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A legal maxim denoting that any accused person is entitled to make a plea of not guilty, and also that a witness is not obliged to give a response or submit a document that will incriminate himself. A common ending to ancient Roman comedies, also claimed by Suetonius in Lives of the Twelve Caesars to have been Caesar Augustus ' last words.

A legal term outlining the presumption of mens rea in a crime. The actual crime that is committed, rather than the intent or thought process leading up to the crime. In logic, to the point of being silly or nonsensical. A phrase used in epistemology regarding the nature of understanding. In legal language, used when providing additional evidence to an already sufficient collection. A favorite saying of John Steinbeck. To do something to appeal to the masses. An ad eundem degree , from the Latin ad eundem gradum "to the same step" or "to the same degree" , is a courtesy degree awarded by one university or college to an alumnus of another.

A motto of Renaissance humanism. Said during a generic toast , equivalent to "bottoms up! Generally means "for this", in the sense of improvised on the spot or designed for only a specific, immediate purpose. Connotations of "against the man". Going on forever. Loosely, "according to what pleases" or "as you wish"; libitum comes from the past participle of libere , "to please".

A legal term referring to a party appointed by a court to act in a lawsuit on behalf of another party who is deemed incapable of representing himself. Bartholomew's School, Newbury, UK. Motto of the Society of Jesus Jesuits. Literally, "to the point of nausea ". Thus, "exactly as it is written". Generally precedes "of" and a person's name, and is used to wish for someone to be remembered long after death. More loosely, "considering everything's weight". Meaning "according to the harm" or "in proportion to the harm". Loosely "subject to reference", meaning that something has been approved provisionally, but must still receive official approval.

Thus, "to the point". Said of a work that has been expurgated of offensive or improper parts. According to an object's value. One of the definitions of the truth. From Horace , Ars Poetica , 7. Thus, "at the age of". A legal term from Medieval Latin referring to a sworn statement. Originally comparable to a to-do list , an ordered list of things to be done. The motto of Davidson College. An assumed name or pseudonym. A legal defense where a defendant attempts to show that he was elsewhere at the time a crime was committed.

State motto of Oregon. Term used for the university one attends or has attended. Another self, a second persona or alias. One of Justinian I 's three basic legal precepts. Sometimes rendered with the gender-neutral alumn or alum in English. An adviser, or a person who can obtain or grant access to the favour of powerful group, like a Roman Curia. An obsolete legal term signifying the forfeiture of the right of swearing in any court or cause, or to become infamous. Amor fati. Nietzscheian alternative world view to memento mori [remember you must die].

Also used in such phrases as anno urbis conditae see ab urbe condita , Anno Domini , and anno regni. Short for Anno Domini Nostri Iesus Christi "in the Year of Our Lord, Jesus Christ" , the predominantly used system for dating years across the world, used with the Gregorian calendar , and based on the perceived year of the birth of Jesus Christ.

A recent pun on annus mirabilis , first used by Queen Elizabeth II to describe what a bad year had been for her, and subsequently occasionally used to refer to many other years perceived as "horrible". Used particularly to refer to the years — , during which Isaac Newton made revolutionary inventions and discoveries in calculus, motion, optics and gravitation.

See Annus Mirabilis Papers. Used to describe , the year the Black Death began to afflict Europe. As in " status quo ante bellum ", "as it was before the war". Medical shorthand for "before meals". Said of an expression or term that describes something which existed before the phrase itself was introduced or became common. The period from midnight to noon cf. Used on pharmaceutical prescriptions to denote "before a meal".

Textual notes. From Gerhard Gerhards' [better known as Erasmus] collection of annotated Adagia One who prescribes, rules on, or is a recognized authority on matters of social behavior and taste. An opaque circle around the cornea of the eye, often seen in elderly people. Argentum album. Also "silver coin". For the sake of argument. Or "reasoning", "inference", "appeal", "proof". Translated into Latin from Baudelaire 's " L'art pour l'art ".

The Latin translation by Horace of a phrase from Hippocrates , often used out of context. Refers to the insurance principle that the indemnity cannot be larger than the loss. Motto of Queensland. Motto of Otago University Students' Association , a direct response to the university's motto of sapere aude "dare to be wise". State motto of Alabama , adopted in From Virgil , Aeneid X, where the first word is in the archaic form audentis. A legal principle of fairness. From Horace 's Odes II, From Virgil , Aeneid 3, A common ancient proverb, this version from Terence.

The Southern Lights , an aurora that appears in the Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Lights, an aurora that appears in the Northern Hemisphere. Indicates that the only valid possibility is to be emperor , or a similarly prominent position. Thus, either through reasoned discussion or through war. The motto of the Gunn Clan. A general pledge of " victory or death " cf. From Catullus , carmen , addressed to his deceased brother. Ave Caesar morituri te salutant. Anthem of Pan-Europeanists. Derived from "Hail, Mary full of grace, the Lord is with thee Vulgate , Matthew Originally from the Habsburg marriages of and , written as bella gerant alii tu felix Austria nube "let others wage war; you, fortunate Austria, marry".

Said by King Matthias. A phrase used by Thomas Hobbes to describe the state of nature. Medical shorthand for "twice a day". In other words, "well-intentioned", "fairly". In law, if a person dying has goods, or good debts, in another diocese or jurisdiction within that province, besides his goods in the diocese where he dies, amounting to a certain minimum value, he is said to have bona notabilia ; in which case, the probat of his will belongs to the archbishop of that province. United Kingdom legal term for ownerless property that passes to The Crown.

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Tiberius reportedly said this to his regional commanders, as a warning against taxing the populace excessively. Or "general welfare". Refers to an individual's happiness, which is not "common" in that it serves everyone, but in that individuals tend to be able to find happiness in similar things. Pseudo-Latin meaning "baffling puzzle" or "difficult point". From Satires of Juvenal. Used by the Romans to describe the aftermath of the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields.

Refers to allowing statemanship and diplomacy to supersede declaration of war. An optical device used in drawing, and an ancestor of modern photography. Canes Pugnaces. War Dogs or Fighting Dogs. Canis Canem Edit. So aggrandized as to be beyond practical earthly reach or understanding from Virgil 's Aeneid and the shorter form appears in John Locke 's Two Treatises of Government.

It implies a command to love as Christ loved. An exhortation to live for today. An exhortation to make good use of the night, often used when carpe diem , q. Carthago delenda est. From Roman senator Cato the Elder , who ended every speech of his between the second and third Punic Wars with ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam , literally "For the rest, I am of the opinion that Carthage is to be destroyed. Pompeii mosaic Found written on floor mosaics depicting a dog, at the entrance of Roman houses excavated at Pompeii.

Used when the writer does not vouch for the accuracy of a text. Probably a recent alteration of caveat emptor. The person signing a document is responsible for reading the information about the what the document entails before entering into an agreement. The person selling goods is responsible for providing information about the goods to the purchaser. See Toga , it:Cedant arma togae. Or simply "faster than cooking asparagus". A variant of the Roman phrase velocius quam asparagi coquantur , using a different adverb and an alternate mood and spelling of coquere.

In law, it is a return made by the sheriff, upon a capias , or other process to the like purpose; signifying, that he has taken the body of the party. Often used in law when something is not known, but can be ascertained e. A rule of law becomes ineffective when the reason for its application has ceased to exist or does not correspond to the reality anymore.

Idiomatically translated as "all other things being equal". A phrase which rules out outside changes interfering with a situation. The form of a pardon for killing another man in self-defence. The form of a pardon of a man who is outlawed. Also called perdonatio utlagariae. The motto of Furman University. Christus Rex. In logic, begging the question , a fallacy involving the presupposition of a proposition in one of the premises see petitio principii.

In science, a positive feedback loop. In economics, a counterpart to the virtuous circle. Clamea admittenda in itinere per atturnatum. A writ whereby the king of England could command the justice in eyre to admit one's claim by an attorney, who being employed in the king's service, cannot come in person. An action of tresspass; thus called, by reason the writ demands the person summoned to answer to wherefore he broke the close quare clausum fregit , i. The means of discovering hidden or mysterious meanings in texts, particularly applied in theology and alchemy.

