York to give his family members money to move to Kirtland.
Pratt returned to Missouri later in as a member of Zion's Camp. While working as a day laborer, Pratt served on the Missouri High Council. Thankful had run up large debts in Pratt's absence, and when he returned with her to Ohio, some felt he was trying to flee his creditors and criticized him for it. In , after his call as an apostle , Pratt served with other apostles in a mission to New York, New England, and eastern Canada.
In and , he preached in New York City. Pratt later served as a missionary in the southern United States and in England, the Pacific islands, and South America. In , Pratt and his family left Chile after the death of their child, Omner, without having had much success among the country's Catholic residents. In addition to having converted his brother Orson and preacher Sidney Rigdon , Parley Pratt introduced the Mormon faith to several future church leaders, including Frederick G.
In , Pratt entered the leadership of the early Latter Day Saint movement when he was selected as one of the original Quorum of Twelve Apostles. While on a mission to the British Isles in , Pratt edited the newly created periodical, Millennial Star. While presiding over the church's branches and interests in New England and the mid-Atlantic states, Pratt published a periodical entitled The Prophet from his headquarters in New York City.
After serving as a missionary in New York City, Pratt returned to church headquarters in Missouri in He was arrested in November , along with Joseph Smith, and was held in prison in Richmond and then Columbia until escaping on July 4, Pratt was a noted religious writer and poet. Many of Pratt's writings are the only credible or lasting accounts from important American and Mormon events, such as the Hauns Mill Massacre and the events and conditions of imprisonment with Smith at Liberty Jail.
Pratt wrote an autobiography , published after his death but likely his most widely read work in the 21st century. Pratt wrote many of these hymns in while sailing to England to serve as a missionary. In , Pratt published a pamphlet about his missionary efforts in Mentor, Ohio. It included Pratt's testimony, along with that of the three and eight witnesses to the golden plates. Near the end of , Pratt published Mormonism Unveiled: Zion's Watchman Unmasked , which is the earliest surviving response by a Mormon to an anti-Mormon writer.
Pratt also wrote one of the earliest Mormon works of fiction. It was a religious treatise in fictional form. Pratt's most well-known theological work was A Key to Science of Theology, which was published in Wandell in Sydney, Australia. Pratt's writings also corroborate many events and revelations which are found in a book of Latter Day Saint scripture known as the Doctrine and Covenants. In total, Pratt is known to have written 31 published works, not including his posthumous autobiography.
Pratt helped establish the refugee settlements and fields at both Garden Grove and Mt. Pisgah, Iowa. In , Pratt was appointed one of the justices of the anticipated state of Deseret. Sometime in the mids, working with George D. Watt , Pratt helped develop the Deseret alphabet. In , Pratt served as chaplain of the Utah Territorial Legislature. In , Pratt went on a mission to the eastern United States. At that time, troubles were brewing in Pratt's life. Pratt had met Eleanor in San Francisco, where he presided over a church mission. Hector rejected Mormonism and opposed his wife's membership in the church.
Though they did not divorce, the dispute led to the collapse of their marriage. Fearing that Eleanor would abscond to Utah Territory with their children, Hector sent his sons and daughter to New Orleans, Louisiana , to live with their maternal grandparents. On November 14, , she and Pratt underwent a " celestial marriage " sealing ceremony in the Endowment House.
For religious and cultural reasons, Eleanor considered herself unmarried at the time of her sealing to Pratt, but she had not legally divorced from Hector. While Pratt was serving a mission in the eastern states, Eleanor went to New Orleans to get her children. Eleanor then took the children from her parents and headed to Texas. Because Eleanor took the children, Hector blamed Pratt. Hector pressed criminal charges, accusing Pratt of assisting in the kidnapping of his children. Tried before Judge John B. Ogden , Pratt was acquitted because of a lack of evidence and Ogden's own feelings after interviewing Eleanor.
As Pratt was bleeding to death, a farmer asked what he had done to provoke the attack. Pratt said, "He accused me of taking his wife and children. I did not do it. They were oppressed, and I did for them what I would do for the oppressed any where. Some writers have viewed Pratt's death as the act of a jealous husband, deeply angered by a man who had "run off" with his wife. Many Mormons viewed Pratt's death as a martyrdom ; his dying words were said to be, "I am dying a martyr to the faith.
