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Raves and Reviews. Resources and Downloads. More books from this author: Mabel Iam. More books in this series: Atria Espanol. Thank you for signing up, fellow book lover! See More Categories. Your First Name. Postal Code. Newspapers were published in Italian, German, Yiddish; in , as the nation celebrated the centenary of its independence from Spain and underwent all the rites of national reaffirmation, in the streets of Buenos Aires could be heard these exotic languages or a Spanish with a certain Iberian accent.
In addition to the hispano-criollo population, there was now a foreign population whose members were younger and whose women gave birth to more children. In mere decades, these immigrants and their children born in Argentina outnumber those of the hispano-criollo base dating back to the viceregal court. These Europeans arrived from their tiny villages to a city that seems immense because of its swaths of surviving pampa. They were not cosmopolitan, they simply came from abroad. One Italian immigrant told of the shock produced by Buenos Aires.
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His village amounted to nothing, it was the size of a neighborhood in Buenos Aires. This immigrant, like the thousands who arrived before him, had to leave the village behind to set down roots in this city. In Buenos Aires, it was not only the elite who fused urban models: immigration led to a large-scale fusion of cultural identities. At the end of this process and only for the children of these immigrants political citizenship and the right to call the city their own awaited.
This overlap of cultural identities brings with it disillusionment and conflict. The hispano-criollo city did not recognize itself in the city of immigrants; the city, which before was the public domain of the elites, was converted into a space where everyone begins to circulate. The network of direct relations that characterized village life was destroyed. In , an important historian and critic, Ricardo Rojas, rendered an alarming diagnosis of the presence of foreigners in Buenos Aires.
Rojas has no desire to get rid of the recently arrived, but he is worried about establishing them under a sort of guardianship of the hispano-criollo elite. He does not want them to remain in their ghettos, but quite the contrary, to force them to mix.
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Education, it seems to him, is the key to this assimilation. And, in fact, it was. The children of these immigrants were alphabetized and nationalized in schools that were public, secular, free, and mandatory for girls and boys, and where all cultural divisions were stamped out. The public school taught—by force—what it was to be Argentinean. The Jews fascinated for their more extreme foreignness and incurred the very first waves of anti-Semitism.
Even those who were not anti-Semitic describe them as exotic children:. This ethnic mix changes the colors and sounds of the city. Twenty years after Ricardo Rojas and his fearful warnings, the process had imposed itself by force and had profoundly remade the public imagination, daily life, and politics.
Immigrants brought with them trade unions and anarchism, too; it is these foreigners who foster the earliest socialist movements, movements whose leaders belong, on the other hand, to the university-going middle class. Political ideologies, forms of labor organization, strategies of struggle and mobilization, via unions and strikes, provide the elite still more cause for alarm. Public debate during the first three decades of the twentieth century revolve around the European origins of the Argentine racial mix and whether the cultural preeminence of the hispano-criollo elite ought to be preserved in the face of so much immigrant-induced disorder.
What does it mean to be Argentinean? Who has the right to define the limits of this cultural field where everything is beginning to blur? On the one hand, the gaucho, as national figure, had been transformed into a day laborer on large estates; the criollo virtues that had been conferred upon him were disappearing along with these mythological torch-bearers of Argentine nationality who, in reality, were used as cannon fodder during civil wars or pawns in political disputes between oligarchs.
But, once the gaucho had disappeared, the foreigner could offer nothing but his foreignness. This defect formed the base upon which the future of Argentina had to be imagined. This wildly successful novel, Don Segundo Sombra , published in , takes as its characters the last literary gauchos, the final protagonists to perform rural work with the cheerful disinterest of Homeric combatants. But the novel fails almost entirely to account for the presence of those immigrants who were already extending their houses across the plain.
In the twenties, Girondo travels throughout Europe and compiles a book of poems about his stops along the way. To these European postcard-cities Venice, Seville, Douarnez he adds others from Buenos Aires, in which he laments not the loss of organicism or the absence of the past but rather looks to shed light on the fragmentation of the individual and his experience in the urban setting.
