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The course introduces the N-k contingency analysis CA of power system and various method used in the analysis, power system network reduction techniques will also be taught. Following the CA, the principles of state estimation are introduced at the end. This course primarily aims at introducing the fundamentals of power generation technologies, systems along with the economic aspects and feasibility study. After going through this course, the students will get a thorough knowledge on thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear power plant operation and management, different substation configurations, economics of power generation systems, and cogeneration trigeneration technologies.

The fundamentals and practice of computer networks, with emphasis on the Internet. Prerequisites: Computer Architecture. This is an advanced level course in communications. The course aims at giving to the students a deep knowledge of the fundamental principles of digital communications.

This course studies fundamental concepts of optimization from two viewpoints: theory and algorithms. It will cover ways to formulate optimization problems e. Moreover, it will cover numerical methods for analyzing and solving linear programs e.

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This aim of this course is to help students understand the data communications and networking fundamentals, starting from the protocols used in the Internet in particular by using the OSI model protocols layering, and concentrates on the characteristics of the transmission media, applied transmission and coding, and medium access control. The students will apply their knowledge in the labs by building increasingly more complex data communication scenarios.

The course provides fundamentals and insights on fiber-optic communications. Multiplexing: polarization division multiplexing, spatial division multiplexing. Modulation formats and coherent detection.

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The course provides the fundamentals of optics and photonics, for the use in engineering and systems. The course describes the fundamentals of optics and photonics components and applications and describes both the main devices and the main formulation of light propagation and reflection. The course will be divided into 4 parts: 1 Introduction on electromagnetic and wave optics, plane waves, polarization, scattering matrix formality. This includes any processes where the input and output are both images, or the input is image and the output are attributes, which are extracted image information suitable for processing.

The interest in DIP stems from two basic areas: 1 improvement of pictorial information for human interpretation; and 2 processing of image data for storage, transmission, and machine perception. The aim of this course is to introduce fundamental methods in digital image processing. Stochastic processes and modeling is the foundation of many signal processing algorithms used in radar, sonar, speech and image analysis, and communications. The aim of this module is to introduce fundamental concepts in stochastic processes and modeling.

Based on this background, we will then cover more advanced concepts such as different families of random processes and their applications in modeling, linear filtering, and prediction. This is an advanced level course in digital signal processing covering a range of topics including stochastic signal processing, parametric statistical signal models, and adaptive filtering, application to spectral estimation, optimum FIR filter design and implementation, multirate Signal Processing, Time-Frequency representations, filter banks, adaptive filtering if time permits.

Pre-requisites: Digital Signal Processing. This course covers fundamentals of wireless sensor networks, architecture, protocols, and performance. Performance of WSNs including simulation analysis. Prerequisites: Wireless Networks. The course will cover the different development stages of FPGA based system design such as design specification through HDL, synthesis, mapping, placement and routing and the configuration file generation. For design implementation, students will be introduced to industry standard design tools such as Xilinx Vivado and Intel Quartus Prime software design suites. Students are also expected to complete a project work which encompasses the concepts covered in the course in the implementation of a hardware accelerator and demonstrate it on an FPGA platform.

The course will also discuss current challenges faced by the reconfigurable computing community and some of the research directions. The course focuses to understand the underlying technologies that make contemporary operating systems work efficiently. In addition, through this course we will discover how these technologies are integrated into the systems we use today and then apply these technologies to practical applications. The course will have projects and programming tasks that need to be presented inclass. Prerequisites: Data Structures and Algorithms. This course builds upon the computer architecture course and discusses advanced topics in a computer system design.

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Topics covered include modules and hierarchy, processes, ports and signals, data types and simulation. CPU performance, its factors and evaluating performance. Instruction set principles and Examples, classifying instruction set architectures, memory addressing, type and size of operands, operations in the instruction set, instructions for control flow, encoding an instruction set, role of compilers, MIPS Instruction Set Architecture.

Advanced processor concepts such as datapath and Control, building a datapath, single cycle implementation, multi-cycle implementation, exceptions, micro-programming, hard-wired control, enhancing performance with pipelining, pipelined datapath, pipelined control, data hazards and forwarding, data hazards and stalls, control hazards, exception handling.

Instruction level parallelism, caches and memory hierarchy design, multiprocessors and clusters, programming multiprocessors, multiprocessors connected by a single bus, multiprocessors connected by a network, clusters, network topologies, chip multiprocessors and multithreading. Vector processors, basic vector architecture, vector length and stride, enhancing vector performance, effectiveness of compiler vectorization. This course is offered to graduates and includes topics such as mathematical models of systems from observations of their behavior; time series, state-space, and input-output models; model structures, parametrization, and identifiability; non-parametric methods; prediction error methods for parameter estimation, convergence, consistency, and asymptotic distribution; relations to maximum likelihood estimation; recursive estimation; relation to Kalman filters; structure determination; order estimation; Akaike criterion; bounded but unknown noise model; and robustness and practical issues.