In law, a writ directed to the bishop, for the admitting a clerk to a benefice upon a ne admittas , tried, and found for the party who procures the writ. In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk out of prison, who is imprisoned upon the breach of statute merchant. In law, a writ for the delivery of a clerk to his ordinary, that was formerly convicted of felony; by reason that his ordinary did not challenge him according to the privilege of clerks.

In law, a writ directed to the bailiffs, etc, that have thrust a bailiwick or beadleship upon one in holy orders; charging them to release him. The official code of canon law in the Roman Catholic Church cf. Corpus Iuris Canonici. Coelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt. Hexameter by Horace Epistulae I , 11 v. Aborting sexual intercourse prior to ejaculation —the only permitted form of birth control in some religions. An medical euphemism for the doggy-style sexual position. Exhortation to enjoy fully the youth, similar to Carpe diem , from De rosis nascentibus also titled Idyllium de rosis attributed to Ausonius or Virgil.

One year with another; on an average. A term frequently used among philosophical and other writers, implying some medium, or mean relation between several places; one place with another; on a medium. Describes someone of sound mind. Sometimes used ironically. Also a legal principle, non compos mentis "not in control of one's faculties" , used to describe an insane person. Motto of the University of Waterloo. Motto of Montreal. It is also the Bank of Montreal coat of arms and motto.

A required, indispensable condition. Commonly mistakenly rendered with conditio "seasoning" or "preserving" in place of condicio "arrangement" or "condition". Thus, "compare". Used as an abbreviation in text to recommend a comparison with another thing cf. An inconsistently applied maxim. See also consuetudo est altera lex custom is another law and consuetudo vincit communem legem custom overrules the common law.

The last words of Jesus on the cross in the Latin translation of John Despising the secular world. The monk or philosopher 's rejection of a mundane life and worldly values. First formulated by Hippocrates to suggest that the diseases are cured with contrary remedies. Antonym of Similia similibus curantur the diseases are recovered with similar remedies. From Augustine 's Confessions , referring to a prescribed method of prayer: having a "heart to heart" with God.

Commonly used in reference to a later quote by John Henry Cardinal Newman. A motto of Newman Clubs. A popular school motto. Often used as names for religious and other organisations such as the Pontifical Council Cor Unum. A phrase from Christian theology which summarizes the idea of Christians living in the Presence of, under the authority of, and to the honor and glory of God. Two kinds of writs of error. Corpus Christi. The name of a feast in the Roman Catholic Church commemorating the Eucharist. It is also the name of a city in Texas, Corpus Christi, Texas , and a controversial play.

The fact that a crime has been committed, a necessary factor in convicting someone of having committed that crime; if there was no crime, there can not have been a criminal. The official compilation of canon law in the Roman Catholic Church cf. Codex Iuris Canonici. Corpus Iuris Civilis.

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The body of Roman or civil law. Corruptissima re publica plurimae leges. Cras amet qui nunquam amavit; quique amavit, cras amet. It's the refrain from the 'Pervigilium Veneris', a poem which describes a three day holiday in the cult of Venus, located somewhere in Sicily, involving the whole town in religious festivities joined with a deep sense of nature and Venus as the "procreatrix", the life-giving force behind the natural world. A very common misquote of Tertullian 's et mortuus est Dei Filius prorsus credibile quia ineptum est "and the Son of God is dead: in short, it is credible because it is unfitting" , meaning that it is so absurd to say that God's son has died that it would have to be a matter of belief, rather than reason.

The misquoted phrase, however, is commonly used to mock the dogmatic beliefs of the religious see fideism. This phrase is commonly shortened to credo quia absurdum , and is also sometimes rendered credo quia impossibile est "I believe it because it is impossible" or, as Darwin used it in his autobiography, credo quia incredibile.

Motto of Cheverus High School. Motto of the University of Chicago. State motto of New Mexico , adopted in as the territory's motto, and kept in when New Mexico received statehood. Originally from Lucretius ' On the Nature of Things book VI, where it refers in context to the motion of a thunderbolt across the sky, which acquires power and momentum as it goes. A second translation is "Whilst I trust in the Cross I have life". Also the motto of the Crime Syndicate of America , a fictional supervillain group.

The opposite is cui malo "Bad for whom? Short for cui prodest scelus is fecit "for whom the crime advances, he has done it" in Seneca 's Medea. Thus, the murderer is often the one who gains by the murder cf. First coined by Accursius of Bologna in the 13th century. A Roman legal principle of property law that is no longer observed in most situations today.

Less literally, "For whosoever owns the soil, it is theirs up to the sky and down to the depths. The privilege of a ruler to choose the religion of his subjects. A regional prince's ability to choose his people's religion was established at the Peace of Augsburg in Cuiusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore perseverare. Also "blame" or " guilt ". In law, an act of neglect. In general, guilt, sin, or a fault. See also mea culpa. From the Bible. Occurs in Matthew and Luke Not to be taken too seriously or as the literal truth.

The standard formula for academic Latin honors in the United States. Greater honors include magna cum laude and summa cum laude. Movement from Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky. An exhortation to physicians , or experts in general, to deal with their own problems before addressing those of others. The question attributed to Anselm in his work of by this name, wherein he reflects on why the Christ of Christianity must be both fully Divine and fully Human. Often translated "why did God become Man? Motto of Western Australia. A Roman custom in which disgraced Romans particularly former Emperors were pretended to have never existed.

A loss that results from no one's wrongdoing. In Roman law , a man is not responsible for unintended, consequential injury to another resulting from a lawful act. This protection does not necessarily apply to unintended damage by negligence or folly. Motto of Westminster School , a leading British independent school.

Trespass de bonis asportatis was the traditional name for larceny , or wrongful taking of chattels. Inscription on one pound coins. Originally on 17th century coins, it refers to the inscribed edge as a protection against the clipping of precious metal. The phrase originally comes from Virgil 's Aeneid. Said of something that is the actual state of affairs , in contrast to something's legal or official standing, which is described as de jure.

De facto refers to the "way things really are" rather than what is "officially" presented as the fact. A clerk makes the declaration De fideli on when appointed, promising to do his or her tasks faithfully as a servant of the court. Less literally "In matters of taste there is no dispute" or simply "There's no arguing taste". A similar expression in English is "There's no accounting for taste". Bartlett's Familiar Quotations, without attribution, renders the phrase as de gustibus non disputandum ; the verb "to be" is often assumed in Latin, and is rarely required.

Analogous to "in principle", whereas de facto is to "in practice". In other contexts, can mean "according to law", "by right" or "legally". Also commonly written de iure , the classical form. Also "The chief magistrate does not concern himself with trifles. Sometimes rex "the king" or lex "the law" is used in place of praetor , and de minimis is a legal term referring to things unworthy of the law's attention. From de mortuis nil nisi bonum dicendum est , "nothing must be said about the dead except the good", attributed by Diogenes Laertius to Chilon.

In legal contexts, this quotation is used with the opposite meaning, as defaming a deceased person is not a crime. In other contexts, it refers to taboos against criticizing the recently deceased. Thus, "their story is our story". Originally referred to the end of Rome's dominance. Now often used when comparing any current situation to a past story or historical event. In law, a trial de novo is a retrial. In biology, de novo means newly-synthesized , and a de novo mutation is a mutation that neither parent possessed or transmitted.

In economics, de novo refers to newly-founded companies, and de novo banks are state banks that have been in operation for five years or less. Karl Marx 's favorite motto. He used this to explain his standpoint: "Critique everything in a capitalist economy". A 15th-century Italian scholar wrote the De omni re scibili portion, and a wag added et quibusdam aliis. De oppresso liber. Commonly mistranslated as "To Liberate the Oppressed". In logic, de dicto statements about the truth of a proposition are distinguished from de re statements about the properties of a thing itself. Dei Gratia Regina.

Motto of Princeton University. In Catholic theology, a pleasure taken in sinful thought or imagination, such as brooding on sexual images. It is distinct from actual sexual desire, and involves voluntary and complacent erotic fantasizing, without any attempt to suppress such thoughts. Motto of Colgate University. Motto of Methodist Ladies' College, Melbourne.

The semi-Hispanicized form Deogracias is a Philippine first name. Printed on bottles of Benedictine liqueur. Motto of the Confederate States of America. An alternate translation is "With an avenging God". This was often used in conjunction with a signature at the end of letters. It was used in order to signify that "God willing" this letter will get to you safely, "God willing" the contents of this letter come true.

