Hopefully this includes more Rwandan women pilots to fly these birds with pioneer Esther Mbabazi. Petit pays, peuple au grand coeur. Et enfin, RwandAir! Je suis impatiente. They could not fathom my decision to move to Rwanda. The leaving Cameroon part was understandable. After all, I had left home before for many years and my eventual return would surprise more than one. Still, Rwanda was a completely different story.
The questions were somehow touching as they were sincere. Although some revealed a deep ignorance of the country of a thousand hills, the people puzzled by my decision spoke honestly. Furthermore, these questions illustrated a more debatable aspect of our collective mentality. For many of us the choice is obvious; one leaves an African country to go to the West. After all, life is better there, more beautiful, better organized and the harvest plenty. In short, the West equates the dream life! Two stereotypes explain this mindset. The first originates in the fact that we human beings are essentially narcissistic creatures, solely preoccupied by the improvement of our petty material comfort.
On this basis, we are all by definition potential. Quitter le Cameroun, bien entendu, cela se comprenait. Mais enfin elle existait. The second originates in the fact that the western world in all aspects is preferable to ours. The model of reference is by nature the western model.
Whatever the motivation behind our desire to emigrate, the destination is undoubtedly the West. As much as my friends were surprised by my project of settling in Rwanda, their stupefaction left me puzzled as many of them were people who would gladly call themselves Pan-Africans. While it is true all of us today are Pan-Africans, the term holds strong meaning. During the African Union Summit held in Kigali in July , the launch of the African passport was announced, symbolizing the comeback of the ideal continental unity. In my opinion, this ideal is mistreated by our own incoherence and inconsistency.
Allow me a closer evaluation; if the feeling of a common destiny has always existed even vaguely amongst the African people, the will of constructing a political project around that feeling has always been carried by one elite and fed within the. A contemporary style hotel that provides all the comfort, convenience and efficiency to the discerning traveller. Ideally located along Mombasa road in Nairobi the capital city of Kenya, Eka Hotel has elegant meeting rooms designed to suit every occasion, complimented with stylish accommodation offering the best choice venue for your business and leisure stay.
Finally it has been reached. Relatively new, though the Pan-African ideology is up-todate, it remains abstract and the political elite seemingly adheres to it less and less. One applauds the African passport project more for its practical dimensions than for the symbolic representation, and the political horizon it may open. Of course, some regional integration projects are making headway, their key driver being commercial targets. The main objective is to ease commerce. While increased trade between African countries is of great importance, the Pan-African ideology should primarily be a human project.
One that is political, of which the economic outcome should be the natural consequence. In other words, it should be visible in the daily life of Africans, in their lifestyle and choices given to fulfill a common destiny. The fight for independence was a continent wide movement. Nationalist leaders were exchanging, cooperating, and supporting each other in the fight. The battle of liberation was not limited by borders; freedom had no meaning unless all of Africa was free. The world has changed course since then but our challenges are astonishingly identical. Yesterday as today, the target was to combat all forms of imperialism, to put an end to the poison of ethnic division and fundamentally, to transform the lives of the poorest among uswho also make up the majority.
As long as we believe this, the Pan-African ideology may offer an adequate context for solving these problems but it may require parting with the romantic vision of the continental unity project and replace it with political content. Paradoxically, our leaders, whose legitimacy is firstly national, are not necessarily the best placed to represent that vision. It is then our mission as ordinary citizens to lead the way. We must start by reaffirming a simple idea; we are the citizens of the continent. If we are legally tied to a nation, our consciousness must have continental reach.
Hence, the struggles, the aspirations, the success, the tragedies, the hopes of every African country will also be ours. So that whatever is happening in Johannesburg, in Nairobi, in Addis Ababa, in Kigali, in Cotonou, in Abidjan and elsewhere in the continent will concern us all to the utmost extent. Our national identity cannot be disassociated from our African identity. Nous sommes des citoyens du continent.
The celebration goes beyond the Christian community, as for Jews, Muslims, Buddhists, agnostics and atheists, celebration is also in the air everywhere; the only difference being the reasons behind this celebration. Originally, Christmas is a Christian celebration commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ every 25th of December, however it moves away from it a little more every year. The last few days of the last month of the year, according to the calendar - which was initiated by the Christian era - are for many of you a time of looking back.
This moment of reflection takes place annually for companies, and various organisations, and is personal for an individual aiming at becoming better, to achieve objectives or even ideals. It is impossible to discuss Christmas without placing it in our era, that of the consumerist society. It goes without saying that those months are a golden opportunity for commercial companies,. All sorts of products are flooding the markets shelves, and they go hand in hand with heavy marketing which becomes a true war machine.
Yes, War! It is rumbling everywhere. It saturates the news shows. Christmas is so charismatic that the belligerent parties have almost pledged a sort of allegiance to it, sometimes, miraculously declaring a truce for a few hours or days. The Heads of States from most of the countries and kingdoms throughout the world overflowing their nation with messages, as a good patriarch or matriarch would.
Merry Christmas. These two words, are nowadays impersonally parachuted in your inbox, as early as the 15th December for the most impatient of them, sometimes as laconic as a military order. A wind of philanthropy is blowing over the Christmas spirit which is for a few sensitive souls the ideal moment to spend some of their time, their bread and their warmth in hospitals, orphanages, retirement houses or chosen schools.
The less fortunate know that Christmas is a godsend gift, literally and figuratively. The 25th of December thus wears many different hats, depending on what you will choose for it to be. The Christmas celebrations are no longer unique. They have multiple facettes but unite people even in the most faraway lands. Bringing people together, that is the true Christmas magic.
The modern world, moving at 4G speed, is a world of paradox that invites us to reflect. Never has spirituality created as much repulsion and attraction at the same time. Attracting and repulsing. Fanaticism and its opposite in their most expressive fashions. Humankind now more than ever, needs to be brought together beyond its differences. To this day, no one yet has found the right formula for it.
Only Christmas makes us live almost together, just like a family affair. Eh oui! La guerre. Elle gronde de partout. De fanatisme et de son contraire sous leurs formes les plus expressives. My first trip was an accident. An accident that was in the making as far back as 18 years before the visit.
Little did I know that this chance encounter with the soft-spoken and somewhat diffident Mr. Ndatsikira would influence my coming to Rwanda, and that on the same trip I would meet a beautiful Rwandan who in due course would give me reason to turn Rwanda into my second home. Before the trip, Rwanda had not featured on the list of countries I wanted to visit.
I came because I spoke French and as a result, I had an edge over other possible candidates. Mon premier voyage, un fruit du hasard. The genocide against the Tutsi had ended six years previously. However, it still coloured popular opinion about the country far more than it does today. I spent much of the visit in Kigali, venturing out only once, to Gitarama town, as it was called then.
I did not see much of the rest of the country. However, as I indicated earlier, Rwanda eventually became my second home. And so over the years I have got to see a great deal of what lies outside Kigali. It is false. Avant le voyage, le Rwanda ne figurait pas sur la liste des pays que je voulais visiter. It was physically clean.
