PDF Die Entwicklung der Amerikanisierung in Deutschland (German Edition)

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Finally, because we are humane people, concerned with the human rights of all peoples, we feel compelled to study the systematic destruction of the Jews so that we may seek to learn how to prevent such enormities from occurring in the future. Into it they shoveled all of their reason, their logic, their knowledge, but worst of all, their conscience. And the moment we forget this, the moment we cease to be haunted by its remembrance, then we become the gravediggers.

Something to dwell on and remember, not only in the Twilight Zone but wherever men walk God's Earth. By its nature, by its very nature, it must be one of the populated areas of the Twilight Zone.

Many societies around the world can't get enough of it, but others see it as a fundamental threat. Sie verteilten haufenweise Lebensmittel, warfen das, was sie nicht brauchten, aus den Panzern. It has enshrined, by dint of its placement, not just the history of the Holocaust, but American democratic and egalitarian ideals as they counterpoint the Holocaust. That is, by remembering the crimes of another people in another land, it encourages Americans to recall their nation's own, idealized reason for being.

Was ist Amerikanisierung? Above all, the mass production of arms and agricultural machinery, along with sowing machines and office appliances, were hallmarks of the American production system of mass manufacturing. From the economic and technological perspective, rationalisation and productivity thereby became core elements of an "American ideology" 9 that brought with them a specific sales policy aimed at mass markets.

It was not limited "wie bei uns […] auf Erteilung von Drucksachen und Reklame in Form von Zeitungsinseraten", but employed "viel wirksamere Mittel" "much more effective methods" such as free samples, giveaways, installations and cinema advertisements. It was this combination of productivity, mass affluence and consumer culture that made the USA the "irresistible empire" of the 20th century. As an industrial catch-up state , Germany had experienced an equally fast economic development as the USA since the end of the 19th century.

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Nevertheless, the German independent production system of specialised, high-quality production, which has been described as an alternative to the American production model, was retained. Thus, the beginnings of Europe's interaction with the American economic model must be traced back to the end of the 19th century rather than the conclusion of the First World War. In terms of economic performance, the "land of opportunity" became a model for the industrial states of the West in the early 20th century at the latest.

One can classify various "waves of Americanisation" by looking at these discourses. In this period, Americanisation can be primarily understood as rationalisation. The areas of production and organisation affected by it became the basis for the creation of modern systems of production and consumption. These, however, only arrived in Europe after the Second World War. In fact, there was a further wave of Americanisation in the s and s. It can be seen as the forerunner of globalisation in the late 20th century with regard to the transfer of management knowhow and the American culture of competition.

During the "incubation phase" of the great European debate on America before the First World War, Americanisation was only occasionally discussed in terms of the direct transfer of American popular culture and production methods to the old world.

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This, however, changed after the First World War, when the "great seminal catastrophe" of the 20th century threw European culture into a deep crisis and also changed the self-image of the USA considerably. The war brought about fundamental shifts in international state structures and first heralded the "American century". American direct investment in Europe in amounted to about 1. Therefore, an "industrial Americanization of Europe" was already taking place in the period after the First World War, although.

From the beginning, this involvement of American companies in Europe de facto offered local firms a manageable range of new practices of production, sales and competition. Above all, the "American gospel of productivity" fell on fertile ground among European companies that wanted to modernise and revitalise the European economy. Often, these were liberal entrepreneurs of the so-called new industries such as the electrical and chemical industries or light engineering, who were open to new technologies or had to adapt their methods under pressure from American competitors.

This was also true of Swiss watchmakers and European shoe and bicycle manufacturers, who standardised and mechanised their production facilities early on. In addition, Taylorist methods of work had been entering the German engineering and electrical industries since the end of the 19th century.

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For example, the Berlin entrepreneur Ludwig Loewe — had travelled the USA to study the production systems there intensively. In order to facilitate optimal transfer, Loewe even employed American engineers and sent his employees to the USA on educational trips. Loewe built his company from scratch on the American model. It would have been considerably more difficult to Americanise an existing firm.

In contrast to Loewe, most European manufacturers rejected extensive standardisation of their products in favour of meeting the individual tastes of their customers. In accordance with their belief in quality, they believed that. Not until after the First World War did Opel become the first German car manufacturer to introduce Fordist methods in A few years later, this made the company an attractive target for takeover by General Motors.

In individual cases, the expansionist American models of production already had consequences for the enterprises' organisational structures. Meyer noticed the increasing organisation of large firms "nach amerikanischem Muster" "on the American model".

„Amerikanisierung“ der Wahlkommunikation in Westeuropa: Diskussions- und Forschungsstand

The inclusion of a rail connection and a transport system inside the plant drew on the example of the Union Stock Yards of Chicago and made it a showcase for a modern enterprise. After the Second World War, the discourse of Americanisation reached a new stage. The need to overcome the economic crisis and rebuild society made cooperation between the European states and the American military authorities a question of survival. This is above all true of the model of the liberal market economy, which — especially in the German Federal Republic — was implemented as analogous to a democratic social order.