A contrived or artificial solution, usually to a literary plot. Refers to the practice in Greek drama of lowering by machine an actor playing a god or goddess, typically either Athena or as in Euripides the Dioscuri onto the stage to resolve an insuperable conflict in the plot. Dicto simpliciter. A dicto simpliciter occurs when an acceptable exception is ignored or eliminated. For instance, the appropriateness of using opiates is dependent on the presence of extreme pain. To justify the recreational use of opiates by referring to a cancer patient or to justify arresting said cancer patient by comparing him to the recreational user would be a dicto simpliciter.

From the Roman Emperor Titus. Passed down in Suetonius 's biography of him in Lives of the Twelve Caesars 8. Dies Irae. Refers to the Judgment Day in Christian eschatology. The name of a famous 13th-century Medieval Latin hymn by Tommaso da Celano , used in the Mass for the dead. In Classical Latin , "I arrange". State motto of Maine. Based on a comparison of the state of Maine to the star Polaris. In other words, the gods have different plans than mortals, and so events do not always play out as people wish them to.

Refers to the Manes , Roman spirits of the dead. Loosely "To the memory of". A conventional inscription preceding the name of the deceased on pagan grave markings, often shortened to dis manibus D. Preceded in some earlier monuments by hic situs est H. Motto of Royal College, Colombo. Attributed to St Edmund of Abingdon. That is, "scattered remains".

Paraphrased from Horace , Satires , I, 4, 62, where it was written " disiecti membra poetae " "limbs of a scattered poet". Also written as disiecta membra. State motto of Arizona , adopted in Probably derived from the Vulgate 's translation of Genesis Commonly rendered " divide and conquer ".

A popular eloquent expression, usually used in the end of a speech. The implied meaning is: "I have said all that I had to say and thus the argument is settled". Often said or written for sacrifices, when one "gives" and expects something back from the gods. Also translated "One learns by teaching. Domine dirige nos. Dominus illuminatio mea. Motto of the University of Oxford. Phrase used during and at the end of Catholic sermons, and a general greeting form among and towards members of Catholic organizations, such as priests and nuns. See also pax vobiscum. Often set to music, either by itself or as part of the Agnus Dei prayer of the Mass see above.

Also an ending in the video game Haunting Ground. A legal concept where a person in imminent mortal danger need not meet the requisite consideration to create or modify a will. Motto of the fictional Hogwarts school in the Harry Potter series; translated more loosely in the books as "never tickle a sleeping dragon". More literally, "the masks of the drama"; more figuratively, "cast of characters". The characters represented in a dramatic work.

Duae tabulae rasae in quibus nihil scriptum est. Stan Laurel , inscription for the fanclub logo Sons of the Desert. War may seem pleasant to those who have never been involved in it, though the more experienced know better. A phrase from Erasmus in the 16th century.

Horace wrote in his Ars Poetica that poetry must be dulce et utile "pleasant and profitable" , both enjoyable and instructive. Horace, Odes III, 25, Motto of the Scottish clan Clan MacAulay. Movement from Carl Orff's Carmina Burana. Motto of the Scottish clan Clan Fergusson. State motto of South Carolina. From Cicero.

Used when someone has been asked for urgent help, but responds with no immediate action. Similar to Hannibal ante portas , but referring to a less personal danger. Usually translated 'Out of many, is One. Inscribed on the Capitol and many coins used in the United States of America.

The motto of the Sport Lisboa e Benfica Portuguese soccer club. Ecce Homo. From the Latin Vulgate Gospel according to St. John XIX. Oscar Wilde opened his defense with this phrase when on trial for sodomy , characteristically using a well-known Biblical reference as a double entendre. Abbreviation for exempli gratia , below. Often confused with id est i.

Part of the absolution -formula spoken by a priest as part of the sacrament of Penance cf. Also 'worn-out'. Retired from office. Often used to denote a position held at the point of retirement, as an honor, such as professor emeritus or provost emeritus. This does not necessarily mean that the honoree is no longer active. Or 'being one's own cause'. Traditionally, a being that owes its existence to no other being, hence God or a Supreme Being cf. Primum Mobile. State motto of Massachusetts , adopted in It means 'by that very act' in Latin.

Similar to ipso facto. Example: 'The fact that I am does not eo ipso mean that I think. Virgil , Aeneid , II. Used to show a logical conclusion cf. From Seneca the Younger. The full quote is errare humanum est perseverare diabolicum : 'to err is human; to persist is of the Devil'. Or 'mistake'. Lists of errors in a previous edition of a work are often marked with the plural, errata 'errors'. George Berkeley 's motto for his idealist philosophical position that nothing exists independently of its perception by a mind except minds themselves.

Truly being something, rather than merely seeming to be something. From chapter 26 of Cicero 's De amicitia 'On Friendship'. Earlier than Cicero, the phrase had been used by Sallust in his Bellum Catilinae Earlier still, Aeschylus used a similar phrase in Seven Against Thebes , line , ou gar dokein aristos, all' enai thelei 'his resolve is not to seem the best, but in fact to be the best'. Also the state motto of Idaho , adopted in A less common variant on et cetera used at the end of a list of locations to denote unlisted places.

Used similarly to et cetera 'and the rest' , to stand for a list of names. Alii is actually masculine , so it can be used for men, or groups of men and women; the feminine, et aliae , is appropriate when the 'others' are all female. Et alia is correct for the neuter. From the Book of Psalms , II. Vulgate , 2. Pluralized as et sequentia 'and the following things' , abbreviations: et seqq.

Also 'Even you, Brutus? From the Gospel according to St. Matthew , XII. Luke , VI. Sometimes rendered without enim 'for'. Ex Astris Scientia. The motto of the fictional Starfleet Academy on Star Trek. Adapted from ex luna scientia , which in turn was modeled after ex scientia tridens. A phrase applied to the declarations or promulgations of the Pope when, preserved from even the possibility of error by the action of the Holy Ghost see Papal Infallibility , he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least being intimately connected to divine revelation.

Used, by extension, of anyone who is perceived as speaking as though with supreme authority or with arrogance. The full legal phrase is ex dolo malo non oritur actio 'an action does not arise from fraud'. When an action has its origin in fraud or deceit, it cannot be supported; thus, a court of law will not assist a man who bases his course of action on an immoral or illegal act.

Idiomatically rendered 'on the face of it'. A legal term typically used to note that a document's explicit terms are defective without further investigation. More literally 'from grace'. Refers to someone voluntarily performing an act purely out of kindness, as opposed to for personal gain or from being forced to do it.

In law, an ex gratia payment is one made without recognizing any liability or legal obligation. The motto of the Apollo 13 moon mission, derived from ex scientia tridens. From Lucretius , and said earlier by Empedocles. Its original meaning is 'work is required to succeed', but its modern meaning is a more general 'everything has its origins in something' cf. It is commonly applied to the conservation laws in philosophy and modern science.

Ex nihilo often used in conjunction with the term creation , as in creatio ex nihilo , meaning 'creation, out of nothing'. It is often used in philosophy or theology in connection with the proposition that God created the universe from nothing. The title of a short story by H. By virtue of office or position; 'by right of office'. Often used when someone holds one position by virtue of holding another. A common misconception is that ex officio members of a committee or congress may not vote, but this is not guaranteed by that title.

A theological phrase contrasted with ex opere operato , referring to the notion that the validity or promised benefit of a sacrament depends on the person administering it. A theological phrase meaning that the act of receiving a sacrament actually confers the promised benefit, such as a baptism actually and literally cleansing one's sins. The Catholic Church affirms that the source of grace is God, not just the actions or disposition of the recipient.

Superficially refers to the sun rising in the east, but alludes to culture coming from the Eastern world. A legal term meaning 'by one party' or 'for one party'. Thus, on behalf of one side or party only. The United States Naval Academy motto. Refers to knowledge bringing men power over the sea comparable to that of the trident -bearing Greek god Poseidon. In general, the claim that the absence of something demonstrates the proof of a proposition.

An argumentum ex silentio ' argument from silence ' is an argument based on the assumption that someone's silence on a matter suggests 'proves' when a logical fallacy that person's ignorance of the matter or their inability to counterargue validly. Used in reference to the study or assay of living tissue in an artificial environment outside the living organism. Thus, in accordance with a promise. An ex voto is also an offering made in fulfillment of a vow. Also a catch phrase used by Marvel Comics head Stan Lee. A juridical motto which means that exception , as for example during a ' state of exception ', does not put in danger the legitimity of the rule in its globality.