EXPOSITION DU MOIS
However, there was little by way of modern buildings, residential or commercial. Low-grade informal housing was ubiquitous, with lots of it located fairly close to the CBD. Many African cities encounter slum issues, so Kigali was not unique in having its own. I was to discover in subsequent years, however, that the authorities had some very clear, if not always popular ideas, on how to go about the task of organising it into not only a modern city, but one that would be pleasant to visit and live in.
It is the outcome of remarkable capacity for translating aspirations into action and results. The country may be small physically, but few serious Rwandans want it to be referred to that way. Certainly, many are not, but that is not what he had in mind. Beau leurre! Propre, certes, mais sans plus. Encore un Gros leurre! It strikes some outsiders as arrogance, stubbornness, or unwillingness to take advice, but for Rwandans it is about believing that they are as good as anybody else and that what others can do, they too, can do. Much more than money, it explains how far the country has come since the genocide.
Avec quels outils? Getting to where it is today has been quite a journey. In its fullness, it cannot be told in a short article. It is a way of working that has had its own cost, including in friendships lost or strained. However, there is no shortage of achievements to justify it. In politics, Rwandans opted for a consensus-driven approach that would see potential adversaries work together, at a time when everyone had bought into the idea that competitive multipartyism was the only game in town. To foster reconciliation among victims and perpetrators of the genocide without appearing to let off those that had to be punished, the leadership invented the hybrid gacaca courts.
Their operations were hardly in keeping with modern jurisprudence, a fact experts tried hard to use to derail them. At the end, it was what really mattered even if the verdicts did not always please everyone. En , peu de gens croyaient que le Rwanda avait un avenir tout court. The iconic Kigali Convention Center. Perhaps the most ambitious and among the most daring undertakings, so far, was the decision to acquire an airline at a time when the aviation industry in general was in trouble because of falling profitability.
It is still early days for the fledgling national carrier. Watching it in practice and living it over the last decade and a half has been to witness conviction in action and to appreciate the limits of conventional thinking. Introducing The Pearl Residences. The traditional visit to Rwanda may be business-related or a once in a lifetime opportunity to trek mountain gorillas, but my visit to Kigali was about a week of fashion and it brought me right up to date with the best of contemporary Rwandan life and style. Despite an early morning departure, the flight to Kigali on RwandAir was seamless; both pleasant and comfortable.
Evidence of this is a group of fashion designers who came together to form the Collective RW. La preuve : un groupe de stylistes qui se sont mis ensemble pour former le Collectif RW. Fortunately, during my stay I had the opportunity to experience a few of the sights and sounds of Kigali, making it quite apparent that it is a modern city on the move. For the best burger in town make sure to stop over at Poivre Noir, set on a tranquil patio overlooking a lush and pretty garden. Their street art projects have provided creative beauty, colour and a vibrant energy to the city.
Rooftop sundowners at Innovation Village; be sure to check out the venue space that hosts events bringing different communities together to collaborate. For a relaxed weekend outing try out Pili Pili, it has great vibes, magnificent views of the city, and a pool. It also offers a nice family setting. Live renditions by resident saxophonist will heighten your dining experience. Do not let your trip end without a visit to the Kigali Genocide Memorial Centre. It is a worthwhile activity and a chance to remember, reflect and refocus.
Kigali is full of enthusiasm and a sense of collaboration and excellence echoes throughout the city; something very special to witness indeed. Compliments and thanks to RwandAir for the safe flight home. A visual curator and commentator showcasing and promoting a fashionable, modern urban narrative that is happening now, in Africa. The deliveries of the two aircraft named Kalisimbi and Muhabura are on 16th November and May respectively. RwandAir becomes the first airline in Africa and second globally to acquire a Boeing NG equipped with inflight connectivity on a line-fit program.
The seater aircraft in a dual- class cabin configuration are identical to the two Boeing NG with the first Boeing Sky Interior in Africa purchased six years ago. International organizations, most who had been silent during the atrocities of the genocide felt safe to come in after the Rwanda Patriotic Front had quelled the genocidal forces and rescued survivors. Rwanda was no exception to this rule. The unpredictability of donations and aid flow has seen dependent states fail to achieve their development targets. More importantly, aware that aid and donor dependence is not a sustainable way to build a nation, the country set out to develop a business friendly environment that would be ideal both for local, regional and.
With a number of African countries failing to convince investors on their suitability due to aspects such as security and transparency, Rwanda invested in setting up transparent and corruption free institutions that could be relied on and by ensuring security prevailed over the country. Abdallah Jumba, a political scientist based in Kenya, observed that initiatives such as guaranteeing transparency play a huge role in boosting confidence of a country among investors and the international business community.
It showed that the nation was not keen on being dependent on donor support forever and had ambitions of its own. Recent years have seen multinational firms in finance, hospitality, logistics, retail and manufacturing stream to establish presence in the country with some moving their regional headquarters to Rwanda. With that, Rwandans no longer looked out for charity and aid but instead tapped into the employment and entrepreneurship opportunities provided by the inflow of global companies settling in the country.
In the last two years, over thirty multinationals have set up businesses in Rwanda or declared their intentions to do so. It was through this same zeal to rid itself of donor support that Rwanda has impressed many by becoming the first country in Africa to manufacture laptops and to launch the commercial use of drones for delivery of medical supplies. Johan Hallsenius, a managing partner of Kreab, a Swedish communications firm who was recently in the country to assess market opportunities, said that in recent years, a number of firms from Europe were seeking entry strategies in the Sub-Saharan market following numerous positive reviews.
It is the hub of a very interesting region and it is a viable pursuit for business given its transformation capacity in recent years. Lars Arrehenius who connects Swedish entrepreneurs to Rwanda, said at the moment, the country was an ideal entry point for firms seeking a presence in the region. All these efforts have been informed and driven by the Rwandan spirit, Agaciro, which aims at dignifying the lives of citizens; that they may not have to borrow, neither depend on external help for their development and that they may be the masters of their fate. From a young age, Cedric dreamed of creating a story around his designs and his work of art.
A passion driven artist, he pursued the path of garment industry. He allowed his imagination to run wild resulting in high couture collections that have fascinated and charmed his growing fan base. Cedric Mizero was born in the western province of Rwanda, in the area formerly called Cyangugu. His pursuit of fashion was sparked by a passion he developed for fashion as a young boy; admiring the power of clothing and the transformative quality of dressing up.
While Cedric only started implementing his designs and ideas in , he grew up surrounded by artistic and creative people. Starting with his mother, a craftswoman who makes a living from her love of fashion and style. Cedric fondly remembers his mom dressing him and his siblings in stylish gear for every occasion. In secondary school, Cedric lived with a painter named Fahad Ndangiza. Fahad was totally enamored with arts and by virtue, his profession. This constant exposure is what convinced Cedric that he had to forge his place in the creative industry in Rwanda, regardless of what such decision would cost him.
The moment had come, Cedric poured in all his skills and energy investing into his passion. The initial road was a whirlwind but the act of creating was nonetheless a source of happiness. Design and fashion were his calling; there was no other option for him.