Such interpretations have received considerable criticism in the research. For example, it is used in relation to the European Recovery Program ERP as a byword for productivity, technical progress and economic prosperity. Marshall — , obliged the participating countries to adhere not only to political but also to "economic good conduct". It thereby enforced both an institutional and a mental process of transformation, each of which can be discussed from the perspective of Americanisation. As a result, the central tenets of a modern, Western capitalism were transferred to Europe, sometimes with gentle pressure: the unitary worldwide monetary system agreed in the Bretton Woods treaty of , the integrated system of foreign trade based on the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT, and a liberal understanding of competition.

The correlation of productivity, economic growth and affluence that had characterised the US economy since the early 20th century was weaker in the European states before the Second World War. They could only accomplish this if they received adequate revenues. It aimed to increase the productivity of the countries participating in the Marshall Plan by a quarter by the mids. This was to be attained by giving instruction on new technologies and organisation to European entrepreneurs, engineers and economists within the framework of the US Technical Assistance and Productivity Mission.

The American initiatives to increase productivity had little measurable success for example with regard to direct increases in productivity. Nevertheless, one should not underestimate their long-term modernising impact. They essentially promoted a liberal understanding of the market and a modern orientation towards productivity, expansion and sales, which became a cornerstone of the Western world's wealth. And, while this self-image could differ depending on an actor's industry, competitive situation or generation, one can observe a fundamental rapprochement in values and strategies between Western economic cultures that would turn out to be essential to the globalisation of the late 20th century.

Americanization - The US strikes back?

The increased presence of American corporations in Europe contributed to this. The foundation of the European Economic Community in created a market which resembled its American counterpart in terms of size and prospects for development:. After the Second World War, the Americans had considerable competitive advantages in Europe in terms of their markets and potential for development. Therefore, many local companies feared that the Marshall Plan was nothing other than a "Trojan Horse" for American investors and competitors to win the European markets.

Indeed, the involvement of American corporations in Europe placed an unprecedented competitive pressure on long-established suppliers. It seemed more advantageous to develop production facilities locally rather than export to this market, not least due to the EEC's initially high external tariffs.

In this way, the transfer of private capital in the form of US direct investment was an important component of the international economic integration that turned Europe into an "economic centre of gravity". The literature sees the stream of capital from the USA to Europe as a central transfer medium for Americanisation: After the Second World War, engineering, aluminium, chemicals, plastics, tyre manufacturing and pharmaceuticals were added.

Its defining attribute was an expansionist approach orientated towards offensive risk-taking. Servan-Schreiber understood the massive American direct investment as an economic challenge for the European states and a lesson for European companies. With this in mind, economic and business historians correctly argue in favour of using the term Americanisation as an analytical category, above all for the period after According to this, Americanisation does not only mean the influence of American capital in European companies, for example in the form of direct investment, but also — indeed primarily — the adaption of values and legal institutions, business practices and strategies in the areas of market organisation, economic policy and corporate governance.

Americanisation describes graduated degrees of adaption, including improvements and modifications: in short, it is the "hybridisation" of American techniques and models that accommodates decidedly European traditions. With regard to the European economy, the term Americanisation is therefore an extremely promising analytical framework.

Nevertheless, one cannot assume a basic "Americanisation" in the sense of a lineal transfer of American methods, values and convictions. Rather, the transfer and adaption of American know-how before and after the Second World War seem to have depended on various constellations such as the institutional and political system, the individual stance of business actors and the competitive climate. Regardless of this, the American rhetoric of productivity, cooperation, division of labour, modernity and social affluence conveyed a changed perception of economic processes and competitive and expansionist behaviour which underscored the golden age of prosperity after the Second World War.

From the historical perspective, Americanisation can be understood as a "phase of globalisation ". Companies' global activities are not only made possible by the necessary institutional foundations such as the deregulation and liberalisation of markets or the introduction of technologies facilitating worldwide transportation and communication; they are also encouraged by the disintegration of cultural boundaries and the implementation of unified systems of norms and values among all those participating in the market. In addition, through their policies of transnational investment and the export of universal popular culture, American corporations prepared the triumphal march of global products.

Brands such as Coca Cola and McDonald's were, in this way, the pioneers of a global development. The rationalisation of consumption based on reproducibility, universal manufacturing methods and prompt availability led, via the core elements of the American ideology, to a converging global society. Susanne Hilger. Schnutenhaus, Otto R. Baumol et al. Barjot, Dominique ed. Barjot, Dominique et al. Benz, Wolfgang ed. Chandler, Alfred D. De Long, J. Doering-Manteuffel, Anselm: Wie westlich sind die Deutschen?

Amerikanisierung und Westernisierung im Chandler et al. Gassert, Philipp: Was meint Amerikanisierung?

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