Arlt—a child of immigrants and hardly a member of the hispano-criollo elite—also took note of the foreignness that, anyway, was inscribed in his very name, which he himself knew to be unpronounceable according to Spanish phonetics. Arlt writes:. Arlt had a keen understanding of the contradictions of the cosmopolitan city: the fragmentation of subjectivities produced by the metropolitan shock, the experiences that resist translation, the collapse of any illusion of organicism. But there are also those who roam the streets and experience ostracism and solitude because they are marginal figures within the great urban machine whose workings are ever more abstract.
Pulsing, the market embraces to later cast out. It also reshapes popular culture. In these same decades, the twenties and—above all—the thirties, there occur three fundamental events in modern popular culture: the spread of football as the national sport, which is rapidly professionalized; the implantation of radio and major dailies, the morning tabloids, sensationalist evening papers, full of illustrations; and the apogee of tango, which produces not only a repertoire of songs but also films and grand theatrical spectacles.
All this speaks of the new masses that materially and symbolically begin to occupy urban space. The subject of the masses a topic first addressed by Ortega y Gasset in Spain, then introduced in Argentina in a great success would become an obsession in pessimistic essays about the city. As it grew, Buenos Aires disguised, through buildings that acted as masks, the pampa that was its origin and would be its destiny. Buenos Aires had swelled by superimposing, by addition, by metastasis, by filling in the empty spaces that, nonetheless, never quite fulfill their potential. On these chaotic plains, the Spanish colony had been nothing more than an extended enterprise dedicated to plunder.
Stylistically and culturally, the heterogeneous city is viewed as undesirable disorder. Victoria Ocampo claimed for Buenos Aires no longer the whimsical, picturesque landscapes of European villages that other intellectuals pined for but a pattern to its houses that alternated between the same set of stylistic features. In this heterogeneous city without the historical powers to contain and give order to its diverse elements, the masses soon become even more threatening. They consist not only of European immigrants but their children, and other migrants, the criollos and mestizos arriving from the countryside provinces to settle down on the edge of the city.
Whoever they are, they are always unfamiliar multitudes who put their difference on parade. By the s, Buenos Aires, which believed itself a metropolis before it actually became one, had assumed the attributes intellectuals had learned to fear in modern societies: the masses live in the city, the city is the scene of the masses, this amorphous entity, ungovernable and unsubject to rules of reason or of morality; they give a glimpse of what, just a few years later, would become the Peronist multitudes.
The city, the stage for Peronism, has all the hallmarks of its metropolitan modernity and none of the political vicissitudes of the fifties and sixties could change this. Buenos Aires the city is already predominately white, surrounded by prosperous suburbs, working-class neighborhoods, and shantytowns. Modernity has made good on some of its promises while revealing its inequities and inherent conflicts. The end of this era arrives in with the military dictatorship.
During these terrible years, the military promotes a vision for Buenos Aires that is technocratic, an authoritarian modernization, which begins with the expulsion of the poor and of migrants to the outer edges of the city center and reinforcement of material inequalities that divided the rich and poor areas of the city as never before.
It is at this time that the highways that practically arrived at the city center are built, leaving deep wounds in the fabric of historical neighborhoods. The technification of the city is a powerful trend that continues to gain steam; some regions of Buenos Aires have been practically rebuilt according to the model of the urban, communication, and telecommunications advances of major metropoles of the end of the century. Nevertheless, in the cultural and artistic imagination, the city is frequently viewed as a landscape of decay.
The optimism of the elites at the end of the nineteenth century has given way to market forces in an urban space converted into the scene of big business. The elites near the end of the nineteenth century sought to shape a modern city for a population that was to arrive from Europe. Their project had contributed to inclusiveness, even if their modernization came from on high, buoyed by the rationale that these immigrant masses would receive an education that would transform them into citizens.
Capitalism, in its current form, lacks protagonists with this level of political and cultural consciousness that melds reformist impulse with authoritarianism. The urban market is not a public square. In the face of such changes, the city that sought a homogeneous and European identity does not recognize itself in the masses of the poor—be they Argentineans or citizens of neighboring countries—who occupy the neighborhoods along its periphery and the decaying streets of the city center.
