Frankfurt Airport is among the world's busiest. Automotive and research, consulting and creative industries complement the economic base. Messe Frankfurt is one of the world's largest trade fairs. Major fairs include the Frankfurt Motor Show , the world's largest motor show, the Music Fair , the Frankfurt Book Fair , the world's largest book fair.
Its renowned cultural venues include the concert hall Alte Oper , Europe's largest English theatre and many museums. Frankfurt's skyline is shaped by some of Europe's tallest skyscrapers; the city is characterised by various green areas and parks, including the central Wallanlagen , the City Forest and two major botanical gardens, the Palmengarten and the University's Botanical Garden. Important is the Frankfurt Zoo. Frankfurt is the largest financial centre in continental Europe , it is home to the European Central Bank, Deutsche Bundesbank, Frankfurt Stock Exchange and several large commercial banks.
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is one of the world's largest stock exchanges by market capitalization and accounts for more than 90 percent of the turnover in the German market. In , 63 national and international banks had their registered offices in Frankfurt, including Germany's major banks, notably Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank, KfW and Commerzbank , as well as 41 representative offices of international banks. Frankfurt is considered a global city. Among financial centres it was ranked 8th by the International Financial Centers Development Index and 9th by the Global Financial Centres Index , its central location within Germany and Europe makes Frankfurt a major air and road transport hub.
Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports by passenger traffic and the main hub for Germany's flag carrier Lufthansa. Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest rail stations in Europe and the busiest junction operated by Deutsche Bahn , the German national railway company, with trains a day to domestic and European destinations. Frankfurter Kreuz , the Autobahn interchange close to the airport, is the most used interchange in the EU, used by , cars daily.
In human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Frankfurt as seventh in its annual'Quality of Living' survey of cities around the world. According to The Economist cost-of-living survey, Frankfurt is Germany's most expensive city and the world's 10th most expensive. Frankfurt has many high-rise buildings in the city centre, forming the Frankfurt skyline, it is one of the few cities in the European Union to have such a skyline and because of it Germans sometimes refer to Frankfurt as Mainhattan , a portmanteau of the local Main River and Manhattan. The other well known and obvious nickname is Bankfurt.
Anti-aircraft warfare Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action". They include surface based and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems and control arrangements and passive measures, it may be used to protect naval and air forces in any location.
However, for most countries the main effort has tended to be'homeland defence'. NATO refers to airborne naval air defence as anti-aircraft warfare. Missile defence is an extension of air defence as are initiatives to adapt air defence to the task of intercepting any projectile in flight. However, while overall air defence may be for homeland defence including military facilities, forces in the field, wherever they are, invariably deploy their own air defence capability if there is an air threat.
A surface-based air defence capability can be deployed offensively to deny the use of airspace to an opponent. Until the s, guns firing ballistic munitions ranging from 7. However, arrangements in the UK were called'anti-aircraft', abbreviated as AA, a term that remained in general use into the s. After the First World War it was sometimes prefixed by'Light' or'Heavy' to classify a type of gun or unit. NATO defines anti-aircraft warfare as "measures taken to defend a maritime force against attacks by airborne weapons launched from aircraft, ships and land-based sites".
In some armies the term All-Arms Air Defence is used for air defence by nonspecialist troops.
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Non-English terms for air defence include the German FlaK, whence English flak, the Russian term Protivovozdushnaya oborona , a literal translation of "anti-air defence", abbreviated as PVO. In Russian the AA systems are called zenitnye systems. In French, air defence is called DCA; the maximum distance at which a gun or missile can engage an aircraft is an important figure.
However, many different definitions are used but unless the same definition is used, performance of different guns or missiles cannot be compared. For AA guns only the ascending part of the trajectory can be usefully used. One term is "ceiling", the maximum ceiling being the height a projectile would reach if fired vertically, not useful in itself as few AA guns are able to fire vertically, maximum fuse duration may be too short, but useful as a standard to compare different weapons; the British adopted "effective ceiling", meaning the altitude at which a gun could deliver a series of shells against a moving target.
By the late s the British definition was "that height at which a directly approaching target at mph can be engaged for 20 seconds before the gun reaches 70 degrees elevation". However, effective ceiling for heavy AA guns was affected by nonballistic factors: The maximum running time of the fuse, this set the maximum usable time of flight; the capability of fire control instruments to determine target height at long range. The precision of the cyclic rate of fire, the fuse length had to be calculated and set for where the target would be at the time of flight after firing, to do this meant knowing when the round would fire; the essence of air defence is to destroy them.