In other words, the exception is strictly limited to a particular sphere see also: exceptio strictissimi juris est. More loosely, 'he who excuses himself, accuses himself'—an unprovoked excuse is a sign of guilt. In French, qui s'excuse, s'accuse. Usually shortened in English to 'for example' see citation signal. On a plaque at the former military staff building of the Swedish Armed Forces. Literally 'experiment of the cross '. A decisive test of a scientific theory. A principle of legal statutory interpretation : the explicit presence of a thing implies intention to exclude others; e.

Sometimes expressed as expressum facit cessare tacitum broadly, 'the expression of one thing excludes the implication of something else'. Refers to a possible result of Catholic ecclesiastical legal proceedings when the culprit is removed from being part of a group like a monastery. Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus. This expression comes from the writings of Saint Cyprian of Carthage, a bishop of the third century.

It is often used to summarise the doctrine that the Catholic Church is absolutely necessary for salvation. When spoken, all those who are not Cardinals , or those otherwise mandated to be present at the Conclave, must leave the Sistine Chapel. Refers to extraterritorial jurisdiction.

Often cited in law of the sea cases on the high seas. Origin of the word facsimile , and, through it, of fax. A Roman legal principle indicating that a witness who willfully falsifies one matter is not credible on any matter. The underlying motive for attorneys to impeach opposing witnesses in court: the principle discredits the rest of their testimony if it is without corroboration.

An archaic legal term for one who commits suicide , referring to early English common law punishments, such as land seizure, inflicted on those who killed themselves. People believe what they wish to be true, even if it isn't. An oxymoronic motto of Emperor Augustus. It encourages proceeding quickly, but with calm and caution. Equivalent to 'More haste, less speed'. From Ferdinand I. Attributed to Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus.

Less literally, "let light arise" or " let there be light " cf. From the Latin translation of Genesis , " dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux " "and God said, 'Let light be made', and light was made". Fidei Defensor Fid Def or fd. Still used by the British monarchs, it appears on all British coins, usually abbreviated.

A faithful friend. From the name of Aeneas 's faithful companion in Virgil 's Aeneid. Virgil 's Aeneid - Book 7. Indicates the period when a historical figure whose birth and death dates are unknown was most active. Motto on the coat of arms of Oxford, England. Motto of Alberta. A principle of legal statutory interpretation : If a matter falls under a specific provision and a general provision, it shall be governed by the specific provision. The unique, distinctive aspects or atmosphere of a place, such as those celebrated in art, stories, folk tales, and festivals.

Originally, the genius loci was literally the protective spirit of a place, a creature usually depicted as a snake. Gloria in Excelsis Deo.

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Often translated "Glory to God on High". The title and beginning of an ancient Roman Catholic doxology , the Greater Doxology. See also ad maiorem Dei gloriam. Gloria Patri. Motto of Manitoba. Motto of Grey College , Durham. A legal term from the 14th century or earlier. Refers to a number of legal writs to bring a person before a court or judge, most commonly habeas corpus ad subjiciendum "you may have the body to bring up".

Commonly used as the general term for a prisoner's legal right to have the charge against them specifically identified. Used after a Roman Catholic Church papal election to announce publicly a successful ballot to elect a new pope. Commonly rendered in English as "One day, we'll look back on this and smile".

From Virgil 's Aeneid 1. Thus, "I say no things that are unknown". From Virgil 's Aeneid , 2. Also rendered hic iacet. Written on gravestones or tombs, preceding the name of the deceased. Equivalent to hic sepultus "here is buried" , and sometimes combined into hic jacet sepultus HJS , "here lies buried".

According to Titus Livius the phrase was pronounced by Marcus Furius Camillus , addressing the senators who intended to abandon the city, invaded by Gauls , in BCE circa. It is used today to express the intent to keep one's position even if the circumstances appear adverse. From Terence , Andria , line Originally literal, referring to the tears shed by Pamphilus at the funeral of Chrysis, it came to be used proverbally in the works of later authors, such as Horace Epistula XIX, From Cicero , Tusculanas , 2, Also "history is the mistress of life".

First attested in Plautus ' Asinaria "lupus est homo homini". The sentence was drawn on by Hobbes in Leviathan as a concise expression of his human nature view. From Terence , Heautontimoroumenos. Originally "strange" or "foreign" alienum was used in the sense of "irrelevant", as this line was a response to the speaker being told to mind his own business, but it is now commonly used to advocate respecting different cultures and being humane in general.

Puto "I consider" is not translated because it is meaningless outside of the line's context within the play. Attributed to Thomas Aquinas. Said of an honorary title , such as "Doctor of Science honoris causa ". Medical shorthand for "at bedtime". Motto of the Chicago Park District , a playful allusion to the city's motto, urbs in horto , q. Cicero defined pirates in Roman law as being enemies of humanity in general.

From Newton , Principia. Less literally, "I do not assert that any hypotheses are true". Usually used in bibliographic citations to refer to the last source previously referenced. Never equivalent to exempli gratia e. Not to be confused with an intelligence quotient. Based on a Christian belief that "this one is King of the Jews" was written in Latin, Greek and Aramaic at the top of the cross Jesus was crucified on.

An alchemical aphorism invented as an alternate meaning for the acronym INRI. A phrase describing scorched earth tactics. Also rendered as igne atque ferro , ferro ignique , and other variations. The logical fallacy of irrelevant conclusion: making an argument that, while possibly valid, doesn't prove or support the proposition it claims to.

An ignoratio elenchi that is an intentional attempt to mislead or confuse the opposing party is known as a red herring. Elenchi is from the Greek elenchos. An explanation that is less clear than the thing to be explained. Synonymous with obscurum per obscurius. Illegitimi non carborundum. A group of people who owe utmost fealty to their leader s , subordinating the interests of the larger group to the authority of the internal group's leader s.

A "fifth column" organization operating against the organization within which they seemingly reside. In Virgil 's Aeneid , Jupiter ordered Aeneas to found a city Rome from which would come an everlasting, neverending empire, the endless sine fine empire. An authorization to publish, granted by some censoring authority originally a Catholic Bishop. Using the metaphor of a scorpion , this can be said of an account that proceeds gently, but turns vicious towards the end — or more generally waits till the end to reveal an intention or statement that is undesirable in the speaker's eyes.

Motto of Brown University. Expresses the judicial principle that in case of doubt the decision must be in favor of the accused in that anyone is innocent until there is proof to the contrary. At the end. The footnote says "p. Equivalent to the English idiom "caught red-handed": caught in the act of committing a crime. Sometimes carried the connotation of being caught in a "compromising position".

A palindrome said to describe the behavior of moths. Also the title of a film by Guy Debord. It was a good place for a fly, and I never thought of spoiling your picture. There was once a painter whose name was Zeuxis. He could paint pictures so life-like that they were mistaken for the real things which they represented. At one time he painted the picture of some fruit which was so real that the birds flew down and pecked at it. There was another famous artist whose name was Parrhasius.

When he heard of the boast which Zeuxis had made, he said to himself, "I will see what I can do. One day King Solomon was sitting on his throne, and his great men were standing around him. He remembered that close by his window there was a climbing vine filled with beautiful sweet flowers.

The queen was standing quite near to it with the two wreaths still in her hands. A long time ago there lived, in Pennsylvania, a little boy whose name was Benjamin West. His father and mother were Quakers, and they did not think it was right to spend money for such things. The baby was asleep in her cradle, and he must not make a noise and waken her. He had no pencil, but there was a piece of black charcoal on the hearth.

So busy was he with the drawing that he did not think of anything else. The good woman was so overjoyed that she caught him in her arms and kissed him. It was a good old Friend, whom everybody loved--a-white-haired, pleasant-faced minister, whose words were always wise. When Andrew Jackson was a little boy he lived with his mother in South Carolina. He was eight years old when he heard about the ride of Paul Revere and the famous fight at Lexington.

There was much fighting; and several great battles took place between the British and the Americans. He was not old enough to be a soldier, but he could be a scout--and a good scout he was. One day as he was riding through the woods, some British soldiers saw him. The British soldiers soon returned to Charleston, and he was allowed to go home.

