From a historical and sociological point of view, the patron-playwright association is a crucial one, and it is researched and presented here as one of mutual benefit for the parties involved, who through it worked to achieve a common goal: the preservation of a conservative, religious sixteenth-century feudal ambience. Chapter 4 is noteworthy in this respect for it examines at length the function of the shepherd vis-a-vis the play, the audience, and the religious idea under consideration, all in relation to the concept of aesthetic distance. According to Wiltrout and as supported by her examples, the shepherd becomes less successful as an artistic creation when utilized in the service of allegorical doctrine, as occurs in the later plays.
From various perspectives then, this book achieves much more than what is explicitly stated in the title. It presents a fascinating portrait of the times, a background against which the playwright, his work and his patrons can be set. It offers a very vivid and detailed description and analysis of one man's life and work; it explores the nature of and reasons for the very intimate relationship between playwright and patron in a particular time period; and, it enters into a sophisticated theoretical discussion of the notion of aesthetic distance based on the shepherd's protean role within the playwright's different works.
This book is to be highly recommended as a text vital to the historical, sociological and literary study of early sixteenth century Spanish drama. Above all, it is captivating reading. In this collection of essays, Bruno Damiani focuses on six prose works of the Spanish Golden Age in order to underline their didactic elements. But Damiani links his didactic concerns to the belief that in Spain, Christian elements overshadowed many of the central conceptions of the Renaissance.
In arguing for the continuation of the Middle Ages during the Renaissance, this volume actually mirrors what Umberto Eco labels as a new trend, the renewed interest in the Middle Ages which he has noticed both in America and in Europe. In Travels in Hiperreality , Eco also claims that, immediately after the official ending of the Middle Ages, European literatures began reflecting a nostalgia for the past epoch. Charity plays a central role in four of the six essays included in this volume. According to Damiani, it is the central virtue in Montemayor's La Diana , although this pastoral novel also foregrounds prudence, faith, justice and moderation.
Here, Damiani could have delved more deeply into why he labels Laureola's emotion as pity and not love. Indeed, charity could well have been an organizing element in this volume. This and other elements could have been woven together to present a more cohesive text. Lack of editorial care is also evident in the fact that the beginning of the first chapter repeats much of what is said in the introduction.
Although Damiani stresses Christian morality and didacticism, he also interweaves a number of concepts and images from classical literature. Even in his discussion of paradisiacal images in Cervantes's La Galatea , Damiani interweaves Ovid and the Apocalypsis , the muses and the saints. In some texts the didactic element emerges through the. In conclusion, this collection brings together five previously published essays along with a piece on La Galatea in order to foreground the role of Christian morality and didacticism in Spanish Renaissance texts.
Scholars interested in the prose of the Spanish Golden Age should be grateful to Damiani for malting these thought-provoking pieces accessible in a single volume. Although John Weiger is not a Derridean deconstructionist, his monograph In the Margins of Cervantes focuses -as does Derrida's Marges de la philosophie - on analogies, passages, notes, and other marginalia that have been overlooked unjustly, and he shows that such materials are not of marginal consequence by any means.
To this exercise, Weiger brings his vast experience as a close reader of Cervantine works and his familiarity with Cervantes criticism, especially that of the last two decades. While devoting most of his attention to Don Quixote , Weiger expands the limits of the masterpiece, making numerous references to other Cervantine works, engaging his readers in the intertextual process of reading, and demonstrating to them that the reader is an essential component of the production of meaning in spite of and because of the instability of the text.
Weiger underscores the significance of the marginal notation extraneous to the historian Cide Hamete's text I, 9 in which Dulcinea del Toboso is described as having the best hand for salting pork in La Mancha. Moreover, the marginal comment -made by a reader of Don Quixote - draws attention to the problem of authorial identity and to the interaction of multiple authorial voices with the readers within and without the text. Denying that the prologuist is Cervantes himself, Weiger points out that it is the prologuist's friend who first says that Don Quixote is a funny and parodic book.
Cervantes, on the other hand, remains hidden and allows his authorial voices to confront the reader with the unstable writing of history and fiction in the text.
- Sorry we still under construction....
- Sorry we still under construction...?
- Its A Small World.
