Pa Benedict and Ma Esther Okere, my cherished parents, you are most certainly enjoying heavenly rewards for lives well spelt on earth. I have no doubt you are smiling over there, especially to see me achieve my dreams and academic goal. Nwaofoani and other contributors to the success of this book, I say: Bravo and remain blessed. Finally, there are so many experts and professionals who made substantial contributions to the development of this book. I owe you huge appreciations. Even though I did not mention your names, I really appreciated your immense contributions and supportive presence throughout the course of my studies.
While I do know that some of you would prefer to be anonymous, I still feel obliged to express my sincere gratitude to you for enriching my dissertation with the generous gift of your time, talent and wisdom. May God enlighten our minds to appreciate religious values that are on the path of justice and truth. If Christianity were taught and understood comfortable to the spirit of its Founder, the existing social organism could not exist a day - Emile Louis To the question: Why was Christianity not taught and understood to the spirit of its founder , this book serves as an antidote.
Yet, on the side of the existing social organism could not exist a day , I invite you to take a guess. The message the book has put across here points to a dilemma in a sense that most of the people of Igboland today are confused as regards what to believe in or not.
Appraisal of the Growth of the Christian Faith in Igboland
It was precisely and due mainly to these conflicting faith crises that the author ventured into this sensitive area. To this effect, is it not possible that, as Nwachukwu noted in his book that most often, something is keeping you uncomfortable, and at times, that something is you, your unhealthy choice patterns, bad life styles and insatiability Nwachukwu, Does it not sound funny that Christianity was not taught and understood comfortable to the spirit of the founder but taught and understood comfortable to our own decisions and choices?
What is it that is critical and counterproductive in Christianity that cannot be integrated in the Traditional religion of the Ngor Okpala people? Could the Christian principles be misleading or offensive? Whether we accept it or not, religion is part and parcel of us. Even those we call Atheists, are equally religious as long as they are in search for meaning, the purpose of their lives.
Is it better we accept to live a meaningless life, without any purpose, beginning and end? Or, do we exclude the Atheists because they do not profess any belief in God? What is belief in God when an Atheist does everything humanly possible to live at peace with one another and a Christian who continually nurses animosity for his neighbors? By continually , I mean that research has shown that most people who claim to be religious are the perpetrators of evils in society today.
Take the census of the crimes that are committed on daily basis, higher percentage falls on the Christians than some of those we regard as non-believers. We need to understand the primary aim of Christianity and decide whether or not it is suitable for us. Most people are in haste when challenged by Christian principles that guarantee lives but seem to crave, relax and feel comfortable in transient matters that satisfy only earthly appetites.
Wait a minute; can there be a true believer in God when most people seem to indulge in high level of hypocrisy? We are our own religions in the sense that whatever we project as our own religion — materialism, inordinate desire for sex, affluence, fame, God, sound moral life, etc, manifests itself in our behaviors and actions. It is only when others validate our actions and assign marks to them that it dawns on us the force, being or God we believe and worship in our everyday lives. We deceive ourselves in deceiving others but it does not last forever.
Faith only works in action and not in kneeling for many hours in the church, speaking in such tongues that aim at immediate profit or gain. In other words, while so many people may be pointing accusing fingers on the Church and her Ministers, Government, or Parents, etc as regards the dilemma of the growth of the Christian religion in Igboland, this book invites you to look into yourself first. At this juncture, I invite you to join me to investigate why we cannot accept the values of Jesus Christ — Christianity.
Have we ever resolved to accept them at all? We are equally our own choices. However, an introduction to any scientific endeavor or book provides readers with the necessary background and over view of the entire message the author has in stock for the individual in particular and society at large.
As an avid reader of works on the Christian faith, coupled with my personal and professional experiences as a minister, I have always felt disappointed whenever questions on faith arises among my people, especially considering the enormous sacrifice Jesus made on the cross for our salvation.
We are bound to accept one option. Within my area of research, Pastoral Psychology, which involves psychological practice, I am compelled to apply the findings in psychology to the advancement of faith. Faith works in action and the best way to prove it is to make Christian practices relevant in human activities. That is why our findings in pastoral psychology place much premium in the marriage of religion to psychology. In a sense, according to Nwachukwu: There can be psychology without religion but it is inconceivable to practice religion without psychology Nwachukwu, A closer examination of what Nwachukwu has noted reveals that the problems and dilemma we encounter in the growth of religion today stem from the ways people get about practicing their religion and not necessarily from religious obligations themselves.