The critical issue is to hit a target moving in three-dimensional space; this means that projectiles either have to be guided to hit the target, or aimed at the predicted position of the target at the time the projectile reaches it, taking into account speed and direction of both the target and the projectile. Throughout the 20th century, air defence was one of the fastest-evolving areas of military technology, responding to the evolution of aircraft and exploiting various enabling technologies radar, guided missiles and computing initially electromechanical analogue computing from the s on, as with equipment describ.
The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September , the Allies consisted of France and the United Kingdom , as well as their dependent states, such as British India. After first having cooperated with Germany in invading Poland whilst remaining neutral in the Allied-Axis conflict, the Soviet Union perforce joined the Allies in June after being invaded by Germany; the United States provided war materiel and money all along, joined in December after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
China had been in a prolonged war with Japan since the Marco Polo Bridge Incident of , but joined the Allies in The alliance was formalised by the Declaration by United Nations , from 1 January After the war ended, the Allied nations became the basis of the modern United Nations. Germany resented signing Treaty of Versailles ; the new Weimar Republic's legitimacy became shaken.
However, the s were peaceful. With the Wall Street Crash of and the ensuing Great Depression , political unrest in Europe soared including the rise in support of revanchist nationalists in Germany who blamed the severity of the economic crisis on the Treaty of Versailles. By the early s, the Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler became the dominant revanchist movement in Germany and Hitler and the Nazis gained power in The Nazi regime demanded the immediate cancellation of the Treaty of Versailles and made claims to German-populated Austria , German-populated territories of Czechoslovakia ; the likelihood of war was high, the question was whether it could be avoided through strategies such as appeasement.
Japan responded by leaving the League of Nations in March The United States, in particular, was sought to support China. In March , Germany took over Czechoslovakia, violating the Munich Agreement signed six months before, demonstrating that the appeasement policy was a failure. Britain and France decided that Hitler had no intention to uphold diplomatic agreements and responded by preparing for war. On 31 March , Britain formed the Anglo-Polish military alliance in an effort to avert a German attack on the country.
The French had a long-standing alliance with Poland since ; the Soviet Union sought an alliance with the western powers, but Hitler ended the risk of a war with Stalin by signing the Nazi—Soviet non-aggression pact in August The agreement secretly divided the independent nations of Eastern Europe between the two powers and assured adequate oil supplies for the German war machine. On 1 September , Germany invaded Poland. On 17 September , the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east. A Polish government-in-exile was set up and it continued to be one of the Allies, a model followed by other occupied countries.
Britain and its Empire stood alone against Mussolini. In December, Japan attacked the Britain. The main lines of World War II had formed. During December , U. President Franklin D. Truman , proposed that the foreign ministers of China , the Soviet Union , the United Kingdom , the United States "should draft the peace treaties and boundary settlements of Europe", which led to the creation of the Council of Foreign Ministers of the " Big Five ", soon thereafter the establishment of those states as the permanent members of the UNSC.
Great Britain and other members of the British Commonwealth , most known as the Dominions, declared war on Germany separately from 3 September with the UK first, all within one week of each other. Zoo Tower The Zoo flak tower, was a fortified flak tower that existed in Berlin from to It was one of several flak towers, its primary role was as a gun platform to protect the government building district of Berlin, in addition the Hochbunker was designed to be used as a civilian air-raid shelter. It contained a hospital and a radio transmitter for use by the German leadership, provided secure storage facilities for art treasures.
During the Battle of Berlin , it acted as a citadel and by depressing its large anti-aircraft artillery, its garrison was able to provide support for ground operations against the encroaching Soviet Red Army ; the Berlin flak towers were built as a response to an attack on Berlin by a small force of British bombers.
Hitler ordered the construction of these towers after the first bomber attack on Berlin by the RAF on 25 August The Zoo tower was built close to the Berlin Zoo , hence the name, is the most famous of the flak towers. It was the first one protected the government quarter in Berlin; the Zoo tower was a first generation flak tower. Like all the flak towers, it had a main facility that housed the anti aircraft guns, the G building, a smaller building that had sensory equipment, including radar; this was the smaller L building.
The two were connected by a landline , buried in the ground and protected. There was one cellar floor and six upper floors above that, though the tower rose to the height of a story building; the second floor was used to house the most priceless and irreplaceable holdings of 14 museums from Berlin. The rooms were climate controlled. On the third floor was an bed hospital; as with all flak towers, the installation consisted of two towers, the Main G tower, which held the anti aircraft armaments, the L tower which held radar and detection equipment.