Formal models of discrete event systems, computer simulation of models, and analysis of simulation results. Discrete-event simulation is applied to studying the performance of computer and communication system. Prerequisites: Probability and Statistics, Computer Networks.


  • Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering – School of Engineering;
  • ISBN 13: 9780849341885.
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Therefore, the essential tools and analysis used by the system operators will be introduced. Also, detailed modeling of synchronous machines and bulk power systems along with their simulation in state of the art virtual environments such as Power World Simulator, MATLAB-Simulink etc. In brief, this module encompasses all the essential concepts required for secure, efficient and optimal operation of electrical power system.

Prerequisites: Operating Systems. Cybersecurity has become crucial for individuals, organizations and nations. This course will introduce students to the basics of cybersecurity and applied cryptography. Students will learn the fundamentals of computer and network systems security including the importance of cybersecurity, authentication, attacks and intrusions, encryption and decryption, networking and wireless security, vulnerability analysis and defense. Students will also learn the underlying scheme for designing and analyzing a secure system.

This course primarily focuses on mathematical reasoning and problem solving. The course focuses on basic and essential topics in data structures, including array-based lists, linked lists, skip-lists, hash tables, recursion, binary trees, scapegoat trees, red—black trees, heaps, sorting algorithms, graphs, and binary tree. These data structures will be used as tools to algorithmically design efficient computer programs that will cope with the complexity of actual applications.

Antennas and Microwaves is an advanced module intended for those interested in working in the Telecommunication field. Topics covered include transmission lines including coaxial, twin-wire, circular, rectangular waveguides, TE, TM, TEM propagation modes, optical fibres, free-space electromagnetic wave propagation, atmospheric attenuation, diffraction, Fresnel zones, electrically small antennas including monopole, dipole, slot, PIFA, loop, microstrip patch, aperture and reflector antennas, broadband antenna including travelling wave, spiral, antenna feed structures including baluns and power dividers and antenna properties including gain, polarization, radiation patterns.

ISBN 10: 0849341884

You will be able to explain the principles of antennas and propagation required for wireless communications applications and to develop a thorough understanding of models for various radio frequency RF transmission line systems and to explain basic antenna properties such as gain, directivity, efficiency, polarization, antenna patterns, to explain electromagnetic wave propagation issues in urban environments, and to solve basic antenna and propagation design problems such as link budget, line loss, and attenuation. The course will provide an up to date treatment of the fundamental techniques and algorithms of computer and network systems performance modeling, simulation and measurement.

Special emphasis will be given to discrete event simulation. The application of these techniques will be demonstrated by case studies and examples. Prerequisite: Computer Networks. This interdisciplinary course aims to develop an understanding the basic principles in Biomedical Engineering and Biophysics.

A relay that uses electrical energy in a control circuit to convert to heat energy and delay action when a predetermined value is reached. Motor delay relay. A delay relay that are generated by synchronous motors and special electromagnetic transmission mechanisms. Relay is one of the most important control components in remote control, telemetry, communication, automatic control, electromechanical integration and power electronic equipment, which is one of the most important control components.

Relays generally have inductive mechanisms input parts that reflect certain input variables such as current, voltage, power, impedance, frequency, temperature, pressure, speed, light, etc. Between the input part and the output part of the relay, there is an intermediate mechanism for coupling and isolating the input, handling the function, and driving the output part. Electromagnetic relay is generally composed of iron core, coil, armature, contact reed and so on.

As long as a certain voltage is added to the two ends of the coil, a certain current will flow through the coil, thus producing electromagnetic effect. The armature will overcome the pull of the return spring to the core under the action of the electromagnetic force, thus driving the armature's dynamic contact and the static contact normally open contact to attract. When the coil is cut off, the electromagnetic force also disappears.

The armature will return to its original position in the spring reaction force, so that the moving contact and the original static contact normally closed contact will be released. In this way, it can be absorbed and released, thus achieving the purpose of conducting and cutting off in the circuit. For the relay "normally open, normally closed" contact, can be divided in this way: relay coil is in the state of disconnection static contact, called "normally open contact"; A static contact that is in a connected state is called a "normally closed contact".

Once the contact is closed, the input x continues to increase and the output signal y will no longer change. When the input x drops from a value greater than xx to xf. This characteristic is called relay characteristics, also known as the input-output characteristics of relays. The thermal reed relay is a new type of thermosensitive switch that uses thermosensitive magnetic material to detect and control temperature. It consists of a temperature sensing magnetic ring, a constant magnetic ring, a reed switch, and a heat conduction mounting piece, plastic substrates and other accessories.

Thermal reed relays do not require coil excitation. Whether the constant magnetic ring can provide magnetic force to the reed switch is determined by the temperature control characteristics of the temperature sensing magnetic ring. Solid state relay is a four-terminal device with two terminals as input and the other two as output. The isolation device that is used in the middle is to realize the electrical isolation of input and output.