It is one thing to recite the creed and another to put it into action. Time of kneeling or ambush theology is over. God always loves and wants us to remain with him in our actions. As it were, the need to study the dilemma of the growth of Christian faith in Igbo land becomes expedient. Again, issues of faith can be approached socially, politically, economically, religiously and so on. But in this very book, I deemed it classic to approach it from pastoral and psychological points of view.
The pastoral implication is that those who belong to one faith tradition or the other want to know how their efforts impact their lives generally. Can the notion of God be therapeutic in any sense, especially when people face different life threatening situations? On a different note, to what extent can the name of God be employed for political gains?
We see it happen every day on political spectra.
Appraisal of the Growth of the Christian Faith in Igboland
Yet some others have religiously carried out and perpetuated their evil intentions in their everyday lives. Religious values cannot be equip-rated with every social life. On the other hand, religion is meant to guide and elevate society to appreciate ideals that respect individual freedom, sacredness of life and the dignity of the human person. This is where pastoral psychology takes its foundation and function.
If life is meaningful, it has to be purposeful, focused and admired. Religion should not dichotomize between human actions that advance peace and progress of society but rather encourages them. In this way, to practice religion is to optimize the various values of society and channel them to avenues that reflect the dignity of the human person, created in the image of God who is truth and peace. Dimensionally, the Igbo of Nigeria had practiced their religion and faith before the advent of Christianity and they were very confident in the God they worshipped.
The African traditional religion is holistic and all embracing. Therefore, the issue of dilemma is traceable to factors outside the confines of African or Igbo land. This is what makes this book interesting. For instance, if the Igbo people have enjoyed a lively faith and communal spirits of oneness, truth and peace, what then brought about the dilemma we are talking about here?
What was actually the psychology of the African religious and belief systems or faith before the coming of Christianity? How can such faith level be evaluated in the light of what is happening in Igbo land today? In short, what brought about the dilemma in question? How and why did elements of syncretism infiltrate into their religious system? There are thousand and one questions and concerns one can raise considering what happened and at what point did it happen.
Faith is essential in any life aspiration or goal, and more importantly in our relationship with and worship of God. If Christianity is necessary for the Igbo people, it must have effects in their lives. A Christian should exhibit certain attitudes that distinguish him from the rest of others. An African Christianity with a foreign face is dangerous and complicates its acceptance among a people who have no doubt in their God.
That was precisely what gave the Igbo people their name in religious circles. An African or traditional religionist is easily spotted out from those who are not. In this context, a religious person is seen as an embodiment of truth and justice. In other words, truth is the main ingredient that propels the engine of religion and ultimately binds the Igbo adherent to God. Then, once this number one unifying factor of heart and body is lacking in a person, a pastoral psychologist is compelled to raise questions as how to fix the anomalies created thereupon. Eventually, after reading Dr.
While Nwachukwu delved into and dwelt extensively on the socio-cultural aspects of the dilemma, the various instances and salvation opportunities in the African context, I appreciated and appropriated them as important values that could be incorporated into the enhancement of the faith of the Igbo Christian and a way of resolving the impending religious and Christian dilemma thereof. We have areas of agreements and disagreements. The work is going to be substantiated by the findings of teachers who are deeply committed with the education of the mind and body, and particularly, involved in the predicaments of religious practices among the Ibos at large.
Teachers are equally considered as important figures in decision-making and evaluation of the dilemma of the growth of the Christian faith in Igboland. Therefore, any piece of information we gathered from them was considered vital in the conclusion of our findings in this work. Besides, the work is a case study of how the Christian religion has impacted and informed the consciousness of an average Igbo man or woman. As a case study, it will be analytic as well as narrative. Man by nature is homo religiousus — a religious animal.
There is no epoch in the history of mankind, including that of the people of Igboland that seems to have passed without raising questions concerning the ultimate end and nature of man. Still, man is continually in a struggle for a lasting security, his faith, belief and search for the meaning of his existence. The word Christian Faith means a lot of things and differently too, to a lot of people. Serious efforts were made in this book to x-ray the meaning of the Christian faith, its growth and hindrance in Igboland of Nigeria.
For instance, when an Igbo man or woman says: I am religious , does this mean the same thing as being spiritual Nwachukwu, Are there different types of faith and religion or do they generally have the same meaning, especially for an Igbo man Christian and other people, non-Christians and in various places? In a way, faith is accepting as objective and true what is yet to happen or believed to be the case. For many people, faith. This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
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Upload Sign In Join. Save For Later. Create a List. Summary The Igbo people in Nigeria continue to make some movements toward Christianity, but many fail to practice the faith properly. Read on the Scribd mobile app Download the free Scribd mobile app to read anytime, anywhere. Okere All rights reserved. Mazi Amam A. Nwachukwu, PhD, Psy. Christiana C. Foreword Emile Louis writes, If life is meaningful, it has to be purposeful, focused and admired…If Christianity is necessary for the Igbo people; it must have effects in their lives.