Weiger contrasts earlier and later Cervantine prologues with that of to demonstrate Cervantes's particular concerns with history, fiction, authoring, and reading just after he had written Don Quixote I. On such character, Don Diego de Miranda, is considered to be an anti-reader of histories and devotional works. Weiger also observes that the writing experience is often dreamlike for Don Quixote and other Cervantine authorial figures who attempt to stimulate the mind of the reader.
He creates a unique quantifying system to show how the reader is drawn into the writing process by the delayed naming of characters.
Visor de obras.
Weiger returns to the prologuist of Don Quixote and concludes that rather than being metafiction -a novel about novel writing- it is a fiction about a history which is, of course, a fiction. Weiger has called attention to overlooked aspects of Cervantes's texts, discussing them with regard to textual instability and the interrelated roles of writers and readers. On most occasions the implied reader in Weiger's monograph seems to be a highly skilled one, perhaps a Cervantine critic like himself.
While Weiger denies that a seventeenth-century reader could produce the sort of reading that he does of Don Quixote , he implies that a seventeenth-century writer and reader -Cervantes himself- could read like a twentieth-century critic. In addition, Weiger sometimes notes. Shergold y J. El trabajo de Varey y Shergold es, sin duda, valioso para el estudio de la historia del teatro en su momento de mayor apogeo.
About years after Quevedo's death, the three recent publications reviewed here attest to the enduring value of one of Spain's greatest writers. Schwartz Lerner knows a lot about the many classical writers she uses and is well conversant with Quevedo's prose and poetry and many of the scholarly studies on this author.
The studies in her book appropriately focus on Quevedo's style, which is probably the most creative and significant aspect of the corpus of his works. She contributes many useful examples to demonstrate Quevedo's stylistic virtuosity and his linkage with writers of the past, thus amplifying much of what Quevedo specialists already have seen in his writings.
This reviewer, however, feels obliged to point out several reservations. The author displays her erudition in adducing Quevedo's indebtedness to writers of classical antiquity but it is very difficult if not impossible to ascribe his stylistic technique directly to certain specific writers. Not only did Quevedo and Cervantes write some of their best works during the same fifteen years, but, in addition, the lament over the loss of justice and a yearning for a paradise regained, which have been with us since the time of ancient Greece, was commonly found in Spanish Golden Age literature see Frederick A.
It would have been helpful to include a bibliography at the end of the book.
Sorry we still under construction!
A vast amount of bibliography and explanations appears only in footnotes and the reader may wonder whether all this is necessary. Finally, a reader usually expects a conclusion which would lend cohesion to the author's studies. Alva V. The work of Quevedo was first published by Aguilar in , and apparently no other edition of it has appeared until now. The book provides interesting insights into Quevedo's thought as he neared the end of his hectic life. Ebersole furnishes a chronology, an introduction on Quevedo and his style, a useful list of literary terms and a bibliography.
This edition, as others in the series, is typographically attractive. The princeps of was not chosen since Roberto Duport published it without Quevedo's permission.
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He admits that it is impossible to prove Quevedo's intervention but conjectures that any reader familiar with his style could not fail to notice that Quevedo was responsible for the alterations. Iffland's useful introduction to his edition provides a synthesis of several issues on which critics have taken divergent stands. If they do not agree on Pablos' characterization, they generally concur that all other characters are stereotypical.
Critics also have differing views regarding the novel's structural unity. A hotly debated question is whether the work has a moral intent. Another point of contention revolves about the nature of the novel's social or ideological message. Iffland generally does not side with one faction or another since he believes that his function is mainly to point out to readers the contrasting perspectives of those critics who have wrestled with the issues. The Introduction is replete with valuable notes and bibliography and Iffland also includes a brief supplementary bibliography.
The edition itself contains a plethora of footnotes that translate and explain difficult words and phrases and his historical and cultural notes are illuminating. This meticulously crafted book is highly recommended. The various manuscripts and editions. This decision explains why he has called his work studies rather than a study of Batilo's poetry. Polt examines anacreontic poems including those of La paloma de Filis , the romances , and the early odes.