Debates on Women, Politics, and Culture in France, 1981–2001
It is how I get to express myself, it is my form of art. Cedric strongly believes that the future is handmade so he derives most of his inspiration from nature. Using nature in his work allows Cedric to introduce elements that may not be captured often by other artists. The originality in his work lies in the fact that he uses substandard material, mainly recycled, to make his clothes.
These material often have little value to his peers in the fashion industry, yet Cedric finds purpose for them in his creations. Coming from a small village in Rwanda to being a recognized local fashion designer is a continuous source of inspiration for Cedric to keep reaching for the next level.
The designer wills for his imagination to continue to bear fruit for to inspire future creations. Just over a decade ago, there were only hotels rooms country-wide, roughly the equivalent of the total number of rooms in three large establishments. By the end of this year, Rwanda will hit the 10, mark in number of hotels rooms on the market, increasing annual capacity to host over one million tourists. By Collins Mwai. This is what we call one focus!
Among them is Belise Kariza, the Chief Tourism Officer at Rwanda Development Board who reported that in Rwanda received about tourists; less than the number of delegates who attend a given summit. In , we only had 1, tourists due to low level of tourism promotion and marketing, while in , Rwanda hosted up to 1. If projections are right, by end of year, Rwanda could hit the 1. Kariza attributes the growth in tourism in parts to investment in the sector coupled by expansion of the national carrier, RwandAir.
There is growing emphasis on regional integration which continues to be a strong pillar for exposure and growth of tourism. In , conference visitors amounted to 25,, an increase of 36 percent compared to International hospitality players such as Golden Tulip, Marriott, Radisson Blu and Swiss International have established a presence in the country which has enforced stringent global standards and created a pool of skills to draw from.
The hotel group already operates an establishment in the capital city Kigali under the brand name Radisson Blu and plans to open a second one in the year to come. He remarked that the recent move by Rwanda to renovate Kigali International Airport, expand the fleet of RwandAir and the planned construction of Bugesera International Airport would open the country to more global hoteliers.
French tourism varsity which seeks to build a pool of skilled professionals in the country. The Vice Chairperson of the Chamber of Tourism at Private Sector Federation, Francine Havugimana, is delighted with the entrance of multiple industry players and commitment by others to establish presence in Rwanda. She believes it will further drive the industry standards across the country. Capuano said the existence of infrastructure is what enabled the world-renowned brand to begin operations in Rwanda.
He advised, the best way for a country like Rwanda to attract international brands is to enable such takeovers by asset light firms who will in turn raise standards in management. Rwandan stand-up set out for the world! The Rwandan comedy troupe has given a taste to international audiences to high acclaim. The journey begun in for actors Michael Sengazi and Arthur Nkusi. Upon sharing a stage in the comic play The Revisor, they were inspired to perform a stand-up comedy show in collaboration with other local talents.
September of the same year, their vision was realized when they held their first collaborative performance at the Kigali Serena. Hence, the birth of the Comedy Knights troupe. Today, every Comedy Knights show has a full house and the comedians are regularly invited to perform in various parts of the world. In between acts, the crew organizes workshops to train new comedians and identify potential talent to join the team. Backed up by the success of the ensemble, some of the Comedy Knights members have taken advantage of the platform to diversify their artistic portfolio.
For instance, Arthur Nkusi is one of the most famous radio presenters of the country, host of primetime morning show on Kiss FM and he is often called on to emcee major national events such as the Miss Rwanda. Michael Sengazi is not only a fine stand-up comedian, he has developed his skills in performing arts, appearing at the Ivory Coast African Arts Market. Here is an excerpt from an interview with Michael Sengazi, at the closing of a show in Belgium during the European Tour. In six years, Comedy Knight has become the go-to for stand-up in Rwanda, what is the secret of your success? God takes care of the rest.
How do you choose the themes discussed in your shows? For each show, we adapt our topics to the environment. We collect information about current hot topics and incorporate them during our performance. How is the tour impacting you? It is alright. We meet a lot of interesting people. In Toulouse, we met Babo, a young German Rwandan artist and Burundian drummers who welcomed us warmly. There was an amazing festive mood with DJs Princess and Rojazz.
We always have a lot of fun! What mostly, as a comedian, makes you proud? Dieu se charge du reste. The journey continues for the talented Comedy Knights troupe. They have embarked on their first European tour, ten days across France and Belgium. A chaque spectacle, on adapte nos textes selon le milieu. Cela se passe bien. These remarkable homes are truly one-of- a-kind, with ceiling heights reaching 19 feet allowing for a superb natural interior lighting. The family oriented homes feature a cozy family room with an indoor bar on the ground floor overlooking a large lush garden.
The design includes a modern kitchen with beautifully crafted countertops and a large walk-in pantry. Inside the 3 storey residence, you get to choose between 5 or 6 bedrooms, all en-suite and each room boasting its own balcony. The exclusivity and quality of these homes makes them a definite choice for individuals who value privacy and security. The L - shaped building maximized the view towards the wetland. The Open lower ground level allows a panoramic view of the wetland and offers the most direct contact with nature.
The building has an expansive garden ideal for large parties or functions. The restaurant also features meetings and private dining rooms for 8 to 62 persons. The apartments at Century Park will range in size and a variety of units will be available, ensuring there is something in store for everyone. The 2-beroom apartments will come in 2 different variations, both equally lavish boasting sqms of living space in each unit. These units will be offered in three variations and will be the largest units available. Residents of the apartments at Century Park will have access to the Boutique Hotel facilities as well as the community park.
Making people happy while performing. A simple smile or laughter, both are invaluable. What is the biggest challenge you ever faced as a troupe? Another challenge is the constant need to travel far in order to get more consideration and gain a reputable position in the industry. What advice would you give to someone who wishes to get a start in the stand-up industry? My piece of advice, not only for the stand-up industry but for all aspects of life, is to simply dare to take the first step. Which song is always on your travel playlist? I like listening to it before a performance, the lyrics are motivational.
What are your future projects for Comedy Knights? We are planning a program on Rwandan national television in the near future. Soon, there will be another tour, this time on another continent. Nous profitons au maximum. Cette fois nous irons sur un autre continent. In , Rwanda hosted numerous high profile events of global and continental reach. These notable gatherings did not happen by chance, in fact, they are a direct result of calculated and deliberate efforts in line with the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions MICE strategy laid out by the government in The ambitious strategy sought to make Rwanda a regional hub for meetings and conferences and a mere two years after its launch, the impact can be felt by a great number of stakeholders.
The slew of conferences provided multiple opportunities for local players to test their ability and strengthen their capacity to host events of international stature. They also provided a stage for Rwanda to market itself as an international conference destination to event planners and organizations across the world. I had heard about Rwanda, its hospitality and development, but what I experienced during the summit surpassed my expectations.