In fact, I am thankful to them for standing by me throughout my academic journey at GTF I particularly owe huge indebtedness to my brothers and sister- in law, Dr. You are all in my daily prayers. Batholomew Nneji Okere, Ph. Because it destroys the notion of free enterprise in a continent, it triples the prices of goods and services, and it creates an avenue for the production and distribution of substandard products within the African markets and kills ultimately the dignity of an individual.
Therefore, to argue that corruption is merely a symptom to a larger unidentified disease might be misleading, why several millions of citizens on the African continent are meant to live in penury and other dehumanising situation, while some nations are at the brink of total collapse as a result of corruption.
Examples are bound in several countries within the sub-Saharan region of the continent, where the absences of essential service such as water, housing, healthcare, sanitation and electricity are lacking. Notwithstanding, the economically savvy postures manifest in the following ways:. This article notes with concern the position of other scholars who conceive of corruption as a symptom of a larger disease. It, however, argues that such arguments trivialise the power and effect of the disease in the 21st century in Africa.
Consequently, there are several underlying questions that might suffice: hardly is it ever stated that a patient died of symptoms, rather it is said that a patient died of symptoms in relation to a certain disease. It becomes imperative to present certain scenarios in which we believe corruption must have been trivialised. Scenario 1: In a case where an individual finds an open garage with groceries or cars parked with keys that the individual in question must make all necessary means to steal it for oneself.
This is at the backdrop that most scholars have consistently argued that weak institutions are a reason why people are corrupt. The issue in question is hardly about the institution. It is primarily about the corrupt practitioner who functions effectively in a skewed location. Many theorists argue that the propagation of corruption is contagious and that the level of corruption in a given country is largely dependent on the level of corruption in neighbouring nations.
In arguing for Kleptoafronia as a concept in the understanding of corruption in Africa, two postulations were made. The first being that corruption is contagion in line with Becker et al. But this generation is a wasted generation — unless God comes to the aid. This notion portrayed by the Croatian and Nigerian incidents is one of the reasons we argue that corruption is but a calculated intention of an individual to commit a criminal act; hence, it is not haphazard. Therefore, it is imperative that Africans begin to retrace their footsteps in embracing African traditional values, which could restore dignity and discipline in the continent.
This notion depicts that corruption is not just a mere act of abuse but a demonstration of a gross lack of discipline. Where indiscipline is largely appreciated and mediocrity honourable, corruption soars. This is the reason why it is important to understand corruption in its entirety before proffering recommendations; as corruption is multidimensional, a solution must be transdisciplinary rooted within the African traditional value system. Otherwise, the emergence of the African continent will be a wishful thinking.
In that, for industrialisation to lead growth and the market economy, new techniques for addressing corruption must be proffered, possibly because the known methodologies for addressing corruption have become accustomed to corrupt practitioners both locally and globally. This brings to notice the reason the youths in the 21st century behave in a certain way: lacking morale, self-control and dignity. These tendencies have resulted in moral debauchery in the continent.
Hence, we argue that fighting corruption is a fight to restore sanctity and credibility in a situation where it does not exist. It is now common knowledge that corruption fights back in times of resistance. It is also a truism that institutions designated to fight corruption in most instance are tools of the central government to suppress unpopular interest and views against their government.
This notion has a tendency of ridiculing the sterling job done by anti-graft agencies in the fight to purge the continent of corrupt practitioners before as designated under the AU. There are several individuals whom the continent had perceived as incorruptible Muhammadu Buhari, Thomas Shankara, Magnufuli, Julius Nyerere and several others. Among these individuals mentioned only Muhammadu Buhari is yet alive and is the sitting President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
However, for him to return to power in as an elected president, he had to associate with men and women with economic power and rigging abilities. More worrisome was the fact that these men and women were renowned individuals and groups of questionable character, revered and notorious for corruption in Nigeria.
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This resulted in the plundering of the infrastructure in the country, which has made foreign companies to leave the shores of the country. Poor healthcare, poverty, inequality and hunger are widespread while the president receives treatment in London for over days in counting. The assertion therefore is, corruption is contagion, and any individual or corporate or nation that exposes itself to such will be contaminated, thereby, bringing about feasibly signs as bribery among others.