The G Tower could accommodate 15, people. It was a ferro-concrete structure the larger tower was an extreme structure 70 meters wide by 70 meters long; the walls were 2. It was the largest air raid shelter in Berlin. In terms of provisions, the defenses of the Zoo Tower , the defenders believed it to be sufficient - "The complex was so well stocked with supplies and ammunition that the military garrison believed that, no matter what happened to the rest of Berlin, the zoo tower could hold out for a year if need be".
From , the roof of the facility had four twin mounts of As bombers took to higher altitudes, these were the only guns; each barrel could fire 10 to 12 rounds a minute, thus each twin mounted battery was rated to fire a maximum of 24 rounds a minute, four twin mounts could fire as many as 96 rounds a minute. The guns were loaded electrically, with the ammunition fed into hoppers. Younger Hitler Youth, while not supposed to be combatants, assisted the military during the loading process. Before the There was a range of smaller anti aircraft guns on the lower platforms; the primary purpose of the Flak Towers was to protect Berlin.
Together with the Luftwaffe and a well organised fire brigade, the Berlin flak towers prevented the levels of the aerial attack damage that the RAF and the USAAF expected to occur, had occurred in other German cities; the RAF Bomber Command had been endeavouring to ignite firestorms in Berlin, but had been unable to do so. The hospital facility, within the G tower, was used to treat wounded soldiers, shipped back from the front line.
Luftwaffe ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel had his leg amputated there in February ; as the bombing continued, the facility was used to store art treasures to keep them safe. The Zoo tower in particular stored the Kaiser Wilhelm coin collection, the Nefertiti bust, the disassembled Altar of Zeus from Pergamon , other major treasures of the Berlin museums.
There had been the option to use the Tower as a command facility for the defence of Berlin , by General Hellmuth Reymann , the Reich Commissioner in charge of the cities defence effort. Reymann had refused to move his headquarters there. With Soviet and Polish troops entering Berlin in , civilians moved into the Zoo tower to escape harm. Soviet troops attacked across the Moltke Bridge covering the River Spree ; this was defended by German infantry and rockets, who were under pressure from Soviet tanks crossing the bridge, until the heavier anti aircraft guns from the Zoo tower could gain line of sight through the smoke.
They destroyed the tanks and left the bridge covered in destroyed vehicles, which blocked further vehicles from crossing the bridge; the heavier With thousands of civilians crammed into the facility, conditions in the Zoo tower towards the end were close to unbearable. As the Soviet armies advanced inexorably towards the centre of Berlin, around 10, German troops retreated to the Government district. The tower was never successfully. It is situated on several islands between the Northern and Southern branches of the Elbe river , together with the other quarters of Steinwerder and Kleiner Grasbrook ; the latter exclusively consists of facilities of the port of Hamburg.
In the population was 55, In , the Prussian authorities designated Wilhelmsburg as a city district, merged it with nearby Harburg two years to form the city of Harburg-Wilhelmsburg. A subcamp to the Neuengamme concentration camp existed in Wilhelmsburg. In the night from February 16 to February 17, , Wilhelmsburg was flooded and damaged by a north sea flood. On March 1, , Wilhelmsburg was transferred from the borough Harburg to the borough Hamburg-Mitte by a Hamburg law.
In , according to the statistical office of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein , the quarter Wilhelmsburg has a total area of Wihelmsburg borders in the north to the quarters Steinwerder, Kleiner Grasbrook and Veddel. In the east are the quarters Spadenland and Ochsenwerder of the Bergedorf borough.
In the south are the quarters Neuland and Harburg of the Harburg borough and the state of Lower Saxony and in the east are the quarters Moorburg and Altenwerder of the Harburg borough. In there were 21, households out of which The average household size was 2.
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Population by year In , there were 7, criminal offences. There were 8 elementary schools and 6 secondary schools in the quarter Wilhelmsburg and 52 physicians in private practice and 11 pharmacies. Wilhelmsburg is serviced by the rapid transit system of the city train with the Wilhelmsburg station; the islands of Wilhelmsburg, Steinwerder and Kleiner Grasbrook are connected via numerous bridges.
NS-Gedenkstätte im Flakturm
According to the Department of Motor Vehicles , in the quarter Wilhelmsburg were 13, private cars registered. Since , the music and art festival Dockville takes place every year in summer. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China , it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust , strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Japan , which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by , though neither side had declared war on the other. From late to early , in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe , formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa , the fall of France in mid , the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire.
