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And religious scholars and mystics translated, interpreted and taught the Quran and other scriptural texts to people across the Middle East. Crusaders, who wore red crosses on their coats to advertise their status, believed that their service would guarantee the remission of their sins and ensure that they could spend all eternity in Heaven. They also received more worldly rewards, such as papal protection of their property and forgiveness of some kinds of loan payments.

The Crusades began in , when Pope Urban summoned a Christian army to fight its way to Jerusalem , and continued on and off until the end of the 15th century.

Chocolate Renaissance

They did make ordinary Catholics across Christendom feel like they had a common purpose, and they inspired waves of religious enthusiasm among people who might otherwise have felt alienated from the official Church. They also exposed Crusaders to Islamic literature, science and technology—exposure that would have a lasting effect on European intellectual life. Another way to show devotion to the Church was to build grand cathedrals and other ecclesiastical structures such as monasteries. Cathedrals were the largest buildings in medieval Europe, and they could be found at the center of towns and cities across the continent.

Between the 10th and 13th centuries, most European cathedrals were built in the Romanesque style. Romanesque cathedrals are solid and substantial: They have rounded masonry arches and barrel vaults supporting the roof, thick stone walls and few windows. Around , church builders began to embrace a new architectural style, known as the Gothic. Gothic structures, such as the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis in France and the rebuilt Canterbury Cathedral in England, have huge stained-glass windows, pointed vaults and arches a technology developed in the Islamic world , and spires and flying buttresses.

In contrast to heavy Romanesque buildings, Gothic architecture seems to be almost weightless. Medieval religious art took other forms as well. Frescoes and mosaics decorated church interiors, and artists painted devotional images of the Virgin Mary, Jesus and the saints. Also, before the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, even books were works of art. Craftsmen in monasteries and later in universities created illuminated manuscripts: handmade sacred and secular books with colored illustrations, gold and silver lettering and other adornments.

In the 12th century, urban booksellers began to market smaller illuminated manuscripts, like books of hours, psalters and other prayer books, to wealthy individuals. Landless peasants known as serfs did most of the work on the fiefs: They planted and harvested crops and gave most of the produce to the landowner. In exchange for their labor, they were allowed to live on the land. They were also promised protection in case of enemy invasion. During the 11th century, however, feudal life began to change. Agricultural innovations such as the heavy plow and three-field crop rotation made farming more efficient and productive, so fewer farm workers were needed—but thanks to the expanded and improved food supply, the population grew.

As a result, more and more people were drawn to towns and cities. Meanwhile, the Crusades had expanded trade routes to the East and given Europeans a taste for imported goods such as wine, olive oil and luxurious textiles.


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As the commercial economy developed, port cities in particular thrived. By , there were some 15 cities in Europe with a population of more than 50, In these cities, a new era was born: the Renaissance.

Renaissance

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Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32

During this era, America became more prosperous and The Bronze Age marked the first time humans started to work with metal. Bronze tools and weapons soon replaced earlier stone versions. Humans made many technological advances during the An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures and recurring glacial expansion capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years.

Thanks to the efforts of geologist Louis Agassiz and mathematician Milutin Milankovitch, scientists have determined that variations in the During the Iron Age, people across much of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa began making tools and weapons from iron and steel. Scientists verified and announced the many healthy aspects of dark chocolate, extolling its valuable antioxidant properties. Anthropologists, botanists, and environmentalists joined forces with proponents of sustainable agriculture, slow foods, and fair trade to identify and promote the historically distinct varieties of the cacao tree, touting the unique flavors and aromas of single origin, organically grown, and fairly traded chocolates.

In the past three years, the international chocolate renaissance has blossomed in Central Texas. Professional culinary programs train chefs to work with chocolate and actively encourage artistic competition. A local festival celebrating all things chocolate grows bigger every year p.

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Whether your chocolate obsession is for the essential bean with minimal processing and few adornments, voluptuous truffles flavored with luxurious liqueurs, or delightful candies made with quality ingredients, there is a chocolate artisan in Austin with just the object you crave. Now more than ever, we need your support to continue supplying Austin with independent, free press.

CHOCOLATE RENAISSANCE

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Middle Ages - HISTORY

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