Manual Passage Through Dust -- Pioneer Eastern Dakota

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In Idaho it followed the Stump Creek valley northwest till it crossed the Caribou Mountains and proceeded past the south end of Grays Lake. This cutoff rejoined the Oregon and California Trails near the City of Rocks near the Utah-Idaho border and could be used by both California and Oregon bound travelers.

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Located about half way on both the California and Oregon Trails many thousands of later travelers used Salt Lake City and other Utah cities as an intermediate stop for selling or trading excess goods or tired livestock for fresh livestock, repairs, supplies or fresh vegetables. The Mormons looked on these travelers as a welcome bonanza as setting up new communities from scratch required nearly everything the travelers could afford to part with.

The overall distance to California or Oregon was very close to the same whether one "detoured" to Salt Lake City or not. To raise much needed money and facilitate travel on the Salt Lake Cutoff they set up several ferries across the Weber , Bear and Malad rivers which were used mostly by Oregon or California bound travelers. Big Hill was a detour caused by an impassable then cut the Bear River made through the mountains and had a tough ascent often requiring doubling up of teams and a very steep and dangerous descent.

Highway 30 , using modern explosives and equipment, was built through this cut. About 5 miles 8. The soda springs here were a favorite attraction of the pioneers who marveled at the hot carbonated water and chugging "steamboat" springs. Many stopped and did their laundry in the hot water as there was usually plenty of good grass and fresh water available.

Fort Hall was an old fur trading post located on the Snake River. At Fort Hall nearly all travelers were given some aid and supplies if they were available and needed. Mosquitoes were constant pests and travelers often mention that their animals were covered with blood from the bites. At Soda Springs was one branch of Lander Road established and built with government contractors in which had gone west from near South Pass, over the Salt River Mountains and down Star Valley before turning west near present-day Auburn , Wyoming and entering Idaho.

One branch turned almost 90 degrees and proceeded southwest to Soda Springs. On the main trail about 5 miles 8. Its main advantage was that it helped spread out the traffic during peak periods, making more grass available. There are only a few places where the Snake River has not buried itself deep in a canyon.

The sometimes subtle clues birds leave, including tracks

There are few spots where the river slowed down enough to make a crossing possible. Nathaniel Wyeth, the original founder of Fort Hall in , writes in his diary that they found a ford across the Snake River 4 miles 6. Another possible crossing was a few miles upstream of Salmon Falls where some intrepid travelers floated their wagons and swam their stock across to join the north side trail. Some lost their wagons and teams over the falls. Goodale's Cutoff , established in on the north side of the Snake River, formed a spur of the Oregon Trail.

This cutoff had been used as a pack trail by Indians and fur traders, and emigrant wagons traversed parts of the eastern section as early as It passed near the present-day town of Arco , Idaho and wound through the northern part of Craters of the Moon National Monument. This journey typically took two to three weeks and was noted for its very rough, lava restricted roads and extremely dry climate, which tended to dry the wooden wheels on the wagons, which caused the iron rims to fall off the wheels.

Loss of wheels caused many wagons to be abandoned along the route. It rejoined the main trail east of Boise. Goodale's Cutoff is visible at many points along U. Highway 20 , U. Highway 26 and U. At Salmon Falls there were often a hundred or more Indians fishing who would trade for their salmon—a welcome treat.

Route of the Oregon Trail - Wikipedia

The crossings were doubly treacherous because there were often hidden holes in the river bottom which could overturn the wagon or ensnarl the team, sometimes with fatal consequences. Before ferries were established there were several drownings here nearly every year. The north side of the Snake had better water and grass than the south. The usually lush Boise River valley was a welcome relief. This last crossing of the Snake could be done on bull boats while swimming the stock across.

Others would chain a large string of wagons and teams together. The theory was that the front teams, usually oxen, would get out of water first and with good footing help pull the whole string of wagons and teams across. How well this worked in practice is not stated. Often young Indian boys were hired to drive and ride the stock across the river—they knew how to swim, unlike many pioneers.

From there Interstate 86 to Pocatello roughly approximates the trail.

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Highway 30 roughly follows the path of the Oregon Trail from there to Montpelier , Idaho. Starting in about the South Alternate of Oregon Trail also called the Snake River Cutoff was developed as a spur off the main trail. It bypassed the Three Island Crossing and continued traveling down the south side of the Snake River. It rejoined the trail near present-day Ontario , Oregon.

It hugged the southern edge of the Snake River canyon and was a much rougher trail with poorer water and grass, requiring occasional steep descents and ascents with the animals down into the Snake River canyon to get water. Travellers on this route avoided two dangerous crossings of the Snake River. In the Central Pacific established Kelton , Utah as a railhead and the terminus of the western mail was moved from Salt Lake City. The Kelton Road became important as a communication and transportation road to the Boise Basin.

Once across the Snake River ford near Old Fort Boise the weary travelers traveled across what would become the state of Oregon. In settlers cut a wagon road over these mountains making them passable for the first time to wagons. At Fort Nez Perce some built rafts or hired boats and started down the Columbia; others continued west in their wagons until they reached The Dalles. After the trail bypassed the closed mission and headed almost due west to present day Pendleton , Oregon, crossing the Umatilla River , John Day River , and Deschutes River before arriving at The Dalles.

Arriving at the Columbia at The Dalles and stopped by the Cascade Mountains and Mount Hood , some gave up their wagons or disassembled them and put them on boats or rafts for a trip down the Columbia River. Once they transited the Cascade's Columbia River Gorge with its multiple rapids and treacherous winds they would have to make the 1. Murphy - - pages Political parties and civic action groups by Edward L. Schapsmeier, Frederick H. Schapsmeier - - pages Political parties and civic action groups by Edward L. Julian - - pages Political speeches and debates of Abraham Lincoln and S.

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After years of a hardscrabble life they owned a small farm called Rocky Ridge and a house of their own; they were self-sufficient, not wealthy, until the success of the Little House series. Conflict and loss, hubris and ignorance, economic crashes and natural disasters: all this simmers beneath the Little House stories of the plucky Ingalls family living in shanties, surviving blizzards and listening to Pa play the fiddle by firelight.

Even more deeply hidden: the fractious relationship between Wilder and her only surviving child, Rose Wilder Lane, a writing partnership that propelled the books into being. But she stalks all accounts of the life of Laura Ingalls Wilder. Fraser presents Lane as accomplished as a writer and editor but with nothing like the natural writing talent or imaginative lyricism of her mother. Certainly, by , when Wilder finished the manuscript for her memoir, Pioneer Girl , her chief experience as a writer was her folksy columns for the Missouri Ruralist.

Lane was a middle-aged professional with extensive contacts in the New York publishing world. The crash of , in which the Wilders had lost their scant savings, was another catalyst. The financial insecurity of her youth had made Wilder careful with money. She formed the local National Farm Loan Association and served as its secretary and treasurer.

Lane borrowed, spent and dispensed money in lavish quantities, planning grand houses, plotting great fortunes, and hectoring her mother to earn money from writing rather than farming.


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  • This early intrusion, she writes, set the stage for a clash between mother and daughter over the next decade. Pioneer Girl was turned down by New York publishers, and Lane was desperate.