The airline topped its usual world-class comfort with exclusive travel deals for delegates for some of the major events. Business operators in the hospitality and tourism sector played their part by providing services and products that were globally competitive. From internationally renowned brands like Marriott and Radisson Blu, to Rwandan brands such as Lemigo and Chez Lando, industry players keenly offered their best services to delegates, mindful of the reputation and name they were making for themselves. Various hotels across Kigali city catered special menus and put on nightly entertainment so as to give visitors a sample of various aspects of Rwanda.
For example, Rwanda today boasts numerous conference facilities including the Kigali Conference and Exhibition Village and the Kigali Convention Centre, both with a capacity of more than 10, people. Stadiums across the country were improved to host sporting events that would meet international standards. Delegates were not short of positive reviews about the environment provided for them during their respective summits. Isaac Diouf, a journalist from Senegal who attended one of the forums, said his first experience in Rwanda was a real eye opener for him.
At the closing of the meeting which he chaired, President Deby said that, Rwanda had not only achieved in hosting the delegates but also in creating a conducive environment and atmosphere for the participants to hold deliberations. The chairperson of the AU, Dr. Dlamini Zuma, took to Twitter to express her sentiment towards the event, urging future hosts to borrow a leaf from Rwanda.
Others were impressed with the cleanliness of the city, and the order and security that made it possible to walk around the city even after dark which is not the case in many African capitals. Following the AU summit, Minister Louise Mushikiwabo addressed the press and stated the successful hosting of the summit was in part owed to the sacrifice and patience of all city dwellers. Going forward, most of the participants have expressed intentions to return to Rwanda, some for leisure and others for future conferences.
Inzozi has a broad and diverse readership, reaching close to 20 international destinations and thousands of travellers and business people every week. Inzozi combines well-crafted articles, interviews and guides with exceptional photography to create a magazine of the highest quality. As RwandAir increases its destinations, we have been working to tailor the magazine to our growing audience. Inzozi is engaging and informs as much as it entertains and inspires.
The magazine is produced by experienced and professional staff devoted to creating a world-class publication. Our team of writers, photographers and designers come from around the world, bringing with them a wealth of experience. Each edition of Inzozi reaches approximately , readers.
Inzozi is also distributed to tour operators, selected hotels and restaurants across the RwandAir network in 14 countries. Our readers are frequent flyers, business people and tourists — the perfect target audience for any advertiser. In addition, through an interactive and easy to read online version, Inzozi reaches even those not on-board.
A captive audience. Readers are more likely to absorb information with no other distraction onboard. Key decision makers. Many of our travellers are influencers and decision makers. Frequent travellers. By repeating your advertising message, you create a unique opportunity to build your brand. Global Exposure. Inzozi gives your business the chance to gain international exposure.
Wine: what factors determine whether you like it or not? If you recall the Inzozi MarchMay issue, we discussed some of the common challenges in choosing wine, zeroing in on different wines, their varieties, their names, etc. With the festive season around the corner, many people have already started stocking up their favorites while others are still going around sampling and debating on which wine will make the cut for the holiday celebrations.
Deciding whether a wine is good or not can be a perplexing situation. This is a common occurrence at wine tasting sessions and it might have happened to you a time or two. When you are handed a glass of wine, you start by swirling the rich red liquid. You take in the smell, then slowly indulge the first sip and savor it for few seconds. Quand vous avez un verre de vin entre les mains, vous le goutez, vous le sentez et vous vous dites tiens, ce vin est bon ou pas. While the person sampling the wine is well at ease, the pronounced verdict is often guided by our personal appreciation, to the detriment of the intrinsic quality of the wine.
As wine tasters, we allow ourselves to judge wine; unaware of the. Nos penchants sont parlants. This means the opinion we freely share is subjective, it is shaped by our personal taste, our wine tasting profile and the different flavors we enjoy. Further, individual consumption habits vary, particularly in terms of food pairing and of the gastronomy we enjoy. Let us consider a simple example such as coffee and tea.
When the two beverages are infused, they produce tannin. Similarly to wine, the tannins found in coffee and tea reacts to the presence of saliva proteins. Upon contact, the saliva proteins and the tannins quickly react, instantly drying up the mouth, thus causing the mucous membrane to tighten. This dry sensation in the mouth creates a bitter taste intensified by any bitterness already present in the mouth. Adding milk or sugar in coffee and tea, suggests that an individual does not enjoy the bitterness of the caffeinated beverage. This of course is totally normal, as it is not an easy flavor to appreciate.
The tiny bubbles or the fizz found in carbon water create a distinct tickly sensation. If you like that feeling, it indicates you have an affinity for acidic beverages and you are. With the upcoming holidays, you may happen to choose some wines that your guests will not appreciate as much as you do but that should not be interpreted as the wine not being good. To ensure all party guests are satisfied, diversify your wine list according to taste profiles taking into account the levels of bitterness and acidity and individual preferences. Cela ne veut en aucun cas dire que le vin est mauvais.
True to its name, Khana Khazana located in the heart of town in Kiyovu, serves authentic decadent Indian cuisine. The restaurant is set in a vast, spacious and well decorated dome in Indian fashion. The menu is large and varied, with both Indian and Chinese dishes on offer and many options available for vegetarian and non vegetarians, alike. The service throughout is speedy, attentive and professional. Staff appear to be well trained and customer service oriented.
The place offers a nice setting for a family dinner, a romantic date between couples, for large events or business meetings, and also for birthday parties. I guarantee if you try it once, you will be addicted. It is no doubt the best in town! By signing below, you agree to be bound by the terms and conditions See overleaf If after receiving the card, you decide not to accept the terms and conditions, you must contact card services and not use the card. What you need to know as you enroll for Dream Miles Membership is available to all individuals worldwide, subject to local laws and regulations.
Individuals aged 17 years and over may apply for Dream Miles membership. The membership card you will receive has been upgraded with global payment functionality, making it easier for members to carry their travel money securely. You can activate this payment functionality by reading instructions in your membership welcome letter. Your card is not fully activated for payment until you load funds onto your card using the client ID at the back of your card at any RwandAir sales office, Ecobank branch or participating travel agent.
A list of participating travel agent is available at www. If completing an online membership application via rwandair. If a paper membership application is completed, it should be submitted inflight to a member of the cabin crew, at your nearest RwandAir sales office or mailed in to the Dream Miles team, RwandAir head office, Kigali International Airport, Rwanda.
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In the event of loss, theft or damage of the membership card, the member should notify the Dream Miles team immediately by emailing dreammiles rwandair. The new card may take up to 5 working days to be available for collection. Please bring valid ID at time of collection. However an option to pay is available to extend them before the expiry date or re-instate the expired miles within 6 months from the expiry date. The Elizabeth Building. R Tambo International Airport Terminal b. Rwenzori Courts, Gr. To those above if you hear us, You,who walked into eternity in , I wonder if you can see us winking from the earth.
A life of sacrifice; anonymity and stillnessheld different meanings to you. You gifted the world with your talent and lived largely in the public eye. For that alone, I salute you. My words are a meek recognition on behalf of those you have impacted, those who looked at you with admiration, listened to you and applauded you.