In the longest and perhaps the most impressive chapter, Polt studies the anacreontic tradition, choice of vocabulary, syntax, rhyme, rhythm, rhetorical figures, tropes, motifs, themes, narrative voice and the addressee. His careful evaluation of the rhythmical patterns of the anacreontic odes is especially praiseworthy. He shows that rhythm, whether conscious or not on the part of the poet, is a particularly important element in these poems, and that the greater utilization of dactylic rhythm is on e of several manifestations of the poet's tendency to become more classical.
Polt carefully analyzes selected poems from the anacreontic odes. Ode XXXIII, for example, probably written before , appeared in seven different versions but still consisted of twenty-four verses.
Sorry we still under construction...
In the edition, however, forty additional verses were included. Each of the four chapters is devoted to a different group of poems but all follow the general pattern of Chapter 1 with appropriate emphasis on certain aspects of the creative process. Rhythm is granted more attention in the opening chapter than in those that follow, and Chapter 4 provides much information on the Renaissance and classical sources of the early odes studied in that chapter. The later odes, primarily those with a philosophical and religious theme, are not neglected. Polt considers the well-known recommendation of Jovellanos to write on more serious topics than those of the anacreontic poems.
He succeeded in purifying its language while elevating and renovating its themes. Polt observes that the new direction can also be seen in the romances and the anacreontic poems, although the change is more decisive in the odes. This work is clearly a valuable contribution to eighteenth-century studies, and merits its simultaneous publication in this country and in Spain.
We now have a much better understanding of the poet's creative process. As is the case of many other Spanish writers, it serves well as the only available book-length study in English of an author known to few readers who are not Hispanists. Under the repressive regime of Fernando VII, he suffered imprisonment in north Africa but was released in time to participate in political life during the constitutional triennium of , becoming prime minister briefly in In the years that followed, he became the elder statesman of Spanish politics and letters: president of the Ateneo, director of the Royal Spanish Academy, foreign minister, ambassador to France and to Italy, president of the Lower Chamber of Deputies.
The Mayberrys treatment of his oeuvre will not answer the question. It is said that a bomb narrowly missed the theater during a performance but that the absorbed audience remained to see it through. Wilcox's book is an analysis of five poetic texts dealing with images of selfhood during three periods approximately , , and He gives for each text modern Anglo and American Formalist, European structuralist , post modern semiotic, psychoanalytic, deconstructionist , and specialist traditional academic readings.
After explaining his three reading strategies and introducing his thesis in the first chapter, Wilcox devotes the following two chapters to a study of the pre-Modern phase of lunar aestheticism. Chapter 3 studies various manifestations of Mr. The two chapters which follow analyze the Modern phase of affirmative solar aestheticism.
The detailed analyses of individual poems may well constitute the most valuable portions of the work; one could even wish for a greater number of such analyses, which would also serve the purpose of strengthening further the author's central thesis. A list of Works Cited and an Index follow a section of Notes which also contains material of interest. The works in this collection are somewhat uneven in quality and content and overall, contain relatively few new insights.
This exciting collection of literary essays is a fitting. Contributors include former students, friends, and colleagues from Piper's more than fifty years' connection with Williams, beginning with his freshman year there in There are also articles from associates from his graduate school days at the University of Wisconsin. Literary approaches range from the most recent reader-oriented literary theory and feminist criticism to the more traditional historical and linguistic studies.
There is even a tour de force by Irwin Shainman, Piper's friend and colleague of more than thirty-five years at Williams, of Verdi's life, works and significance using his Spanish operas as a focus. The subject matter is as democratic as the approaches used to elucidate the material. The style of the essays is sprightly, at times even amusing, but never frivolous. Some of the most enjoyable essays are by former students who initially entered academe and then went into other fields. Writing is now an avocation for them, and their love and enthusiasm for literature radiate.
Such a writer is August J. Another such author is Robert L. Now an international advertising executive, Mitchell left academe in His passion for their writing does not prevent his imparting a balanced, intelligent sense of their poetic process; in fact, it enhances it. The writers of this volume, as if aware of their diverse audience, orient the reader sufficiently so that even someone unversed in a particular subject can enjoy it. The result is an expansion of the reader's horizons and consciousness and a stimulation to complete much needed scholarship, often suggested by the authors at the end of the various essays.