Although this article was carefully thought out, it still has several limitations, one of which is that it is limited to the African continent and within the African context. Another limitation is that lack of data and that it does give a limited scope to corruption in the African continent. However, it sought to rethink the concept of corruption and proffer an alternative paradigm in the understanding of corruption in the continent.
It argues that corruption is a disease, but not in standing with a cancer. Its invocation is that corruption is in stature and status like EVD. More so, literature from medical sciences and psychology were harnessed to make this argument that corruption is simply the urge to steal. The study is also limited based on the unit of analysis adopted; it utilises the individual as the unit of analysis rather than a collective. It is a truism that while African psychology is premised upon group dynamics, there is no theory or construct that has warned against the use of individual analysis, especially in contemporary Africa, where Westernisation and incidences of individualism have taken centre stage in Africa.
The exposition for this study must be understood within the context of the conversation Afrocentricism , in that in building an analogy for EVD and Kleptomania, the study did not conduct any practical medical examination in making the assertion in this article. By justice a king gives a country stability, but those who are greedy for bribes tear it down.
Proverbs NIV. In this conceptual article, we have re-conceptualised corruption from the standpoint of both medical science and psychology. We have also proved that corruption is not a mere symptom but a disease in itself in stature and class with EVD. In providing a roadmap for future research, we have likened corruption to Ebola in the medical science and Kleptomania in psychology.
In doing so, we have framed a concept in the discourse for understanding corruption from premise of a psych-administrative disorder in Africa called Kleptoafronia , which we defined from a psych-administrative perspective as simply a recurring urge to steal, and from a medical science perspective as an infectious and fatal disease marked by severe institutional failures, lack of political will, deficiencies in government agencies among others spread through contact with an infested individual, organisation or body polity by greed, whose host species is residual in indiscipline.
Leaning on literature from the medical science with regard to Ebola and Kleptomania in psychology, we argue that corruption from a psychological perspective is a mental disorder that induces an individual, organisation or a body polity to steal for self or not for self what rightfully belongs to another. We did not dwell much on medical area and its spread in this conceptual article. Furthermore, we did not provide a solution for curing corruption in this article, as that was not the goal of this study. We, however, have linked corruption to kleptomania and found other obsessive-compulsive disorders such as pyromania and pathological gambling among others.
Our argument is that corruption does not only subvert structures and ridicules institutions but corruption is as contagious as EVD. Corruption is a disease, a cancer that eats into the cultural, political and economic fabric of society, and destroys the functioning of vital organs Amundsen Lastly, in the subsequent article the forms, types and causes of Kleptoafronia will be discussed, as this article only facilitates the argument for Kleptoafronia as a concept in understanding or for conceptualising corruption in contemporary African literature. The authors are grateful to Nebo Godwin and Chungag Anye, both doctoral students at the University of Fort Hare, for their insightful and productive engagement on issues related to the topic, and also to the anonymous reviewers for the sterling job in providing direction for this study.
The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article. Abelson, E. Acemoglu, D. Achebe, C. American Psychiatric Association, , Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders , 4th edn. Amundsen, I. Michelsen Institute, Bergen. Antonuccio, D. Apergis, N. Becker, S. Bhattacharyya, S. Bicchieri, C. Robertson eds. Bratsis, P. Buchan, B. Buehn, A. Campante, F. Charron, N. Chowell, G. Dimant, E. Dumludag, D. Enste, D. Fisman, R. Goel, R. Grant, J. Stein eds. Habib, M.
Hanapiyah, Z. Hanson, S. Heinemann, B. Heywood, P. Hardi, P. Torsello eds. Kohn, C. Lennerfors, T. Lopez-Claros, A. Matsunaga, H. McElroy, S. Ngolina, W. Nutting, R. Ohlsson, M.
Okere, B. Okafor, N. Olken, B. Parke, P. Payi, X. Pellegrini, L. Rodriguez, P. Rose, J. Rose-Ackerman, S. Note No. Sarasalo, E. Shulman, T. Smith, D. Thompson, D.
Uslaner, E. Van Rijckeghem, C. Van Zyl, G. Wiedemann, G. Wolfensohn, J. Wolfensohn, — , at , About the Author s Emeka A. Citation Ndaguba, E. Abstract Introduction Understanding the Ebola virus disease in relation to corruption Conceptualising Kleptoafronia in contemporary African philosophy Individualistic perception and the fight of anti-corruption Limitations of the study Conclusion Acknowledgements References Footnotes About the Author s Emeka A. Original Research. Rethinking corruption in contemporary African philosophy: Old wine cannot fit.