Your life in the public eye had somehow transformed you into an illustrious character and today I wish to pay you homage. Inevitably subjective, my selection is based on what seems to happen by chance, but at the same time respectful of those selected. Also, to the great number of personalities who despite not being listed here, keep a prominent place in the collective consciousness and in the hearts of millions of human beings.
To you,. Arnaud Nkusi A vous,… … Shimon Peres. You dedicated your life to your country becoming the 8thPrime Minister of Israel from to , then serving as the President of the State of Israel twenty one years later. Starting in , you were enlisted in the Haganah predecessor of the Israeli defense forces and appointed as Material and Human Resources Manager by David Ben Gourion. In , you were appointed Director General of the Ministry of Defense.
In that function, you became particularly involved in the procurement of arms for the rising Israeli State. After a brief stint as Minister of Information in , you were appointed Minister of Defense in the Yitzhak Rabin government. You never quite won the elections for the Labour Party butyou were Prime Minister twice from to , in order to fulfill the rotation requirement according. Again, from , to replace Yitzhak Rabin, the assassinated prime minister.
The year was among your greatest; following the Oslo agreements, you became a Nobel Peace Prize laureate, along with Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat. This was in large part due to the esteem and respect you held within international audiences and diplomatic circles. In , you went on to found the Peres Peace Centre. Despite the two Intifadas, you remained a firm defender of the Oslo agreements and of the Palestinian Authority. Shimon Peres, you left the earth on September 28th, two weeks after a massive stroke. You were ninety three years old. Vous aviez quatre-vingt treize ans. An Afro-American, you were best known as a civil rights activist.
You led the masses in protest of crimes perpetrated against black males by white police officers. Your particular cause was that of the late Michael Brown whose life was senselessly cut short by Officer Wilson. This happened two years ago, on August 9th, The officer had the same first name as you. You earned a living as an assembly line worker and musician in Ferguson, Missouri.
Your body was found riddled with bullets in your burnt car early in the morning of September 6th. Darren Seals, you were only twenty nine years old. It was as though you met the earth carrying a seed of rebellion in your hand, on that fateful day of March 1st, You became famous from an early age, following your controversial home videosabout everyday life in Pakistan. Your words and appearance were perceived as provocative. You were an actress, a feminist and a social media celebrity;your fame standing close in comparison to American socialite Kim Kardashian.
As your status elevated, your family grew fearful of the negative attention you were attracting. They considered you a major threat. While visiting your parents in the province of Punjab for the Eid feast, your brother strangled you to death. According to him, this was deemed the necessary action to stop you from hurting your family.
Your untimely death happened on July 15th. Qandeel Baloch. Il y a vingt six ans vous naissiez Fouzia Azeem, dans votre pays, le Pakistan. The first born among five siblings, you hailed from a Romanian father and a Russian mother. By the age of eighteen, you were a window dresser at the Grande Maison de blanc.
Your first creation, the pullover would eventually come to life inside that same boutique. You experienced the joy of motherhood, giving birth to your daughter Nathalie in and your son Jean-Philippe in A year earlier, your pullover landed on the cover of Elle magazine. At the time it seemed inexplicable, but your fate was sealed the day a mystery lady marched into Laura boutique and purchased fourteen of your poor boy sweatersin various colors.
You would later find out it was Audrey Hepburn! In , you partnered with your husband to establish the Sonia Rykiel C. Despite your divorce, you continued working together and went on to create the Sonia Rykiel label. Et pas que…! You created a style with identifiable elements denoted by black,stripes, lace, the strass, the stitch and written messages on clothing.
You followed with the first high-end jogging pants made of velvet, inscribed and perfectly tailored for women. You took on an emblematic space in the mind of your audience. As a designer, you were the mastermind behind the interior of the Crillon hotel in and of the Lutetia in It happened in Paris on August 25th, you were eighty-six years old. Vous aviez quatre vingt six ans. In , you served for one year as President of the Republic of Dahomey, which subsequently changed its name.
You obtained your degree from the Faculty of Medicine of Dakar, before entering the political scene, at the time of the independence of the Republic of Dahomey. The military regime that took power in propelled you at the Presidency of the Republic of Benin on July 17th, Your stay was short-lived, when in December of the following year, you were ousted by a putsch.
This time,by a group of mercenaries led by Bob Denard. He laterconfessed in his memoir that the coup was meant to restore you to power, while you denied any implication. Image Source: Ouest-France. In , you were appointed member of the Higher Council for the Republic of Benin, along with former presidents, Ahomadegbe, Congacou and Mage; in a spirit of democratising the nation. In your golden years, you were named honorary president of the International Organization for the Fight against Sickle Cell Disease.
Most recently, your nephew Lionel Zinsou served as the Prime Minister of Benin from June 8th, to April 6th, ; an unfortunate candidate for the presidential election against Patrice Talon. You breathed your last the night of July 28th, in your home in Cotonou, Benin. You were close to your hundredth birthday. You were ordained priest for the archdiocese, shy of age 28, by Bishop Joseph-Marie Martin. You were first appointed vicar in Saint-Antoine de Petit-Quevilly in , just after your ordination.
You were called to military service during the Algerian war where a witness reports your categorical refusal to be promoted to the grade officer. Instead, you opted to remain a soldier, lest you be in a rank that would require you to issue orders to kill. In , you were transferred as a priest in the parish of Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray. Five years later, you served as assistant priest under the same parish. This was three yearsprior to celebrating your golden jubilee of ordination as a priest. Since February , you became a member, along with the Regional Council of Muslims, of an interconfessional committee created in the aftermath of the January terrorist attacks in Paris.
Your commitment will be your demise! ThisJuly 26th, during morning mass, two Muslin terrorists armed with knives burst into Saint-Etienne Church and attacked you while you were performing mass. Too many violent deaths, this is enough! Your body was laid to rest at the Bonsecours Cemetery priests square. Ce seront vos derniers mots. Trop de morts violentes, cela suffit! Very early on, you became a multi-instrumentalist, particularly excelling at guitar, bass guitar, drums and keyboard to the extent of creating your first band at 13 years of age.
In , your career kicked off and your rise to fame reached unprecedented levels in the world of pop, with over thirty studio collections released in less than forty years. Your greatest commercial success remains the original film soundtrack of the Purple Rain in which you played the title role. Released in , it sold twenty million copies. In addition to being a multi-instrumentalist, you had become a sensation; an ambitious and eclectic artist with unrivaled stage presence. During your concerts, you had mastered solo performances, donning eccentric Image Source: mxdwn. Your enjoyed steady fame from to , with few ups and downs in cult albums, including or else The Gold Experience.
In , your audience received theMusicology album with renewed admiration. You released over thirty personal albums that you produced as you wrote songs for numerous artists. You professional life considerably impacted your personal life. Cited among your numerous love affairs were singer Sheila E. In October , you lost your son, Boy Gregory who was just few weeks old, born from your first marriage to Mayte Garcia. In , you married Manuela Testolini which resulted in divorced five years later.