There is much of Anson Piper in this volume. His receptivity and openness to new ideas, tempered by a humanistic appreciation of those things of lasting value are evident in the subject matter and caliber of the essays. Their articles in honor of him are genuinely interesting and entertaining. They embody the maxim, Prodesse et delectare. There is also much of the wisdom of Piper's old friend Cervantes. Though in the work of Diana de Armas Wilson and other contributors, Cervantes does not seem so much old, as enduring.
In it we again see the influence of Cervantes in the form of El Quijote. Piper urges his audience to see reality for what it is and to be mindful of the madness that can masquerade as rationality. As a corrective he urges the cultivation of basic sanity and one's inner world or spirit.
The volume is sure also to earn its place -on the shelf of any truly educated person's library. One of Puerto Ricos most prolific authors, Enrique. Laguerre published in the Twayne Author Series in Both books provide a useful bibliography as well as frequent references throughout the text to the opinions of other critics.
Estelle Irizarry has written extensively on Laguerre with an additional book on his classical La llamarada as well as articles, bibliographies and special editions of his works. The first chapter relates the author's life to the changing economic and social structure of the island, from its agrarian roots at the end of the 19th Century to the urban society of the present. Throughout this study, Irizarry is careful to point out the influence of history and change as they are reflected in Laguerre's works.
Thus, for example, she demonstrates how the profound disruptions in the rural economy of coffee and tobacco farms caused by the introduction of U. As the subtitle of this study indicates, however, not only does Irizarry situate the various novels studied in individual chapters within their historical and political context; she is also careful to establish Laguerre's works within a European and Latin American literary tradition.
Laguerre's use of symbolism and metaphor as well as his recurrent utilization of legend, myth and folklore, both local and universal, are carefully examined in her analysis of the novels. Laguerre is a carefully-written study with useful and often enlightening information for those who wish to understand in some depth the novels of this important Latin American author. As early as the 's, Bombal was promoting the feminist cause in her prose works.
The text is divided into an introduction, four analytical chapters, a conclusion, an appendix and a bibliography. The first chapter gives a biographical sketch, elements of which have been substantiated in a personal interview with the author reproduced in the appendix. Chapter II places Bombal within an historical framework. Texts of work laws and references in Catholic Church doctrine which signal the subservience of women provide insight into the condition of Chilean women some fifty years ago.
The next two chapters present detailed analysis of Bombal's short stories and novels. Perceptive footnotes compensate for the occasional superfluity of plot description. The conclusion, Chapter V, unites the major points of the analysis. An overall definition of woman, as portrayed by Bombal's female protagonists, is attained: each is confused, frustrated and alienated. Alone with her thoughts, Bombal's protagonist resorts to interior monologue to express her anguish. The only negative aspects of the study are occasional repetition of quotations and numerous typographical errors.
Nevertheless, these minor flaws are far offset by the impeccable research which the work reflects. The bilingual footnotes are insightful, revealing a broad knowledge of world literature and psychology. The bibliography is thorough and up-to-date, characteristic of the diligent preparation noted throughout the study. Finally, the text is readable and holds interest.
Based upon this study, one might well agree. At the very least, one gains a greater appreciation of the universality of Bombal's works. Therefore an important mark of fantastic literature is the irreconcilable doubt with which the reader is left at the end of a story, concerning whether something paranormal took place or whether there is after all a rational explanation.
One must question, though, whether Bombal's story qualifies despite this criterion. An adulterous affair is anything but paranormal, and the fantasy element lies only in the question whether it took place in objective reality or only in the mind of the protagonist. In it, a male protagonist follows a woman out of a strange restaurant when he thinks she is in danger. She disappears, whereupon he returns and is brutally murdered. In Cruz's analysis much is made of whether these events partake of the nature of ordinary reality or not. The point, though, would seem to be that at the conclusion the woman is revealed to be the narrator, and as such can imagine, and narrate, anything she wants, as is the case with Bombal's protagonist.
One wonders, then, about pre-modern societies in which what the West calls supernatural events are taken for granted. The entire structure is fantastic. At the end the narrator playfully concludes that the Aleph may or may not be genuine, thereby leaving the reader in doubt.
