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Hydrogen And Fuel Cells: Emerging Technologies And Applications
To produce hydrogen, water can be electrolyzed in the reverse of the fuel-cell reaction. To force electrolysis to occur, considerable amounts of electricity are required, much of which is currently generated by burning fossil fuels.
ISBN 13: 9780126552812
Alternatively, in commercial applications, the vast preponderance of hydrogen generated in the United States is extracted from a fossil fuel: natural gas. When natural gas basically methane, a lightweight molecule made of carbon and hydrogen is exposed to steam under high temperatures in the presence of a catalyst, it frees the hydrogen. Discussions about increasing hydrogen production by gas reforming are often accompanied by calls for carbon sequestration schemes. Not all hydrogen fuel cells , however, are destined for vehicles.
Stationary fuel cells for electric power generation have been under development for decades. Some applications of fuel cells to residential or commercial buildings could involve generating electricity from a fuel input like natural gas or hydrogen and using the waste heat from that process to heat the building. Still, the costs of hydrogen energy remain high compared to other energy sources; it is extremely difficult to store onboard, the use of natural gas as a feedstock emits CO2, and there are numerous technical challenges to overcome with these systems.
It could take many years of research and development, as well as changes in the energy infrastructure, before hydrogen could have a significant impact on American energy use. Nonetheless, the use of hydrogen for vehicle fuel has the potential to nearly eliminate gasoline use in light-duty vehicles by the middle of this century, while reducing fleet greenhouse gas emissions to less than 20 percent of current levels. A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas consisting of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. A by-product of fossil fuel combustion and other industrial processes, it is considered a greenhouse gas because it traps heat infrared energy radiated from Earth within the atmosphere.
Other road vehicles 4. Ships, trains, and airplanes 4.
Power plants and stand-alone systems 4. Building-integrated systems 4. Portable and other small-scale systems 4.
Hydrogen and Fuel Cells : Bent Sorensen :
Problems and discussion topics Chapter 5. Implementation Scenarios 5. Infrastructure requirements 5. Safety and norm issues 5. Scenarios based on fossil energy 5.
Scenarios based on nuclear energy 5. Scenarios based on renewable energy 5. Problems and discussion topics Chapter 6. Social Implications 6. Cost expectations 6. Uncertainties 6. Problems and discussion topics Chapter 7.
Conclusion: A Conditional Outcome 7. Opportunities 7.
- Our Energy Sources, Hydrogen Fuel Cells — The National Academies.
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Obstacles 7. The competition 7. The way forward 7. How much time do we have? The end, and a beginning References Index. He is also an independent consultant at Novator Advanced Technology Consulting.
He has five decades of experience in researching the field, and has published hundreds of monographs, articles in scientific journals, technical reports, and conference contributions. He has worked at universities in Japan, France, Denmark, Australia and the United States Berkeley and Yale , has been a consultant to governments and international organizations, a lead author in the IPCC climate assessment recipient of several international prizes and honors. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.