Your stage performances were extreme and your album sales valued in millions of copies: one hundred and fifty in total. Critics and audiences worldwide recognized you as an exceptional talent. At the age of 57, you were hospitalized under emergency circumstances. Upon returning home, you were found unconscious inside your residence on April 21st. You could not be revived, you had gone on a one way journey; the point of no return.
Parmi tes nombreuses relations amoureuses on a pu compter Sheila E. Les critiques et les publics du monde entier te reconnaissaient comme un talent exceptionnel. Travaux d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences CS 7, , pp. Rousso, Henry. Cet esprit individualiste me fait le cafard. With some regrets, Muriel identifies diligent and talented editor Ariane Stein, with whom her once-friendly relationship has been strained since Ariane conceived her first child.
With her fabricated performance review of Ariane, Muriel chooses power over worker and feminist solidarity. However, by maintaining a system where women must choose between work and family, Muriel inadvertently assures that she will also hit the glass ceiling. After the colleagues move into their new office building the following Monday, they are disheartened to see that their offices are smaller, have no doors, and are designed to keep workers visible at all times.
Paris: Gallimard Folio Essais, The Wellness Syndrome. New York and London: Polity, Agathe, whose last name carries a possible evocation of an early French neoliberal loyal to an elitist totalitarian ideology, has not fared well in the battle of neoliberalism. Hahn, Harlan.
Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, Winning these games is neither a moral victory nor a professional success; it merely stands as proof that you are willing to cheat. Since the beginning of the rise of neoliberalism in France in the early s, many contemporary novels of working life portray the frustrations of white-collar professionals facing speed-up, overwork, harassment, and lay-offs in changing corporate work environments. Je vais mieux. Oyarbide, Christian.
Mortel management. Paris: Editea, Quintreau, Laurent. Marge brute. Retour aux mots sauvages. Coquet, Clotilde. Parle-moi du sous-sol. Campredon, Julien. Arles: Monsieur Toussaint Louverture, Nini, Soraya. Ils disent que je suis une beurette. Paris: Fixot, To situate Ossiri and Kassoum in s France, the omniscient narrative begins the novel by showing the two friends waiting in line at a group hiring event, signaling that it will represent a specific sector of the working world. Instead of standing in line for one-to-one or panel P. The efficiency imperative Williamson, would hold that organizations involved in recurring transactions such as hiring labor will attempt to internalize these procedures… to economize costs.
Larger firms need formalized procedures to speed the processing of large numbers of applications and the filling of multiple jobs. Barber, Alison E. Blum notes that the FEANF contributed much to student organizing and consciousness-raising, as well as to the elaboration of new Marxist political theories and the incorporation of international Marxist theory within student organizing. Oil prices increased 10 times over from to , in part because of the end of the Bretton-Woods agreement, which ended restrictions putting a fixed price on gold and the final link between the American dollar and the gold standard, leading to the devaluation of the US dollar, inflation and stagflation throughout the s.
For more information, see: Hammes, David, and Douglas Wills.
Gabriel Orozco | Domaine de Chaumont-sur-Loire
Yet Ferdinand believes that he can also establish himself in this seemingly miraculous prosperity. Il portait une chemise en pagne, lui aussi. However, he is not reminded of Angela because the woman in the image resembles her; rather, he remembers her lessons about the adoption of the pagne by Africans. In this way, Ossiri remembers his childhood in Abidjan as the beginning of his relationship with French culture and his consideration of how Frenchness informed his Ivoirian identity.
Bhabha, Homi. Eds Barker, Francis et al. Essex: University of Essex, Paris: Stock, Cabral, Amilcar. New York: Monthly Review Press, They are only sporadically employed, and thus fall into the lassitude of people who have nowhere in particular to be all day. Eventually, Ossiri realizes that Kassoum is following him and invites him to join him in these lively outings. Later in the 20th century, in the s, s, and s, the Situationists worked to problematize poetics and the possibilities for originality and creativity within modern capitalist society, reclaiming form, art, and beauty from the strictures of representation and elite institutions such as museums.
The Arcades Project. Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin. Debord, Guy-Ernest. Cela pouvait sembler banal mais Kassoum comprit ce que Ossiri voulait lui montrer. New York: Verso, The value of movement is not expressed in lavish spending during vacations and outings in the city, but in the gathering of new experiences and the sense of freedom and subjective fulfillment that our awareness of our unfettered movement allows us to feel. His creative, engaged mind floats from economic theory how complex mathematical operations such as Laplace transformations must serve capitalism by determining sale pricing , to his own theories that women of color always want the hair textures and styles of the ethnicities directly to the north of their homelands.
All modes of existence, from art to public space, display and glorify not the human subject, but commodities and their workings as a dazzling, inviting display which gestures toward us. Jameson, Fredric. Postmodernism, or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. La musique est alors mise au volume maximal et tout le monde danse en battant des mains plus ou moins en rythme. People and commodities move from space to space, city to city, and nation to nation, keeping pace with the production, circulation, and exchange of capital. Ossiri also notes the Harvey, David.
The Condition of Postmodernity. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, Yet many other global citizens who roam the same commodified spaces as these women have developed a taste for the image of France presented by the luxury goods at Sephora. Ossiri cannot help but make creative sociological observations in the commodified space of his workplaces as a means of resisting this consumerist, work-related ennui. Such symbols with dual sacred and profane significance intrigue Ossiri. See also: Marcuse, One Dimensional Man, p. Les gens ne comprennent rien et ne veulent rien comprendre.
Ils veulent juste acheter. In addition to observing Ivoirian women using a culturally specific vocabulary to denounce the illogic of consumerism, Ossiri watches other people. Another woman, who wears a full burqa, puts tester makeup under her veil, holding it out like a tent as she applies it and checks her image in a hand mirror, then puts the testers back. Even people who are working break out of their roles to enjoy moments of shared humanity. Wherever he goes, Ossiri observes the human desire for social connections reclaiming commodified space.
Ossiri does not expect a revolution, but with his mind open to radical possibility, he can bring its spirit to his explorations of the city with Kassoum. His connection with the language of radical history provides Ossiri with opportunities for creativity, a more meaningful existence, and the identification with a type of Frenchness that resists commodification — that of its revolutionary past and resistant culture.
His influence on Kassoum remains even after Ossiri mysteriously vanishes one day, possibly having been deported. These novels underscore that we live with certain needs — for creativity, playfulness, community, love, and care — that laboring, consuming, and circulating or accumulating capital cannot fulfill. In the series of economic crises that have accompanied post-Trente Glorieuses labor deregulation, fictional works have represented the work conditions that lead to mental and physical health risks and injuries.
Philadelphia: Temple UP, See also: Durand, Jean-Pierre. More recently, Hunnicutt has raised the history of diminishing labor rights and leisure time in his book Work Without End: Abandoning Shorter Hours for the Right to Work. Philadelphia: Temple, The movement of oi bands that followed wrote songs with a simpler musical structure and lyrical themes of working life including being exploited by bosses , romance, drinking in pubs, fooball soccer fandom, and other common experiences of working-class life. Viewed 6 August The Global Revolutions of New York: Norton, See also: Kurlansky, Mark.