Cruz has done this genre a great service by bringing to bear an impressive amount of research on it. Clearly, though, much more remains to be done by way of clarifying definitions and categories. The Cerezo study is a revised version of her doctoral dissertation presented to the University of Toronto in The first chapter is an assessment of Donoso's debt to Henry James in general and to his The Turn of the Screw in particular.
She concludes that it is primarily an autobiography of his nightmares, fantasies, and fears. The narrative disorder mentioned by numerous critics is successfully countered by Cerezo as the rational ordering of the chaos of madness. In order for the reader to accept this logic, Cerezo insists, it is necessary to accept the abdication of the original writer and to accept Humberto, and ultimately Mudito, as the protagonist-narrators of the novel. Cerezo points out a kind of final irony in the. The basic thesis of this study is sound and well-written, and the book will certainly become a part of the standard Donoso bibliography.
Cerezo has delineated a critical point of view of an admittedly complex work of fiction, and she has carefully documented her conclusions. Her bibliography is extensive and well-ordered, but readers of this study may question her failure to update the bibliography to include the many Donoso studies published after One may also question her reasons for not including the text of the two interviews Donoso granted her as an appendix to the volume. At the same time, we must recognize the difficulty of undertaking a critical project on the recent works of Elena Garro, whose fictional worlds may be described as hallucinatory labyrinths or disorienting galleries of voices.
He was almost as precious and prolific with his lovers as he was with his studies and his plays. He fell in love with her in and became a father for the first time in Sadly, the daughter, Manuela, did not live to five years old. Much to the poet's dismay, when Elena Osorio became a widow, she did not throw herself into his arms, instead she preferred those of a rich businessman.
In the middle of a performance, just as the year was drawing to a close, he was taken prisoner in the Corral de la Cruz. Jailed for the writings against Elena Osorio, in prison he continued to write others, which earned him a sentence of exile from the Court for four years and from the kingdom of Castile for two.
But before leaving Madrid, tenacious ladies' man that he was, Lope kidnapped with her consent Isabel de Urbina his 'Belisa' , which he married by proxy on May 10, There are those who say that the poet was hidden in the church observing the service when it took place. Although only 25 years old, he was already a very famous author, and probably the best playwright in Spain. Cervantes praised him in La Galatea , in which he labeled him as one of Spain's most prominent wits.
Lope enjoyed all of this glory with Isabel de Urbina, with whom he completed part of his exile in Valencia, where his daughter Antonia was born. But there, once again, he was tempted by adventure and we went to Lisbon to volunteer in the Invincible Armada. Upon returning to Valencia, he continued to create plays, which were much solicited both there and in Madrid, and he wrote several romances, which were circulated throughout Spain.
With the end of the decade and the beginning of the next, the poet's life began to undergo several changes. In his mother, who never appeared in his works, died. In , he entered the service of the Duke of Alba. He wrote several plays, novels Arcadia and poetry. What appears to be a peaceful period of his life became a torment with the deaths of his daughter Antonia and shortly thereafter, his wife, Isabel de Urbina, as she gave birth to Teodora.
In , the penalty of exile was lifted and he returned to Madrid where his daughter died a year later. Alone, Lope returned to the ways of the capital and the Court. He was processed for cohabitating with Antonia Trillo de Armenta, a widow who ran a gaming house. This appears to be a marriage of convenience, from which Lope would benefit with a hefty dowry of 22, reales with the arrival of the bride, but which apparently never arrived. Rumors about the successful author's wedding ran rampant through the city, where Quevedo, more brazen, dedicated some verses to him saying, " He married meat and fish.
In , on the brink of death and citing moral reasons, Phillip II ordered the closing of theaters. A year later, when the prohibition was finally lifted from theaters, Lope composed and had Bodas entre el Alma y el Amor Divino performed. During this time he also published El Isidro y la Dragontea.
With Juana de Guardo he had one daughter, Jacinta. And El arenal de Sevilla ended. Whenever he could, Lope boasted about his copious production and that year he declared that he had written plays, citing titles. At the beginning of , the first part of Don Quixote appeared, and in the prologue, Cervantes included several verses against Lope, which was his response to a previous attack by the poet. The Segunda parte de las comedias and El Arte nuevo de hacer comedias were published in PDF Kindle.
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