Solid state relay can be divided into AC type and DC type according to load power type. Or be divided into normal open type and normal close type according to switch type. According to isolation type, it can be divided into hybrid type transformer isolation type and photoelectric isolation type. Optoelectronic isolation type is the most. It refers to the integrated device of light emitting device and light receiving device. The input side and output side are electrically insulated, but the signal can be transmitted through optical signal.

Its characteristics: semi-permanent life, small current drive signal, high impedance insulation voltage, ultra-small, optical transmission, no contact, and so on. Mainly used in measuring equipment, communication equipment, security equipment, medical equipment and so on. It refers to the voltage required by the coil when the relay is working normally, that is to say, the control voltage of the control circuit.

According to the type of the relay, it can be AC voltage or DC voltage. The DC resistance of a coil in a relay can be measured by a universal meter. The minimum current in which the relay can produce the suction action. In normal use, the given current must be slightly larger than the pick-up current so that the relay can work stably. For the coil, the working voltage should not exceed 1. The maximum current in which the relay can produce the release action. When the current of the relay is reduced to a certain extent, the relay will return to the unelectrified release state.

The current is much smaller than the current of the suction. The voltage and current that the relay is allowed to load. It determines the magnitude of voltage and current that the relay can control. When operating, it can not be used above this value, otherwise it is easy to damage the relay's contact point. Measuring the resistance of normally closed contact and moving point resistance with the resistance band of a universal meter, and the resistance value should be 0 the contact resistance value can be measured in a more accurate way within mou ; The resistance between the normally opened contact and the moving point is infinite, which can be used to distinguish the normally closed contact and the normally opened contact.

Find an adjustable power supply and ammeter, input a group of voltages to the relay, and then add an ammeter in the power supply circuit to monitor. Slowly adjust the supply voltage. When hearing the relay sound, write down the pick-up voltage and current. For accuracy, try a few more times to find the average.

Also like the above connection test, when the relay is attenuated, then gradually reduce the supply voltage, when hear the relay release sound again, write down the voltage and current at this time. You can also try a few times to get the average drop-up voltage and release current. Relay coils are represented in a circuit by a long box. If the relay has two coils, draw two long parallel boxes. At the same time, the text symbol " J " of the relay is marked in or beside the long box.

There are two ways to express the contact point of the relay: one is to draw them directly on the side of the long box, which is more intuitive. The other is to draw each contact into their respective control circuit according to the need of circuit connection, usually in the same relay contacts and coils with the same text symbols.

The contact group is numbered to show the difference. There are three basic forms of contact for the relay:. Dynamic type: The two contacts are disconnected when the coil is not electrified, and the two contacts are closed when the current is switched on. The two contacts are expressed as " H ".

Dynamic break type: The two contacts are closed when the coil is not electrified, and the two contacts are disconnected after the current is switched on. Conversion type: This is a contact group.

Electric Relays: Principles and Applications

There are three contacts in this contact group, that is, there is a moving contact in the middle, one static contact up and down. When the coil is not electrified, the moving contact and one of the static contacts are disconnected and the other is closed, and the coil is electrified. The moving contact moves to make the original open closed, the original closed open state to achieve the purpose of conversion.

Such contact group is called the conversion contact. It is expressed as " Z ". With the rapid development of microelectronic technology, computer technology, modern communication technology, optoelectronic technology and space technology, new requirements and new techniques have been put forward for relay technology.

The development of new technology undoubtedly promotes the development of relay technology. The rapid development of microelectronic technology and super-large scale IC has also put forward new requirements for relays. The first is miniaturization and laminarization, such as military TO-5 relay 8. It has very high vibration resistance, which can make the equipment more reliable; The second is modularization and multi-function, which can be compatible with IC or can be built in amplifier.

It requires sensitivity to be raised to micro-watt level; The third is solidification. Solid-state relays have high sensitivity and are resistant to electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference. With the popularity of computer technology, the demand for microprocessor-based relays has increased significantly, and relays with microprocessors will develop rapidly. In the early s, digital time relays produced in the United States can be controlled by instructions, and the combination of relays and microprocessors has developed, which can form a small and perfect control system.

Industrial robots controlled by computers are now growing at a rate of 3. The production system controlled by computer can produce many kinds of low cost relays in one production line, and can finish many kinds of operation and test work automatically. The development of communication technology is of great significance to the development of relays. On the one hand, the rapid development of communication technology has increased the application of the whole relay.

On the other hand, as optical fiber will be the aorta of the future information society, new types of relays such as fiber optic relays and tongue spring fiber switches will appear with the promotion of optical fiber communication, optical sensing, optical computer, optical information processing technology. Optoelectronic technology will greatly promote relay technology. In order to realize the reliable operation of optical computers, bistable relays have been developed.

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