On 22 June , the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union , opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht , into a war of attrition. Following an immediate U. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in Key setbacks in , which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts.
In , the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France , while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During and the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China , South China and Burma , while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively.
With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria , Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August , cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese.
World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September , beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July , or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September Others follow the British historian A.
Taylor , who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in ; this article uses the conventional dating. Air raid shelter Air raid shelters known as bomb shelters, are structures for the protection of non-combatants as well as combatants against enemy attacks from the air. They are similar to bunkers in many regards, although they are not designed to defend against ground attack.
For years, little progress was made with shelters because of the irreconcilable conflict between the need to send the public underground for shelter and the need to keep them above ground for protection against gas attacks. By November , there had only been slow progress, because of a serious lack of data on which to base any design recommendations, the Committee proposed that the Home Office should have its own department for research into structural precautions, rather than relying on research work done by the Bombing Test Committee to support the development of bomb design and strategy.
This proposal was implemented in January During the Munich crisis , local authorities dug trenches to provide shelter. After the crisis, the British Government decided to make these a permanent feature, with a standard design of precast concrete trench lining; these turned out to perform poorly. December Opened on 1 August ,. The battle in Berlin was an end phase of the Battle of Berlin.
While the Battle of Berlin encompassed the attack by three Soviet Army Groups to capture not only Berlin but the territory of Germany east of the River Elbe still under German control, the battle in Berlin details the fighting and German capitulation that took place within the city.
The outcome of the battle to capture the capital of the Third Reich was decided during the initial phases of the Battle of Berlin that took place outside the city. As the Soviets invested Berlin and the German forces placed to stop them were destroyed or forced back, the city's fate was sealed. Nevertheless, there was much heavy fighting within the city as the Red Army fought its way, street by street, into the centre. On 23 April , the first Soviet ground forces started to penetrate the outer suburbs of Berlin.
By 27 April, Berlin was completely cut off from the outside world. The battle in the city continued until 2 May On that date, the commander of the. A loophole, arrow loop or arrowslit passes through a solid wall and was originally for use by archers. The purpose of embrasures is to allow weapons to be fired out from the fortification while the firer remains under cover.
The splay of the wall on the inside provides room for the soldier and his equipment, and allows them to get as close to the wall face and arrow slit itself as possible. Excellent examples of deep embrasures with arrow slits. Reconstructed European wooden keep at Saint-Sylvain-d'Anjou, France, has a strong resemblance to a North American western frontier log blockhouse In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
A fortification intended to resist these weapons is more likely to qualify as a fortress or a redoubt, or in modern times, be an underground bunker. However, a blockhouse may also refer to a room within a larger fortification, usually a battery or redoubt. Etymology The term "blockhouse" is of uncertain origin, perhaps related to Middle Dutch blokhus and.
Nazi Megastructures is a documentary television series appearing on the National Geographic Channel. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici. When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts army groups attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe.
Pauli quarter. The Hamburger Dom funfair has been held there since History The area was named after a hospital in , forming a kind of green as part of the hospital's endowment to make up for its maintenance. The area has been used for exhibitions since With the intensifying Allied bombing of Hamburg the "Flak tower" Flakturm IV structure was erected on Heiligengeistfeld starting in It was both an anti-aircraft gun emplacement and air-raid shelter.
The massive concrete st. It was built during the Third Reich for performances and events as part of the Thingspiel movement. Until , it was primarily used for unofficial Walpurgis Night celebrations. It is in the form of an egg-shaped amphitheatre and has a capacity of approximately 8, seats or 15, standees. The architect was Hermann Alker.
The original design was to seat 10, people with room for an additional 20, standees and include a dance ring behind the stage; work began in late April and was to have been completed in July, but paused and resumed on the reduced plan, and the facility was completed in June and dedicated on the 22nd of that month. It was opened in and housed the Diet until , when it was severely damaged after being set on fire.
The ruined building was made safe against the elements and partially refurbished in the s, but no attempt at full restoration was made until after German reunification on 3 October , when it underwent a reconstruction led by architect Norman Foster.
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After its completion in , it once again became the meeting place of the German parliament: the modern Bundestag. The term Reichs. They were typically built in the period up to early modern times as part of a city or town wall or castle. There is usually a tower at both ends of the bridge. During the 19th century, a number of bridge towers were built in the Gothic Revival style — Tower Bridge in London is perhaps the best known example; however, many original medieval towers survive across Europe. Function Bridge tower on the Old Bridge in Frankfurt am Main around These towers were built in pre-medieval and medieval times to guard access to the bridge and to enable the charging of tolls on important roads crossing rivers, usually near towns and cities.
