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He offered the king a few tokens from his time in Canada: a porcupine hair belt, two small birds, and a fish head. Presented here is the magnificent map of the country that Champlain showed to the king.

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He showed the same map to the Count of Soissons to obtain his approval for his plans. In Champlain had the map engraved for inclusion in his account of his travels, which was published by Jean Berjon the following year. Oriented to the magnetic north that of the compass rather than the geographical north indicated by the oblique line across the map , the map highlights the places Champlain visited, including the coasts of Newfoundland and Acadia present-day Nova Scotia and the Saint Lawrence River and its main tributaries.

The map also indicates the areas inhabited by different Native American tribes at the time: the Iroquois south of Lake Champlain, the Montagnais on the south bank of the Saint Lawrence River, the Algonquins on the Ottawa River, the Etchemin and Souriquois on the Atlantic coast, and the Hurons in the Great Lakes region.

The Mystery of Champlain

On the bottom border, as well as elsewhere on the map, are depictions of plants, fruit, vegetables and sea animals showing the untapped riches of this land that the French were claiming. Two Native American couples also are portrayed in poses typical of the time. Creator Champlain, Samuel de, Our Montreal students actually share the festivities of St.

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But the French ship, outnumbered and outgunned, soon surrendered. The English sailed on to Tadoussac to pillage there and round up as many furs as they could lay their hands on. Here, Champlain met with a shock.

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But by the time they reached Europe, peace had been signed between England and France, which made Champlain a free man. It took three years, but finally, in , the English Crown agreed to give back Quebec to the French. Champlain was overjoyed, and as soon as he could he set sail for Canada.

The Makers of Canada: Champlain eBook

He found it in need of much work, but with the energy that always characterized his actions, he threw himself into it. But he was no longer the young, seemingly invincible explorer who had survived war wounds, Atlantic gales, scurvy, disease, frostbite and whitewater rapids. On Christmas Day , he died in his bed — a rare achievement for a man of action in his era. They would not soon see his like again. Champlain had successfully crossed the dangerous Atlantic some 27 times, never once losing a ship.

His legacy is perhaps most fully told in the maps he left behind— maps many consider to be among the greatest ever made by any single explorer. His masterful maps were the result of a complex, multi-layered approach that combined geographic data from many sources.

How Champlain put eastern Canada on the map

First of all, Champlain had the maps of his predecessors to guide him — they were often crude and full of errors, but still provided a rudimentary base map. To these, Champlain could add his own detailed observations and corrections, the result of his many sea voyages to the waters off Newfoundland, Acadia as far south as Cape Cod, and all through the Gulf of St.

Lawrence, as well as his many canoe journeys. With his astrolabe and knack for celestial navigation, he recorded hundreds of sun and star observations that gave him his latitude.

The Makers of Canada: Champlain eBook

This helped fill in the details of his maps and correct previous errors. But most of his mapping remained essentially intuitive — sketching features that he saw from the deck of a ship or the bow of a canoe. It took a trained eye to pull that off with the degree of accuracy Champlain managed. He had ventured far in his travels in the interior — all the way up the St.

Lawrence from its mouth to the island of Mont Royal. He journeyed through much of what is now central Ontario, and across part of Lake Ontario and south into Iroquois territory. All these lands he mapped as he explored them — pausing whenever he could to take readings with his astrolabe.