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The vector of standard boundedness of the response of the closed-loop system.

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The helicopter control inputs, 6, is employed. A neural network of this type is capable of approximating any smooth collective pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch, bR. In function to any desired accuracy, provided the number of this formulation, the main rotor collective control position is hidden layer neurons is sufficiently large. Inputs to the neural treated as an additional translational state i. Block diagram of Rate Command, Attitude Hold System for Pitch Channel In some piloting tasks, one may prefer instead a rate earth-fixed axes, , 8 and w are the Euler roll, pitch and yaw command system.

In such a case, integral action is added in attitude respectively, Fx, Fy and Fz are total aerodynamic the linear controller to provide for attitude retention giving it force components along the body axes, m is vehicle mass and the designation Rate Command, Attitude Hold RCAH. A g is the constant of acceleration due to gravity. Preliminary results from flight test trajectory controller synthesis described in , a set of pseudo- evaluation of this system are presented in Section 4 of this controls, U, , U , , and U , , are formulated as paper. The relationship between the components of where the subscript c denotes commanded value.

Next, the acceleration of the vehicle mass center and components of left-hand side of Eq. In the process, x I. Numerical Simulation Results resulting computations.

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First, the magnitudes of cyclic and pedal control forces are assumed to be much smaller The performance of the trajectory controller is evaluated compared to the collective control force and hence, they are using a nonlinear simulation model of the Yamaha R 5 neglected. Second, the F, and F, i. Two sets of command trajectories representing an aerodynamic force components are assumed to be small in aggressive command trajectory and a moderate command magnitude compared to Fz body z-axis force component and trajectory are used in the evaluations.

The following values of hence, they are neglected in Eq.

Helicopter Test and Evaluation (AIAA Education)

The altitude of 50 ft in 10 seconds and a yaw attitude change of 90 values of and scomputed using Eqs. The control system shown in Fig. Determination of Collective Control Taking magnitude of both sides of Eq. With the assumption that the specific aerodynamic force -a" magnitude is primarily affected by the collective control, a 8 o ,t,aec5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 simple linear controller can be synthesized so as to satisfy Eq.

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Denoting the right hand side of Eq. A block diagram representation v y 20 "0 5 IO 15 20 25 30 35 40 42"' of the overall controller is shown as Fig. The horizontal velocity commands Figure 4. Trajectory Tracking Response Traj.

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The pitch and roll attitude responses qualities. Also, the magnitudes of U, ,U, are limited to be are shown in Figure 5 along with their commanded values within 0. Figure 5 also shows pitch, roll than 0. In spite of errors in roll attitude values of required pitch and roll attitudes. Figure 6 shows the variation of collective, cyclic and tail rotor controls, and all controls stay well within limits. Attitude Tracking Response Traj. VI Control Variations Traj. The horizontal accelerations commanded are somewhat moderate for Trajectory 2 as compared to the aggressive command used for trajectory l.

Simulation results of trajectory tracking, attitude responses, angular rate variations and control variations are shown in Figs. From these figures, it can be seen that the Figure Figures 11 and 12 present preliminary flight test results for the pitch channel RCAH system without and with the neural network adaptation, respectively. The bandwidth of the controller was set very low for this initial test. Even at this low bandwidth, the ability of the network to compensate for the inversion error and to ho improve the tracking performance is clearly evident.

Currently the bandwidth is increased in each of the pitch, roll and yaw axes, and flight tests are ongoing including evaluation of both the rate command and attitude command Figure 7. Trajectory 2 top view systems in both low speed and high speed flight. M contributions of the following Georgia Tech graduate students. Rysdyk, "Nonlinear Adaptive Flight Figure 1 1. AIAA , August 0. I Prasad, A. Lipp, "Synthesis of a Helicopter Modelling Vol.

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  4. Corban, A. Calise, and J. Mnich, "Minimum-Complexity 5. Results of simulation evaluations of the trajectory-tracking controller are presented for both aggressive and moderate trajectory commands and the controller is shown to perform very well in both cases. Further flight test evaluations of the rate and attitude command system as well as implementation and flight test evaluation of the trajectory tracking system are ongoing.

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