Buenos Aires has been fractured in a way that reveals itself much more easily than the divide between a rich north and a poor southern region. The city is a historic map. Atop the optimistic blueprint of the nineteenth century, atop the monuments and public buildings of its glory days, there now appears a new system of highways and digital information networks.
The new foreigners in this city are the poor—Asian immigrants, the rural dwellers expelled from their hometowns by unemployment. Some of the traditionally vibrant neighborhoods of Buenos Aires have entered decline: there we find hotels serving migrants from the provinces or other corners of Latin America, old houses in ruins yet to be discovered by some developer interested in recycling them, second-class city services, a lack of security. What has brought this cycle to a definitive end is the very idea of the city as a cruel and seductive place stimulating to all sorts of innovation.
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The city is no longer viewed a desirable scene. The imagination is captured by a sort of country kitsch, according to which gated communities carry names that evoke the hispano-criollo past in modest lots of two hundred square yards, or become deterritorialized amid enormous suburban shopping centers peppered along major highways.
Between the country kitsch neighborhoods and the globalized camp of the shopping malls, Buenos Aires is host to a continuum of eight million inhabitants. But no one can any longer accuse the city of imitating Paris, a city that jealously guards its status as such, in the same way Manhattan and Berlin do. The European exile has come to an end. Now, in all likelihood, the image of paradise is some American suburb. Katherine S. Buenos Aires, vida cotidiana , op. Recovas are covered markets or storefronts situated beneath arcade walkways.
They once dotted the landscape of Buenos Aires and are considered emblems of the city. By arrangement with the publisher. Becker and Julia Tomasini. All rights reserved. Vayamos al primero. Hay un imaginario popular americano bajo el imaginario europeo. En verdad, Buenos Aires no recuerda ninguna ciudad europea, pero se compone de fragmentos tomados de muchas de ellas.
Pabellones normandos, pagodas, serpentarios que citan la arquitectura industrial o las exposiciones universales. Lawrence y Tagore. A partir de este suelo pobre en documentos de la historia, Buenos Aires se inventa. Buenos Aires, las orillas de Europa. Cuando el arado se clava en una parcela, la tierra recuerda haber sido arada durante siglos. El resto eran manchones de casas aisladas por extensiones barrosas.
Probablemente, Dreier no se equivocaba demasiado:. Aburrido de una ciudad que considera una aldea, Duchamp regresa en a Estados Unidos. Buenos Aires fue una ciudad de inmigrantes. Los inmigrantes eran una pieza central de este proyecto. Como sea, en el comienzo del siglo XX, Buenos Aires es una ciudad de extranjeros la mitad de sus habitantes lo son. No son cosmopolitas, son simplemente extranjeros.
Un inmigrante italiano narraba el shock producido por Buenos Aires. Se destruye la trama de relaciones directas que caracterizaba la aldea. No quiere que permanezcan en sus ghettos, sino por el contrario, obligarlos a la mezcla. Y, en realidad, lo fue. Arlt escribe:. La modernidad ha cumplido algunas de sus promesas y ha mostrado sus injusticias y conflictos. El fin del ciclo llega en , con la dictadura militar. El optimismo proyectual y estatista de las elites de fines del siglo XIX ha dejado paso al juego de las fuerzas del mercado en un espacio urbano convertido en escena de meganegocios.
Los capitales no defien den ciudades, defienden negocios en las ciudades. Hoy el sur de la ciudad es la otra cara del Buenos Aires que conocen los turistas o les muestran a los visitantes extranjeros. La ciudad no parece ya una escena deseable.
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El imaginario se fascina con una especie de kitsch campesino, en el que los barrios cerrados ostentan nombres que evocan el pasado hispano-criollo en mezquinas parcelas de doscientos metros cuadrados, o se desterritorializa en los grandes centros comerciales extraurbanos, tirados al borde de las autopistas. Entre el barrio campestre kitsch y el camp global de los shopping malls , Buenos Aires integra un continuum de ocho millones de habitantes.
El exilio europeo ha concluido.