New York: Penguin Random House, Due to these events, and numerous other recordings, concerts and festivals, publications, visits, encounters, and collaborations, the birth of punk was a global historical moment. If the sixties counterculture was at base a radical consumerism, in the midseventies… teenage frustration was caused… not by easily-shocked adults, but by an intractable economic situation. That was the root of punk. One knew that. Nehring, Neil. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, Marcus, Greil. However, the ideas of radical materialist thinkers such as Proudhon and Marx, which were so influential to previous counter-cultures and avant-garde artists, inform the punk perspective, if more as a means of expressing discontent than as political philosophies or social remedies.
This anti-elitist ethos of punkitude is evident not only within song lyrics and other punk textuality, e. Punk novels represent the negotiation between autonomy and material survival by placing punk discursivity in the mouths and writings of their protagonists. Just as real-life punks sing and write arguments about what punk is, and criticize hegemonic ideas about work and consumerism, punk literature portrays these discursive practices.
Although a sizeable corpus of punk novels now exists in French literature, this chapter highlights three novels alongside a discussion of the sources of the discourse of punkitude. How can we reconcile ideas of punk as resistance to institutions, norms, elitism, and conformity within capital-L Literature?
Punk writers, who are often autodidacts, also lack the social and cultural capital necessary to institutional integration and enjoyed hard rock and metal, yet was captivated by the idea of writing a punk character. Sams, Gideon. The Punk. London: Corgi Books, Vernon Subutex also offers an ambitious grand narrative of French society across different classes and races rather than the primarily marginal milieu of her earlier works. Here, I am only discussing her novels with punk protagonists. See note below. Hebdige, Dick. Subculture: the meaning of style.
Do it yourself! Autodetermination et culture punk. Paris: Le Passager Clandestin, See : Ross, Kristin. Communal Luxury. Accessed 20 October Some punk music even bears an intertextual and aesthetic kinship with literature. Patti Smith drew inspiration from William S. Punk fits into a long tradition of resistant art challenging the separation between artist and audience and inserting revolutionary politics and polemics.
Roger Sabin. Punk texts also use crass or morbid humor, mockery of popular and political figures, mental illness as a metaphor of a dissident spirit, and descriptions of war and other tragedies. However, Hell and Elliott were both raised in secular Jewish families; Cometbus writes about Jewish punk identity.
Chicago: The Chicago Review Press, See also: Croland, Michael. Oy oy oy gevalt! Toronto: Praeger, See: Dead Kennedys. See also: No Name for All. It is this troubling of registers, genres, media, enunciatory positions, artistic hierarchies and norms that attaches punk literature and textuality to the punk musical subculture. By Komptoir Chaos. Acratic language is not comprised uniquely of slogans directly denouncing power. Le bruissement de la langue. Seemingly everyone who was aware of the nascent punk scene attempted to explain to the readership of these papers what this youthful craze called punk was.
We will see that early punks tended to advocate liberation of the individual subject through new sensations much as Medeiros did, although later punks were more socially engaged. Would that Muller had been aware of the debt owed to Huysmans, Rimbaud, and the Situationists by the most prominent punk musicians currently active in France, the UK, and the US. See also: Starshooter. However, there remained an unsympathetic element of the public and press that misunderstood the aggressive sonics and aesthetics of punk as a call to real-life violence and intemperance. Unlike Muller and Saltron, who analyzed the punk ensemble of juxtaposed and distorted visual and musical references as a pastiche with its own semiotic value, Cannavo and Chabrol refuse to detach individual elements of punk pastiche from earlier cultural or political contexts.
Les punks arrivent. While I am skeptical that the swastika can be successfully decontextualized and given new meaning through mocking juxtaposition, the punks are clearly not promoting an adherence to fascist or racist ideologies through their irreverent and incongruous use of it. As members of an artistic and cultural movement that denies authority, punks insist upon being speaking subjects, which makes punkitude difficult to pin down and define, other than as a desire for resistant discourse within a rock-informed art and music culture.
Concerts filled with the stylized violence of punk dancing pogoing, moshing and gobbing spitting on bands and audiences. Gogol 1er et la Horde. This contradictory spirit, which eventually inspires ideas for creating a Les Olivensteins. The text is replete with visual and linguistic irregularities, lowercase and capital letters randomly alternating, nonstandard punctuation, and onomatopoeic text filing irregularly over the narrative text.
While articulating a self-definition of punk — a discursive act — the novel also creates a narrative that discusses what punk is in literal and metaphorical terms. Personal interview.
Paris, France: 2 September However, aside from those behaviors which are unsurprising touches, given that marginal figures in the genres of the polar often are distinguished by this caricatural villainy , transformation into punks also implies access to new possibilities for creativity. The punks in the novel, after being bitten, also create music and writing. Sang futur. Paris: Le Dernier Terrain Vague, Instead of dreary labor, punks prefer work — namely, creative work s.
Kitty remonte le col de sa veste, soupire. A public group kiss-and-grope disgusts the ticket seller; when the bartender threatens to throw the punks out, they wreck the bar. The police begin tracking punks first by questioning anyone with a punk style. Alors, va pour Starlet!
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The character of Sarah embodies the empowering potential of marginalized people aligning their worldview with punk. Edited by Rory Dicker and Alison Piepmeyer. Boston: Northeastern UP, In an interview, queer feminist Kate Tossey explained that queer communities rarely distinguished between gender fluidity and transgender identity until the mids.
Yet, although Sarah has had her penis removed and takes hormones, her body eludes a simple identification with male or female gender due to her refusal to have a new sexual organ put in its place; instead, Sarah is tattooed with a red swastika between her thighs. As we saw before, punk aesthetic appropriation of the swastika juxtaposes it with symbols of conflicting ideologies and aesthetics to show its impotence and absurdity.
The red swastika is not a symbol of power displayed on a flag or an armband, as opposed to the black Hakenkreuz of the Nazi insignias worn irreverently by famous punks such as Sid Vicious, Siouxsie Sioux, or the punks mentioned in the inflammatory article in Le Matin. Furthermore, the red swastika is the Buddhist symbol for dharma, the cosmic law only visible to those who transcend the desires and material trappings of worldly, human reality and the self — the human world is, of course, the only one where money and work are important.
This juxtaposition suggests that rejection of normative identity, including gender identity and life in conventional society, liberates us from the illusions of our world. This refusal appeals to even the more homophobic, transphobic men in the group, such as Momort the bassist, as attractively punk.
Furthermore, Sarah contributes to the discursive labor of punks to define punkitude, praising punk as the possibility of choosing your own definition to Dickkie as he clumsily flirts with her. Punks love negating the old and inventing the new. While they are uninterested in the return to the earth, soft drugs, and leaving their city, El Coco Kid and his fellows remain critical of their numb, hurried, repetitive routines in the city and insist on the importance of feeling something.