Emeka A. Ndaguba, Onyinye J. Ndaguba, Michel M. Tshiyoyo, Kgothatso B. Shai Received: 28 Oct. Abstract To conceive the notion of corruption presupposes the existence of corrupt individuals, groups or organisations. Introduction … Corruption goes with power … therefore to hold any useful discussion of corruption; we must first locate it where it properly belongs — in the ranks of the powerful.
Symptoms versus disease Disease Disease is an abnormality of the body or mind that causes discomfort or dysfunction. Symptoms Perceived change in some function, sensation or appearance of a person that indicates a disease or disorder such as fever, headache or rash. Anything that indicates a disease, or is characteristic of the presence of something else, especially of something undesirable. Symptoms are what the patient experiences. A symptom can be defined as one of the characteristics of a disease.
Ebola The Ebola virus disease causes an acute, serious illness, which is often fatal if untreated. Symptoms of the Ebola virus disease The incubation period, that is, the time interval from infection with the virus to the onset of symptoms, is 2—21 days. Transmission It is a general belief that fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family are natural EVD hosts. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of several ways of transmissions and particularly on the prevalence of viable and transmissible virus in semen over time in the interim and based on present evidence.
WHO a recommends thus: All Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should receive counselling to ensure safe sexual practices until their semen has twice tested negative. Survivors should be provided with condoms. Male Ebola survivors should be offered semen testing at 3 months after onset of disease and then for those who test positive, every month thereafter until their semen tests negative for the virus twice by reverse transcriptase—polymerase chain reaction, with an interval of 1 week between tests. Ebola survivors and their sexual partners should either abstain from all types of sexual intercourse or practice safe sex through correct and consistent condom use until their semen has twice been tested negative.
Understanding the Ebola virus disease in relation to corruption One would wonder what or where the relationships exist between these two different phenomena but both are problematic and terrifying to say the least. Kleptomania Kleptomania is the inability to resist a desperate urge to steal and is usually done for financial gains or personal use. Linkages between obsessive-compulsive disorders Kleptomania belongs to a group of disorders that has strong compulsive and impulsive qualities.
Concept and notion of Kleptomania The idea of the concept of corruption from the Anti-Corruption Internet Database argues that corruption is a breakaway meaning subversion from a norm or a tradition of doing things. The underlining assumptions of Kleptoafronia include the following: Corruption is a disease and not a symptom in Africa. Corruption is contagious. Institutional failures, bribery and kickbacks among others are not the major causes of corruption in Africa, rather they are forms of corruption under subversion.
Corrupt practitioners practice within an entity, a body or corporate as an individual or for a government or corporate organisation in Africa. Corruption frustrates or compromises institutional efficiency, productivity and effectiveness in Africa. Corruption hampers institutional development that manifests in dysfunctional systems or institutional failure in Africa. Hence, corruption is not a symptom but a disease. In most cases, institutional failures are a result of rampant or heightened gravitational corruption levels in Africa. Trivialising corruption Corruption and corrupt practices account for over million Africans without electricity in sub-Saharan Africa Parke Reasons and rationale to rethink of corruption in Africa According to Wolfensohn, corruption is cancerous.
Also with a survey suggesting that: where corruption is endemic , it imposes a disproportionately high burden on the smallest firms. Notwithstanding, the economically savvy postures manifest in the following ways: shortage of jobs; job loss; rising unemployment; rising inequalities; rising poverty; poor sanitation; unhealthy consumption; lack of productive capital and capacity; lack of access to the wealth of nations; lack of inner, conscious or subjective well-being among others.
Conceptualising Kleptoafronia in contemporary African philosophy Many theorists argue that the propagation of corruption is contagious and that the level of corruption in a given country is largely dependent on the level of corruption in neighbouring nations. Individualistic perception and the fight of anti-corruption It is now common knowledge that corruption fights back in times of resistance.
Limitations of the study Although this article was carefully thought out, it still has several limitations, one of which is that it is limited to the African continent and within the African context. Conclusion By justice a king gives a country stability, but those who are greedy for bribes tear it down. Proverbs NIV In this conceptual article, we have re-conceptualised corruption from the standpoint of both medical science and psychology.
Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to Nebo Godwin and Chungag Anye, both doctoral students at the University of Fort Hare, for their insightful and productive engagement on issues related to the topic, and also to the anonymous reviewers for the sterling job in providing direction for this study. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.