He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States. When Daniel Webster was a child he lived in the country, far from any city. He was not strong enough to work on the farm like his brothers; but he loved books and study.

The schoolhouse was two or three miles from home, but he did not mind the long walk through the woods and over the hills. He soon learned all that his teacher could teach; for he was bright and quick, and had a good memory. So it was decided that the boy should go to some school where he might be prepared for college. The academy at Exeter was a famous school for preparing boys for college. There were no railroads at that time, and Exeter was nearly fifty miles away. One was Mr. Webster's horse; the other was an old gray nag with a lady's sidesaddle on its back.

Yet there was something in his manner and voice that caused everybody to admire him. Whenever his back was turned, they were sure to begin whispering to one another. First, Tommy Jones whispered to Billy Brown and was at once called out to stand on the floor. Mary looked around and saw Samuel Miller asking his neighbor for a pencil, and Samuel was called.

The clock ticked loudly, and Tommy Jones, who was standing up for the fourth time, began to feel very uneasy. Everybody loved her, and this was the first time she had whispered that day. There was something which she wished very much to know before going home, and so, without thinking, she had leaned over and whispered just three little words.

She was very much ashamed and hurt, for it was the first time that she had ever been in disgrace at school. Everybody was astonished, for that boy was the best scholar in the school, and he had never been known to break a rule. There was one such king who had four sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. The three older boys were sturdy, half-grown lads; the youngest, Alfred, was a slender, fair-haired child.

It was no easy thing to learn these letters and how they are put together to make words. He was a very little boy, but before he was three years old he could read quite well. When eight years of age he was the best scholar at the famous school at Harrow. He was noted for his great knowledge, the most of which he had obtained from books. Long, long ago, there lived in Persia a little prince whose name was Cyrus. Although his father was a king, Cyrus was brought up like the son of a common man. When Cyrus was twelve years old he went with his mother to Media to visit his grandfather.

Cyrus was so tall and strong and handsome that his grandfather was very proud of him. There was to be music and dancing; and Cyrus was to invite as many guests as he chose. The king's cupbearer, Sarcas, was very much offended because he was not given a share of the feast. The king also wondered why this man, who was his favorite, should be so slighted.

He was dressed in the rich uniform of the cupbearer, and he came forward with much dignity and grace. He was a very wise and powerful ruler, and he made his country the greatest of any that was then known. There was a caliph of Persia whose name was Al Mamoun. He had two sons whom he wished to become honest and noble men. So he employed a wise man whose name was Al Farra to be their teacher. In Persia, when Cyrus the Great was king, boys were taught to tell the truth. When Otanes was twelve years old, his parents wished to send him to a distant city to study in a famous school that was there.

So it was arranged that the boy should travel with a small company of merchants who were going to the same place. They went but slowly, for the sun was hot and the way was rough. He was the advisor and friend of two of the kings who succeeded Cyrus. Yesterday, when I was digging in it, I found a box full of gold and jewels.

  1. Als Tom mir den Mond vom Himmel holte: Roman (German Edition).
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  6. On a mountain near their city, there was a narrow chasm or hole in the rocks. It ran into a narrow cleft which he had not seen before, and then through a long, dark passage which was barely large enough for a man's body. He lived two hundred years ago, and was famous for his courage in defending his country. The small house in which he had taken shelter was almost between the two armies. On the last day, the great army which Coriolanus had led from Antium was drawn up in battle array. When he saw his mother and his wife and his children, he was filled with joy.

    Rome was saved; but Coriolanus could never return to his home, his mother, his wife and children. One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing. He visited several cities, and in each place he was well paid for his music. There was a ship just ready to sail for Corinth, and the captain agreed to take him as a passenger. And now they would have spared him; but he was true to his promise,-- as soon as the song was finished, he threw himself headlong into the sea.

    He was dressed just as they had seen him when he jumped into the sea. Old story-tellers say that he alighted on the back of a large fish, called a dolphin, which had been charmed by his music and was swimming near the ship. His name was Francis, and because of his goodness, all men now call him St. Very kind and loving was St. Francis--kind and loving not only to men but to all living things. One day as he was walking among the trees the birds saw him and flew down to greet him. Then, when they saw that he was about to speak, they nestled softly in the grass and listened.

    And when he had blessed them, all began to sing; and the whole forest was filled with sweetness and joy because of their wonderful melodies. A long time ago there lived a poor slave whose name was Aesop. He was a small man with a large head and long arms. When Aesop was about twenty years old his master lost a great deal of money and was obliged to sell his slaves.

    To do this, he had to take them to a large city where there was a slave market. One was a fine gardener; another could take care of horses; a third was a good cook; a fourth could manage a household. His master was so much pleased with him that he gave him his freedom. One day the Mice met to talk about the great harm that she was doing them. There was not a breath of wind to stir the young leaves on the trees. His voice was clear and strong, and all knew that he, at least, was not afraid. The people of Connecticut still remember Abraham Davenport, because he was a wise judge and a brave lawmaker.

    A fine supper was prepared, and the innkeeper himself waited upon his guest. In the morning a good breakfast was served, and then Mr. Randolph made ready to start on his journey. As he was starting away, the friendly innkeeper said, "Which way will you travel, Mr. He was a member of Congress for many years, and was noted for his odd manners and strong self- will. But he was still headstrong and ill-tempered; and he was often in trouble with the other sailors. Once his ship was sailing in the great Pacific Ocean, It was four hundred miles from the coast of South America. He tried to make signals to them; he called as loudly as he could; but he was neither seen nor heard, and the ships came no nearer.

    When he reached Scotland everybody was eager to hear him tell of his adventures, and he soon found himself famous. So, when he was eighteen years old, he ran away from his pleasant home and went to sea. At last a ship happened to pass that way and Robinson was taken on board. He was glad to go back to England to see his home and his friends once more. Among the servants there was a little page whose name was Carl. It was Carl's duty to sit outside of the king's bedroom and be ready to serve him at any time. One night the king sat up very late, writing letters and sending messages; and the little page was kept busy running on errands until past midnight.

    He rang the little bell which was used to call the page, but no page answered. The poor child was so tired after his night's work that he could not keep awake. The king was about to waken him roughly, when he saw a piece of paper on the floor beside him. He put his hand in his pocket, and was surprised to find the gold pieces wrapped in his mother's letter.

    The king himself was obliged to hide in the wild woods while his foes hunted for him with hounds. The door was thrown open and he saw a hundred brave men, all ready to give him aid. And Robert the Bruce was never again obliged to hide in the woods or to run from savage hounds. But at last his army was beaten; his men were scattered; and Tamerlane fled alone from the field of battle. As Tamerlane looked, he saw that there was a hole in the tree only a little way above, and that this was the home of the ant. He was dressed plainly, his coat was worn, and his hat was dingy.

    The rod was bent in the middle so that it could be turned as with a crank. When the work was finished, the old fishing boat looked rather odd, with a paddle wheel on each side which dipped just a few inches into the water. The caliph was so well pleased with these jewels that he bought them and paid the merchant a large sum of money. As the merchant was walking along, he came to a river that flowed gently between green and shady banks. The great bird was high in the air and flying towards the far-off mountains with all his money. Do you know of any person who was once poor but who has lately and suddenly become well-to-do?

    A few said that there was one man in their neighborhood who seemed to have had some sort of good luck. The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree. I ran to pick it up and was surprised to find that it was a bag full of bright gold pieces. But, as I came to your palace this morning, I kept saying to myself, 'When our lord Al Mansour learns just how it was that I borrowed the gold, I have no doubt that in his kindness of heart he will forgive me the debt.

    It was so close to the sea that those who lived in it could hear the waves forever beating against the shore. The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest. It was a place where good people, and timid, helpless people could find shelter in time of war. There they might live in peace and safety while all the country round was overrun by rude and barbarous men. But in the corner, almost hidden from his fellows, one poor man was sitting who did not enjoy the singing.

    So he sat there trembling and afraid; for he was a timid, bashful man and did not like to be noticed. At last, just as the blacksmith was in the midst of a stirring song, he rose quietly and went out into the darkness. Inside of the great kitchen, beside the fire, the men were shouting and laughing; for the blacksmith had finished his song, and it was very pleasing.