Review: 'Parley P. Pratt: The Apostle Paul of Mormonism'
Due to Pratt's personal popularity and his position in the Quorum of the Twelve, his murder was a significant blow to the Latter-day Saint community in the Rocky Mountains. Pratt was one of the better known Mormons among other Americans; for instance, in his published visit to the Mormons, Fitz-Hugh Ludlow , in The Atlantic made a joke about "Mrs. In , Pratt's family received permission from an Arkansas judge to rebury his remains in the Salt Lake City Cemetery ,  but no human remains were found at what was believed his gravesite. Pratt practiced plural marriage and had 12 wives, 30 children, and grandchildren.
In , Pratt's living descendants were estimated to number 30, to 50, Thankful was a widow ten years older than Pratt when she married him. Pratt did, however, marry women averaging ten years younger than himself, the greatest age difference occurring with his marriage to his Ann Agatha Walker who was 18 to his 40 years.
The marriage was performed by Frederick G. Mary Ann was baptized by David W. She had come to Kirtland as a widow in Pratt suggested his falling out with Mary Ann was "stung by falsehoods which are circulated in the Church". This marriage, however, does not appear on most lists of Smith's marriages. Olive would marry Smith's successor, Brigham Young , after Smith's death in Pratt made several attempts to get Mary Ann to join him in traveling west in and , but after spending the winter of —47 in an abandoned Nauvoo , she chose to return to Maine.
Pratt provided her with clothes and money upon her return to Maine. She received some of the proceeds from the sale of Pratt's home to a Roman Catholic priest; the Nauvoo home is still used as a residence for Catholic priests. Mary Ann received a divorce decree issued by Brigham Young in She worked as a midwife, remained in the LDS Church and became a leading advocate for Mormon women against the attacks of those opposed to polygamy.
Pratt's constant missions left him little time with his family. After he started practicing plural marriage, the longest period of time he had with his family were the 18 months following his return from a mission to Chile. According to Terryl L. Givens and Matthew J. Grow , Pratt's "highest happiness was to be surrounded by a teeming domestic world of multiple wives and offspring. Mitt Romney , the Massachusetts governor —07 and the Republican nominee for the U.
One of Pratt's great-great-great-grandsons is Jon Huntsman , the former Utah governor and Ambassador to China, and an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican presidential nomination. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.
Main article: Pratt family. LDS Church portal. Retrieved May 25, William Addams Reitwiesner Genealogical Services wargs. Retrieved Pratt", in Arnold K. Garr , Donald Q. Cannon , and Richard O. Cracroft and Neal E.
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Archived from the original on May 3, Retrieved May 5, Daily Herald Utah. Retrieved March 30, Deseret News. Peel, "Dying Remarks of Parley P.
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Deseret Morning News. The murder was first reported in the Deseret News on July 1, Retrieved November 13, Daily Herald AP. Article archive ID: She was the daughter of Samuel Wood baptized Dumfries , 8 July and wife m. Dobner, Jennifer; Johnson, Glen 25 February Deseret News AP. Associated Press. The Deseret News. Retrieved 18 October Pratt's escape from jail". Church News. Pratt memorial run". Columbia Missourian. Allen, James B. The Story of the Latter-day Saints. Arave, Lynn 5 January Bagley, Will Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press. Brooks, Juanita The Mountain Meadows Massacre.
Crawley, Peter L. The Essential Parley P.
Classics in Mormon Thought. Salt Lake City: Signature Books. Givens, Terryl L. Parley P. Pratt: The Apostle Paul of Mormonism. New York: Oxford University Press. Linn, William Alexander New York: Macmillan. Ludlow, Daniel H. Pratt, Parley P. Autobiography of Parley P. Classics in Mormon Literature. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book. Pratt, Steven Pratt" PDF. BYU Studies. Archived from the original PDF on Daily Missouri Republican. May 25, Ward, C. May 26, Smith —44  Cowdery —38   Whitmer —38   Harris unknown—   Marsh —39  Patten —38 B.
Young Sr. Kimball —68 Hyde —78 McLellin —38  P. Pratt —57 Luke Johnson —37  Wm.