The rivers were often part of the defences of these settlements. As a result, it was important from a defensive perspective that the bridges did not allow attacking enemies to break in. The bridges acted as a bulwark and. Its aim was to prevent the destruction of German civilians, military and civil industries by the Western Allies. The day and night air battles over Germany during the war involved thousands of aircraft, units and aerial engagements to counter the Allied strategic bombing campaign.
The campaign was one of the longest in the history of aerial warfare and with the Battle of the Atlantic and the Allied Blockade of Germany was the longest of the war. In the early years, the Luftwaffe was able to inflict a string of defeats on Allied strategic air forces. In , Bomber Command was forced to operate at night, due to the extent of lo. Gesundbrunnen colloquially Plumpe, i. It was created as a separate entity by the administrative reform, formerly the eastern half of the former Wedding district merged into Mitte and locality. Gesundbrunnen has the highest percentage of non-German residents of any Berlin locality, at In the north Gesundbrunnen borders with Reinickendorf in the Reinickendorf borough while in the east the Mauerpark and the Nordbahn railway line forms the border with Prenzlauer Berg and Pankow, both localities of the Pankow borough.
Gesundbrunnen was laid out in what came to be known as the Wilhelmine Ring, an area whose street network was laid out in the Hobrecht-Plan. He is considered the most influential artist of Flemish Baroque tradition. Rubens's highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history.
His unique and immensely popular Baroque style emphasized movement, color, and sensuality, which followed the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter-Reformation. Rubens specialized in making altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV of Spain and Charles I of England.
Rubens was a prolific artist. It was also attacked by aircraft of the Red Air Force, especially in as Soviet forces closed on the city. British bombers dropped 45, tons of bombs; the Americans dropped 23, tons. As the bombings continued more and more people moved out. By May , 1. Roosevelt, issued a request to the major belligerents to confine their air raids to military targets.
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He has lived and worked in the United Kingdom since He was allowed to change his name as a child because "after Vivien Leigh played Scarlett O'Hara the name became irrevocably a girl's name no matter how you spelled it". Although he survived the prisoner of war camp, he died when the aeroplane returning him to Australia crashed in Manila Bay; he was buried at Sai Wan War Cemetery in Hong Kong.
James, who was an only child, was brought up by his mother, a factory worker, in the Sydney suburbs of Kogarah and Jannali, living some years with his English maternal grandfather. A map of part of the Kammhuber Line stolen by a Belgian agent and passed-on to the British in The 'belt' and nightfighter 'boxes' are shown The Kammhuber Line was the Allied name given to the German night air defense system established in July by Colonel Josef Kammhuber. It consisted of a series of control sectors equipped with radars and searchlights and an associated night fighter.
Each sector would direct the night fighter into visual range with target bombers. The Line was very effective against early Bomber Command tactics. However, the German method was analyzed by the RAF and a counter measure developed. The concentration of bombers through a few of the boxes resulted in the defenses being overwhelmed. In response, the Germans converted their ground radar into a radar network, which would follow the path of the British bombers, while a controller directed the night. Old coat of arms of Vienna — with the imperial double-headed eagle The history of Vienna has been long and varied, beginning when the Roman Empire created a military camp in the area now covered by Vienna's city centre.
From that humble beginning, Vienna grew from the Roman settlement known as Vindobona to be an important trading site in the 11th century. It became the capital of the Babenberg dynasty and subsequently of the Austrian Habsburgs, under whom it became one of Europe's cultural hubs. During the 19th century as the capital of the Austrian Empire and later Austria-Hungary, it temporarily became one of Europe's biggest cities. Beginnings and early Middle Ages Roman ruins at Michaelerplatz The name Vindobona derives from a Celtic language, suggesting that the region must have been inhabited before Roman times.
Fortifications by type
The Romans created a military camp occupied by Legio X Gemina during the 1st century on th. Heinersdorf is a locality in the borough of Pankow in Berlin, Germany. It is located close to the centre of Pankow. After that it changed its owner several times. In it was incorporated into Greater Berlin and belonged to the former Pankow borough, until in it was merged with Karow, Blankenburg and Weissensee.
These localities belong to Pankow again after Berlin's administrative reform. Khadija Mosque The foundations of the fieldstone church were laid about It features two stained glass windows by Charles Crodel from Another landmark is the Heinersdorf water tower, which was erected in Original part of a planned town hall that has never been built, it later served as a Flak tower and as a listening station of the Red Army.