    The singing in the kitchen was ended, the fire had burned low, and each man had gone to his place. It was for this reason that I left my fellows in the abbey kitchen and came here to be alone. So she called her clerk, who was a scholar, and bade him write the song, word for word, as it came from Caedmon's lips. Such was the way in which the first true English poem was written. And Caedmon, the poor cowherd of the abbey, was the first great poet of England. In the Far East there was once a prince whose name was Gautama.

    It was the wish of his father and mother that every day of his life should be a day of perfect happiness. Everything that was evil or disagreeable had been carefully kept out of his sight. By the door of one of these a sick man was lying upon a couch, helpless and pale. Their faces were browned by the sun; their hands were hard and gnarly; their backs were bent by much heavy lifting; their clothing was in tatters. At one end of the room there was a big fireplace, where the mother did the cooking. And in the middle was a rough table with benches around it instead of chairs.

    Jacquot's business was to sell charcoal to the rich people in the city. Then she saw that the child's face was very pale and that he neither opened his eyes nor moved. Soon the little stranger was clad in the warm clothes; the dry soft blanket was wrapped around him; and he was laid on the children's bed. I had carried some charcoal to the queen's kitchen and was just starting home. Well, as I was hurrying along, I heard a great splash, as though something had fallen into the pool by the fountain. He had just noticed that the king was wearing poor Charlot's Sunday suit instead of his own.

    Louis the Fourteenth became king of France when he was only five years old. One day King Henry the Fourth of France was hunting in a large forest. Towards evening he told his men to ride home by the main road while he went by another way that was somewhat longer. One morning, long ago, a merchant of Miletus [Footnote: Mile'tus. But it held a beautiful golden tripod that was worth more than a thousand fishes. There everybody was talking about King Cleobulus and his wonderful wisdom. They told him that it was not for sale, but that it was to be given to the wisest of the wise.

    They had never heard of Chilon, for his name was hardly known outside of his own country. They learned that Chilon was a very quiet man, that he never spoke about himself, and that he spent all his time in trying to make his country great and strong and happy. Chilon was so busy that the messengers had to wait several days before they could see him.

    But nowhere in it was there even a hint that it might not be possible. Whether you are rich or poor, live in the developed world or the developing world, life today is better and easier than it was a century ago by virtually any measure. Because television was radio with pictures, the first television shows were simply men in suits standing in front of microphones reading the news.

    What if the basic unit was a couple, a relationship, and what if that relationship had an identity? Unquestionably, an extraordinary amount of talent was present during the Renaissance. It was , however—and this is sure to earn me the wrath of many humanities professors—a time of surprisingly little originality. In his day, Shakespeare was low-brow entertainment for the common class. It was not at all clear at the time that his work would transcend the ages. But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived. Who could argue there was ever a better time to start a business any time in the world?

    Has there ever before been a time when business opportunity was more blind to color, gender, or creed? He turned onto Franz Josef Street, where he was not supposed to have been, and drove right in front of a surprised Princip. War, poverty, misery, and nearly one hundred million people dead came from what essentially was a single wrong turn. Maybe it was inevitable at that point that some spark would set off the powder keg of Europe. It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken. This led to the creation of large libraries all around the world—and this was a problem.

    King Croesus was very intrigued by all these oracles around the world. And Croesus was so amazed that he endowed the Oracle at Delphi with all kinds of gifts and planned to run all-important questions by this oracle. Scholars today are pretty sure that in the case of Delphi, the oracle was inadvertently breathing gases that rose from the cave in which she sat. Think of how the computer in the Star Trek universe was a purely factual machine. Pushing this to its logical extreme: What if everything you did was digitally remembered? Imagine that every word you said was recorded by your personal recorder and automatically transcribed.

    Not just that you went to a certain address but that the address was a movie theater and—based on where you sat and that you ordered tickets online—you saw Episode VII of Star Wars. What if the capability to see connections and even to have them detected was all there for us? These features weren't on the site when it was first launched because the necessary data did not yet exist. It took him most of his life to do this, and the value was engraved on his tombstone.

    By it was calculated to more than a million digits, in more than ten million digits, in more than one hundred million digits, in more than one billion digits, and in more than fifty billion digits. In , pi was calculated to more than two trillion digits—in less than thirty hours.

    Every sale from the point the robot was turned on to when the sun finally burns out will be perfectly remembered. And from every experience they have had in their lives, we would be able to infer what was successful and what was not successful. The idea was that it would be great to make machines that behaved like us and, through that, we could harness their abilities. In the past, knowing the wise thing to do was a power confined to a few. But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing and in some parts of the world still is.

    It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio. In , the number of cases just in New York City was reported to be nine thousand. Infected children were removed to hospitals and the rest of the family was quarantined until they became noninfectious. In , a dozen years before he would be sworn in as president, Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio. During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.

    His call for a "march of dimes" was a play on "The March of Time," a well-known newsreel series. On the research team of the eminent virologist Dr. Thomas Francis, who was working on a flu vaccine, was a young physician named Jonas Salk. As I was writing these words, my ten-year-old son came in and asked, "What are you doing? It was mentioned by the Hindus more than three thousand years ago and some suggest they even inoculated against it. The second was that the disease clearly passed from person to person, though by what mechanism was not clear.

    An Englishwoman who saw the process in Turkey in the early s brought it back to England, where it was proven to be effective. By the s, though the procedure was certainly better than nothing, it still had a fair number of problems. Cowpox was a localized condition, so fresh supplies were hard to get. Although the technique of growing cowpox on cow hides would come, transporting it was difficult due to lack of refrigeration. If the conditions weren't sterile—a word that was not even comprehended at the time—the inoculation didn't work, or worse, introduced a new disease.

    A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward. Hippocrates was remarkable not only as a surgeon but also because he systematized medicine in his spare time. The use of such practices continued into the scientific age: While Jenner was inoculating people with his new smallpox vaccine, doctors were draining half a gallon of blood from George Washington for his sore throat, a procedure that hastened his death.

    When the ancients could not find these solutions, it was not for a lack of intelligence but for a lack of technology. In , the first complete explanation that blood flows through the body in arteries was published. The same year, a technique for treating diabetes, insulin therapy, was developed. The number of medical patents issued in was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next. The number of pharmaceutical patents issued in was also more than fifty thousand—also an all-time record, and also likely to be broken again and again in the years to come.

    Then in the s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA. Then the scientific race of the century was on, with this goal: to figure out how DNA conveyed genetic information. That three-billion-letter recipe for making you is what was sequenced—deciphered and written down—in the human genome project.

    You would know before you received a treatment how likely it was to work for you—not merely how likely it was to work for the larger population, but for you. If you were a scientist in Jenner's time, your only form of communication was letter writing. If you had access to a library, its stock of medical books and journals was very small.

    Appendix:List of Latin phrases

    Difficulty of communication was still a barrier, and technology was still highly limited. After all, it was the doctor's job to keep you healthy, not to make money when you were sick. Imagine if everyone frequently disputed charges: "I never got my order! In the past, when most media was mass media, it was essential to create products with mass appeal.

    If these two advances could be combined, we would have a supply of solar energy that was cheap, abundant, and environmentally benign. That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out. Was it some kind of rhetorical flourish, just words that sounded good? I knew typesetters who said computers would never duplicate their quality; travel agents who said the Internet would never replace them, and whose stockbrokers reassured them this was true. If every job that could be done by a machine was done by a machine tomorrow, the standard of living of virtually everyone on the planet would rise.

    But what if dogs didn't exist and your only experience with them was watching Scooby-Doo? They still have the hand-operated machine from the s that was used to make the first Legos, but it is of course now a museum piece. Researchers also discovered the vaccine was able to restore normal blood sugar levels without using insulin. The report also cited a mids report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period to Taken together, those findings suggest that almost all economic growth in the last plus years was from technology.

    So I saw, in real dollars, the cost of computer memory fall to one one-millionth of what it was thirty years ago. Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating? He worked to apply a means test, pared the rolls back, then died; the rolls swelled again, and his successor again tried to bring them in line, but it was hard.

    It was theirs to do with as they pleased and they chose to give it to you. But in describing that job spectrum, I never said anything about his absolute ability—I said only that he was at the bottom of the list relative to others. Electricity hmm, I guess the trailer was solar powered , a refrigerator, air conditioning. But before the twentieth century, this was not the case and actual famines were much more common.