Since the building is abandoned. Nowadays Heinerdorf is often in the media due to a. Maiden Castle in The Iron Age hillfort was first built in BC. San Felipe de Barajas Castle, Colombia. A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from the Latin fortis "strong" and facere "to make".
From very early history to modern times, walls have often been necessary for cities to survive in an ever-changing world of invasion and conquest. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified. In ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae famous for the huge stone blocks of its 'cyclopean' walls. A Greek phrourion was a fortified collection of buildings used as a military garrison, and is the equivalent of the Roman castellum or English fortress.
The Deposition or Lamentation over the Dead Christ was a painting by the Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck, produced between and Pauli quarter of Hamburg. The football department is part of a larger sports club that also has departments in rugby FC St. Pauli Rugby , baseball, bowling, boxing FC St. Pauli Boxen , chess, cycling, handball, roller derby Harbour Girls Hamburg , skittles, softball and table tennis and since Marathon.
Pauli has 27, members as of November In , they won promotion back to the 2. Bundesliga and in they were promoted to the Bundesliga, the highest division. After relegation, since the —12 season they have pla. The Fight for the Sky is a short propaganda film commissioned by the US government to highlight the victories of the Allied air forces over Europe prior to the Normandy invasion. Opening with shots of aerial combat over Europe the film turns to footage of the airmen acting casually in their base in East Anglia, reading newspapers, playing ping pong, and listening to the radio.
However, they are soon called for a debriefing about their next mission, a strike deep into Germany's industrial region, the Ruhr. They ready their planes and arrive over their targets like clock work, shooting down some German Luftwaffe planes in the process. None of the missions have failed due to enemy resistance alone, the narrator informs the audience, though some haven't succeeded because of weather conditions. Captured German footage is shown to prove that the enemy was just as determined to stop the attacks as the Allies were to carry them out.
In February a new bombing initiative is begun. Instead of waiting to be attack. World War II-era fire control tower at Fort Saint Elmo, Malta A fire control tower is a structure located near the coastline, used to detect and locate enemy vessels offshore, direct fire upon them from coastal batteries, or adjust the aim of guns by spotting shell splashes. Fire control towers came into general use in coastal defence systems in the late 19th century, as rapid development significantly increased the range of both naval guns and coastal artillery.
This made fire control more complex. These towers were used in a number of countries' coastal defence systems through , much later in a few cases such as Sweden. The U.
Coast Artillery fire control system included many fire control towers. These were introduced in the U. S to circumvent the limitations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was built by shipyards around the world. The production of Type I was cut down after only two boats; the reasons for this are not certain.
Type VII submarines were the most widely u. The tourist attractions of Vienna concentrate in three distinct areas. Museums and exhibitions of Hofburg Palace accounted for nearly two million visitors in , with a significant decline in The third, and the newest, cluster of modern art museums in Museumsquartier attracted less than one million visitors. Vienna stands out among other European tourist destinations for being a "new old city", a city in transition from an older "picture city" like Florence and Venice to being a global city like Paris and London.
Portrait of a Young Girl, c. It holds one of the world's leading collections of European paintings from the 13th to the 18th centuries. It was first opened in , and the current building was completed in It is located in the Kulturforum museum district west of Potsdamer Platz. The collection Amor Victorious — Oil on canvas. Caravaggio shows Eros prevailing over other human endeavors: war, music, science, government. Cape St. It was the namesake for the Battle of Cape St. George, fought on 26 November , between New Ireland and Buka. Allied missions against Japanese forces at Cape St.
George and St. The concrete bunker they built is still there. Apart from its association with the war in the Pacific and pa. Silly is a German rock band. Founded in East Germany in , Silly was one of the country's most popular music acts, and was well known for its charismatic lead singer Tamara Danz. Her death in ended the band's recording career after 18 years. In the surviving members began to perform as Silly again, first with several guest singers, before choosing actress Anna Loos to replace Danz. The first album with the new line-up, Alles Rot, became the band's most successful to date, reaching number 3 on the German charts in They added Familie to the band's name after East German authorities refused to allow Silly by itself, as they saw it as an anglicism; the band claimed that Silly was the name of their mascot, a cat, who behaved in a silly manner.
The early band also consisted of keyboardists Ulr. Unlike previous games in the series that employed a linear style of gameplay in its single-player mode, in which the start point and direction is already laid out, Airborne employs a more no.