    I personally think the establishment of charitable organizations was driven by the same spirit that drove the creation of new businesses. Much change was due to the efforts of William Jennings Bryan, who received the Democratic Party nomination for president three times, in , , and The thought was that the overseer, being local, would be able to separate the lazy from the truly needy.

    The system was revised in the s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor. The theory was that life in the workhouse had to be worse than life outside the workhouse, otherwise it would be overrun with the poor. At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.

    But the problem, of course, was that food prices went up, the people went hungry, and riots ensued. In , some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India. Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by that the government stepped in and urged the project forward. This was a guy from a small town in Iowa who failed his entrance exam to the University of Minnesota.

    But if ever there was a textbook case of one guy making a difference, this is it. All he could do was cross strains of wheat, much in the same fashion as Gregor Mendel did in the s. What if the farmer could give every stalk of corn individual attention and water and fertilize each one exactly when it was needed? A fascinating character and an extremely patient experimenter, Mendel was a German friar and scientist who figured out that plants and presumably animals had inheritable characteristics.

    Eventually, the pea was as large as its genetic potential allowed it to be. By , it was down to 60 percent; by , 40 percent; by , 20 percent; and by , 6 percent. What if a manufactured steak was as good as the best steak you have ever had? In in Perthshire, Scotland, a white barn cat named Susie was found at a farm. The fold in the ears was caused by a heritable, dominant, mutated gene.

    Although the original mutation was not caused by human activity, human activity preserved and perpetuated it. Soon everyone was zapping seeds and planting them and, lo and behold, it actually worked! In , a pig was genetically engineered to produce healthy omega-3 fatty acids. The United Nations World Food Programme was so inspired by this success that pilot programs for an exchange were launched in twenty-one countries.

    It was his view that "the attainment of human rights in the fullest sense cannot be achieved so long as hundreds of millions of poverty-stricken people lack the basic necessities for life. During the period to , an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products. I don't recall ever being in a department store, drinking from the water fountain, and having the staff look at me disapprovingly because I was running up the water bill.

    In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known English legal case. The individual had no liberties, or at least very few, but in exchange was , in theory, entitled to certain economic rights. While Jefferson's "all men are created equal" statement was not meant by him to include slaves, we have broadened the application of the principle and should continue to do so. If you knew someone who was a good business partner, was fun to hang out with, but let one of his children starve to death so that he could enjoy a higher standard of living, what would be your opinion of this person?

    Now, I'm faced with explaining why the past was full of war but somehow the future will not be. The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later. There was a period when intellectuals believed and spoke openly of the idea that the "breeding" of the "unfit" should be limited. In the past, when the power of the state was absolute in many parts of the world, it was harder to argue that every person on the planet had rights no monarch or state could violate.

    Scandinavia was at forty-six in the s and has fallen to one today. After speaking about the economic costs of war, the burden it places on the economy, and the toll this takes on the people, Eisenhower closed by describing the peace proposals he was offering Russia and China. Their aim, he said, was nothing less than "the lifting, from the backs and from the hearts of men, of their burden of arms and of fears, so that they may find before them a golden age of freedom and of peace.

    It was a rhetorical question and, to those posing it, simply a wish—just another way to say, "Why can't we all just get along? Of course, politics being what it is, the Peace Dividend was spent a dozen times over by as many special interests who felt they were the most deserving of such an unexpected largess.

    By far, the world's bloodiest century was the twentieth century, which saw one hundred million people die from war. In the version of the film, he was played by a thirty-one-year-old Laurence Harvey. In the incarnation of the film, he was played by thirty-one-year-old Patrick Wilson. While military service was less important to securing work in commerce, that was not a particularly noteworthy occupation.

    Now the "war stories" are about how Mark Zuckerberg was nineteen when he started Facebook, Bill Gates was nineteen when he started Microsoft, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin were in their early twenties when they started Google. The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.

    But at the time the doctrine was in force, MAD was effective or at least, not proven ineffective. It was the basis for the movie War Games in which the military's computer finally figures out it can't win in a nuclear launch scenario and says of such a war, Strange game. The pacifist manufacturer was a conflicted individual during wartime. The arch not only celebrates this military victory, it points out that it was profitable. As true as that was in Jefferson's time, our age has amplified all of it: both the miseries war can produce and the blessings peace can produce.

    Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, was obligated by treaty to defend it. In fact, virtually everyone should have wondered why he was fighting soldiers from places he couldn't find on a map. It all happened because of military pacts in which an attack on one party was viewed as an attack on all. I am not saying tthe world would be better if every country was the size of Liechtenstein. Once this became known, the question was submitted for arbitration to the king of the Netherlands, who ruled the St. John River to be the border. Tensions mounted all through the s as militias were raised on both sides in what later came to be known as the Aroostook War, even though there was never actually a war or casualties.

    The border issue was finally resolved by the Webster-Ashburton treaty of Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places, contending a private business's right to allow smoking was trumped by the dangers of exposing patrons to secondhand smoke. But having your starlet drive eighty mph whilst liquored up, well, that was fine. It was a huge shift in public opinion in which no group benefited financially; if anything, financial interests were aligned against this change, just as with tobacco. This was done in large part because the two powers came so close to going to war over the Cuban Missile Crisis.

    Two examples: the Battle of New Orleans, fought after the treaty ending the War of was signed; and the Battle of Palmito Ranch, fought a month after the Civil War ended. Publishing was expensive, and by the time news of the lie came out, days or weeks had passed. O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late s. Their revolution was not made up of a bunch of hotheads with torches and pitchforks. When there was a coup in Burma, now Myanmar, in , they closed the universities.

    In an era when cameras were cumbersome and the number of channels on TV could be counted on one hand with enough fingers left over to snap, very little video of any kind was seen. Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know. He told Simonides he was only going to pay him half the fee and if he wanted the other half, he should collect it from Castor and Pollux. Later that evening when Simonides was at a banquet with Scopas, he got word that two young men were outside looking for him.

    While Simonides was outside, the roof of the house caved in and killed everyone.

    Aesop's Fables

    The implication was that Castor and Pollux, knowing of the imminent collapse of the roof, had come calling with the purpose of saving Simonides's life as their payment for the poem. When Augustine finally asked, "What are you doing? Ambrose replied that he was looking at the words and reading them that way.

    Processing aurally was familiar to Augustine while reading silently was revelatory, so noteworthy that he wrote it in his autobiography. So it was natural that to earn extra money, Jason and I would buy cool, old cars we found in junkyards for a few hundred dollars apiece. I remember in autumn of '87 thinking it was perfectly reasonable to take the red Corvair convertible for a test drive, despite its lack of functioning brakes. The title of Ralph Nader's book was right: That car was Unsafe at Any Speed, at least with the master cylinder removed.

    The problem for us was always that it is easier to get a car running than it is to fix the brakes. The little porch was hidden from view by a screen of yellow roses and Southern smilax. The Keller homestead, where the family lived, was a few steps from our little rose-bower. It was called "Ivy Green" because the house and the surrounding trees and fences were covered with beautiful English ivy.

    The beginning of my life was simple and much like every other little life. But in the excitement of carrying me to church my father lost the name on the way, very naturally, since it was one in which he had declined to have a part. I am told that while I was still in long dresses I showed many signs of an eager, self-asserting disposition.

    It was the word "water," and I continued to make some sound for that word after all other speech was lost. There was great rejoicing in the family that morning, but no one, not even the doctor, knew that I should never see or hear again. Indeed, I owe to her loving wisdom all that was bright and good in my long night. I do not remember when I first realized that I was different from other people; but I knew it before my teacher came to me.

    This made me so angry at times that I kicked and screamed until I was exhausted. I was quite ill afterward, and I wonder if retribution also overtook the turkey. The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.

    The sheds where the corn was stored, the stable where the horses were kept, and the yard where the cows were milked morning and evening were unfailing sources of interest to Martha and me. Of course I did not know what it was all about, but I enjoyed the pleasant odours that filled the house and the tidbits that were given to Martha Washington and me to keep us quiet. One was black as ebony, with little bunches of fuzzy hair tied with shoestrings sticking out all over her head like corkscrews.

    The younger child was blind--that was I--and the other was Martha Washington. Belle, our dog, my other companion, was old and lazy and liked to sleep by the open fire rather than to romp with me. I tried hard to teach her my sign language, but she was dull and inattentive. I did not then know why Belle acted in this way; but I knew she was not doing as I wished. One day I happened to spill water on my apron, and I spread it out to dry before the fire which was flickering on the sitting-room hearth. One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, where she was obliged to remain three hours, as the servants were in a detached part of the house.

    My father was obliged to get a ladder and take Miss Sullivan out through the window--much to my delight. When I was about five years old we moved from the little vine-covered house to a large new one. My father was most loving and indulgent, devoted to his home, seldom leaving us, except in the hunting season. His hospitality was great, almost to a fault, and he seldom came home without bringing a guest. His special pride was the big garden where, it was said, he raised the finest watermelons and strawberries in the county; and to me he brought the first ripe grapes and the choicest berries.

    I was in the North, enjoying the last beautiful days of the summer of , when I heard the news of my father's death. He had had a short illness, there had been a brief time of acute suffering, then all was over. This was my first great sorrow--my first personal experience with death. She was , alas, the helpless victim of my outbursts of temper and of affection, so that she became much the worse for wear. We lived a long way from any school for the blind or the deaf, and it seemed unlikely that any one would come to such an out-of-the-way place as Tuscumbia to teach a child who was both deaf and blind.

    His methods had probably died with him; and if they had not, how was a little girl in a far-off town in Alabama to receive the benefit of them? It was the most comical shapeless thing, this improvised doll, with no nose, mouth, ears or eyes--nothing that even the imagination of a child could convert into a face. A bright idea, however, shot into my mind, and the problem was solved.

    I tumbled off the seat and searched under it until I found my aunt's cape, which was trimmed with large beads. Child as I was , I at once felt the tenderness and sympathy which endeared Dr. Bell to so many hearts, as his wonderful achievements enlist their admiration. It was the third of March, , three months before I was seven years old. I guessed vaguely from my mother's signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps.

    I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbour was. I did not know that I was spelling a word or even that words existed; I was simply making my fingers go in monkey-like imitation. I was keenly delighted when I felt the fragments of the broken doll at my feet. In the still, dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment or tenderness. I felt my teacher sweep the fragments to one side of the hearth, and I had a sense of satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was removed. She brought me my hat, and I knew I was going out into the warm sunshine.

    We walked down the path to the well-house, attracted by the fragrance of the honeysuckle with which it was covered. Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout. That was because I saw everything with the strange, new sight that had come to me. As my knowledge of things grew I felt more and more the delight of the world I was in. The morning had been fine, but it was growing warm and sultry when at last we turned our faces homeward.

    Our last halt was under a wild cherry tree a short distance from the house. The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches. It was so cool up in the tree that Miss Sullivan proposed that we have our luncheon there. I knew the sky was black, because all the heat, which meant light to me, had died out of the atmosphere.

    I knew it, it was the odour that always precedes a thunderstorm, and a nameless fear clutched at my heart. There was a moment of sinister silence, then a multitudinous stirring of the leaves. After this experience it was a long time before I climbed another tree. It was the sweet allurement of the mimosa tree in full bloom that finally overcame my fears. I felt my way to the end of the garden, knowing that the mimosa tree was near the fence, at the turn of the path. Yes, there it was , all quivering in the warm sunshine, its blossom-laden branches almost touching the long grass.

    Was there ever anything so exquisitely beautiful in the world before! I had now the key to all language, and I was eager to learn to use it. But Miss Sullivan shook her head, and I was greatly puzzled and disappointed. A day or two afterward I was stringing beads of different sizes in symmetrical groups--two large beads, three small ones, and so on. In a flash I knew that the word was the name of the process that was going on in my head.

    For a long time I was still--I was not thinking of the beads in my lap, but trying to find a meaning for "love" in the light of this new idea. From the beginning of my education Miss Sullivan made it a practice to speak to me as she would speak to any hearing child; the only difference was that she spelled the sentences into my hand instead of speaking them. If I did not know the words and idioms necessary to express my thoughts she supplied them, even suggesting conversation when I was unable to keep up my end of the dialogue. But it was a long time before I ventured to take the initiative, and still longer before I could find something appropriate to say at the right time.

    I took my "Reader for Beginners" and hunted for the words I knew; when I found them my joy was like that of a game of hide-and-seek. Another favourite haunt of mine was the orchard, where the fruit ripened early in July. Our favourite walk was to Keller's Landing, an old tumbledown lumber-wharf on the Tennessee River, used during the Civil War to land soldiers. I built dams of pebbles, made islands and lakes, and dug river-beds, all for fun, and never dreamed that I was learning a lesson.

    Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson. It was great fun to plunge my hand into the bowl and feel the tadpoles frisk about, and to let them slip and slide between my fingers. He had made his leap, he had seen the great world, and was content to stay in his pretty glass house under the big fuchsia tree until he attained the dignity of froghood. When she came, everything about me breathed of love and joy and was full of meaning. It was my teacher's genius, her quick sympathy, her loving tact which made the first years of my education so beautiful.

    It was because she seized the right moment to impart knowledge that made it so pleasant and acceptable to me. The first Christmas after Miss Sullivan came to Tuscumbia was a great event. When I learned that there was a gift for each child, I was delighted, and the kind people who had prepared the tree permitted me to hand the presents to the children. In the pleasure of doing this, I did not stop to look at my own gifts; but when I was ready for them, my impatience for the real Christmas to begin almost got beyond control.

    I was persuaded, however, to content myself with the gifts from the tree and leave the others until morning. Next morning it was I who waked the whole family with my first "Merry Christmas! Little Tim was so tame that he would hop on my finger and eat candied cherries out of my hand. The next important event in my life was my visit to Boston, in May, How different this journey was from the one I had made to Baltimore two years before!

    I was no longer a restless, excitable little creature, requiring the attention of everybody on the train to keep me amused. She was covered with dirt — the remains of mud pies I had compelled her to eat, although she had never shown any special liking for them. When I next saw her she was a formless heap of cotton, which I should not have recognized at all except for the two bead eyes which looked out at me reproachfully.

    When the train at last pulled into the station at Boston it was as if a beautiful fairy tale had come true. The "once upon a time" was now; the "far-away country" was here. In the school where Laura Bridgman was taught I was in my own country. I could not quite convince myself that there was much world left, for I regarded Boston as the beginning and the end of creation.

    This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat. But the rumble of the machinery made me think it was thundering, and I began to cry, because I feared if it rained we should not be able to have our picnic out of doors. I was more interested, I think, in the great rock on which the Pilgrims landed than in anything else in Plymouth. I was keenly surprised and disappointed years later to learn of their acts of persecution that make us tingle with shame, even while we glory in the courage and energy that gave us our "Country Beautiful.

    Their kindness to me was the seed from which many pleasant memories have since grown. It was hard, smooth sand, very different from the loose, sharp sand, mingled with kelp and shells, at Brewster. I saw him many times after that, and he was always a good friend to me; indeed, I was thinking of him when I called Boston "the City of Kind Hearts. Just before the Perkins Institution closed for the summer, it was arranged that my teacher and I should spend our vacation at Brewster, on Cape Cod, with our dear friend, Mrs.

    I was delighted, for my mind was full of the prospective joys and of the wonderful stories I had heard about the sea. So my little heart leaped high with eager excitement when I knew that my wish was at last to be realized. Suddenly my ecstasy gave place to terror; for my foot struck against a rock and the next instant there was a rush of water over my head. At last, however, the sea, as if weary of its new toy, threw me back on the shore, and in another instant I was clasped in my teacher's arms.

    The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me. This feat pleased me highly, as his body was very heavy, and it took all my strength to drag him half a mile. I was never still a moment; my life was as full of motion as those little insects that crowd a whole existence into one brief day.

    The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams. It was delightful to lose ourselves in the green hollows of that tangled wood in the late afternoon, and to smell the cool, delicious odours that came up from the earth at the close of day. Our cottage was a sort of rough camp, beautifully situated on the top of the mountain among oaks and pines.

    Round the house was a wide piazza, where the mountain winds blew, sweet with all wood-scents. At dawn I was awakened by the smell of coffee, the rattling of guns, and the heavy footsteps of the men as they strode about, promising themselves the greatest luck of the season. A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.

    At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad, and the children watched the trains whiz by.