Sentir bouillonner en lui la musique des Punks. Indeed, the book alludes to the poetics, tropes, and works of Beat literature and the Situationists. The punks rarely stop moving except to write, make music, or take drugs; they drive endlessly through Paris while listening to Blue Oyster Cult, stopping only to recruit new punks with invitations to ride. Dickkie kidnaps a victim with the intention of killing him, but instead forces his victim to take them to his home in an HLM and then to drink himself into unconsciousness.
Onetime revolutionaries became reformist gauchistes. Paris: Maspero, Personal Interview. Marx, Karl. Proudhon Paris: Messidor, The subway train is the physical manifestation of the train-train of the consumer-laborer quotidian. We produce, we consume, and we die; or we stop producing and consuming, drop out… and then die.
See: Kidnap. Les Thugs. Final Blast. Primitiv Bunko. Manifestes 4. Despentes, Virginie. Bye Bye Blondie. Teen spirit. Je ferai clochard. Accessed 20 November Pourquoi vous enlaidir? Now Gloria sabotages her relationships with her characteristic violent outbursts, which have become a reassuring pattern for her despite their abjection. Accessed 8 June For Bruno and Gloria, as for the other punks of their generation throughout Europe, punkitude valorizes both political and performative opposition to bourgeois values and capitalism while performing a working-class identity.
Bruno has become callous about his teenage heartbreak, yet upon meeting Alice as an adult, his feelings of being young, unhappy, and powerless re-emerge. Skrewdriver were a notorious English fascist oi band. On the other hand, for working class and poor youth and adults such as Gloria and Bruno, punk is one of the only ways to find a welcoming social milieu and festivity in the margins of society. Although Bye Bye Blondie and Teen spirit emphasize that difference, the novels also show that punk culture and values can surmount these social and class boundaries. La distinction.
Paris: Editions de Minuit, In Bye Bye Blondie, Gloria finds new confidence by recalling her punk past in the arms of the man who lived it with her. Sandra dresses Nancy in punk fashion and takes her to metal and hardcore concerts, which simultaneously pleases and worries Bruno. Il faut que tu fasses quelque chose. Sociologist Jeffrey S. I agree with Debies-Carl, Lewin, and Williams that punk is a pro-social, ideologically committed, politically resistant subculture, and I will add that punk expresses its values through artistic activity and through texts, from songs to novels.
Patrick Williams. Patrick Williams, eds. Authenticity in culture, self, and society. London: Ashgate, I use the term here to signify that these works of fiction likewise paint the social and material inequalities of countries with capitalist economies as being as too catastrophic to overcome or resolve. See: Carver, Lisa, et al. Costes has also exhibited his visual art and installations in French museums, and he has acted in several controversial contemporary French films.
In addition to his albums and performances, Costes has been writing and publishing short fiction since the s. Refusing to compromise his artistic vision to achieve further mainstream exposure, Costes began publishing his own work, as well as the writing and art of his longtime friends and collaborators, through his own label and publishing company, Eretic Art. Costes explains that his decision to write fiction came as much from the need to respond to angry reactions to his other art as from his own desire to create.
Accessed 10 October However, his subsequent fiction has same the speedy, logorrheic, minimally-revised quality of his songwriting and his performance pieces. Les petits oiseaux chantent : un film sur Jean-Louis Costes. Independent production, See also : Carver, Lisa et al. See also: Strowel, Alain. Dumont, Hugues, et al. Brussels: Bruylant, Still, while the narrative presents the teens sympathetically, they learn very little from their journeys, brushes with death, and their experiences with the mysticism and the sacred.
In this way, Guerriers Amoureux evokes the picaresque genre, in which we follow the scurrilous exploits of anti-heroic protagonists. Accessed 29 November Costes, Jean-Louis. Guerriers Amoureux. Paris: Eretic, On fait pareil. On leur balance toute la nuit des matchs de foot et de porno. If a worker steals, Patou pretends to give him the chance for a vacation to recover his work ethic; Patou accompanies the worker to the river, ostensibly to embark him on a boat headed home, but instead Patou shoots him.
In Brazil, Patou manipulates an HR manager into giving him a high- security cleaning job on the classified site of tactical rocket launches, for which he is singularly unqualified. Y a un bug! However, in the end, Patou once more faces the wrath of God, or at least of those who claim to serve him, when extremist Islamic terrorists hijack his base.
The terrorists successfully launch a rocket, bomb New York City, and frame Patou for the hijacking. Sexual desire becomes indistinguishable from other physical extremes of violence, pain, and religious rapture. Literary transgression has also been theorized as an anti-authoritarian mode of representation by other critics including Marcel Detienne , Peter Stallybrass and Allon White , and Bonnie and Hans Braendlin See: Bakhtin, Mikhail M. Caryl Emerson. See also: Detienne, Marcel.
Paris: Gallimard, collection Tel, See also: Stallybrass, Peter and Allon White. The politics and poetics of transgression. See also: Braendlin, Bonnie and Hans P. Authority and Transgression in Literature and Film. Paris: Gallimard, ; Nouvelles Editions Lignes, The revue courted controversy by opening its pages to anti-fascist anarchist playwright, author, poet and filmmaker Fernando Arrabal as well as to reactionaries of the Nouvelle Droite such as Alain Soral.
Guerriers Amoureux offers the reader the chance to follow their strange route toward knowledge and recognition of the reality above our own — the path to the sacred and metaphysical leads down the trash chute. Unfortunately, they fare even more poorly than their white friend Patou in school and work, thus foreclosing their opportunities for success in the professional world and the aboveground economy. This move toward dramatic violence temporarily helps Momo feel like he has finally found his purpose in life.
Les arabes de merde. Et maintenant, on est au sommet. After being caught and sent back to prison, Momo despairs at losing his chance for life of luxury. Yet this tranquility is illusory; as the young P. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Preface to Fanon, Frantz. Le cauchemar permanent. For more on this, see: Prasad, Pratima. Colonialism, Race, and the French Romantic Imagination. For further observations on European romanticism and the colonial imagination, see: Fulford, Timothy, and Peter J. Kitson, eds. Romanticism and colonialism: Writing and empire, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Mon Dieu, quel malheur!
Patou fares somewhat better than his friends in terms of making money and remaining free, yet still narrowly escapes death multiple times. While he flees the Brazilian government officials who have blown up his gold mine, Patou finds himself obsessively craving — even fetishizing — Western commodities while he traverses the jungle. Les gauchistes qui crachent sur le coca sont jamais sortis de leur fac. Un vrai Le paradis! Gazs sic toxiques mystiques. On se croirait dans le Livre de la jungle. Momo, too, finds that his new perspective on the world allows him to see boundaries and borders dissolve.
Plus de murs, plus de maisons. Yet Patou and his friends also experience difficulties leaving behind this capitalist misery, in part because the aesthetic forces of consumerist media have colonized their very imaginations. Later, when Patou must flee that same base after being framed for the terrorist bombing of New York, he convinces a Brazilian poacher to transport him to safety in exchange for his Disney outfit. His villains go beyond solipsism and inconsideration into monstrous behavior indeed, from refusing employees sick leave for work-related injuries to murder and demonic curses.
I argue that Campredon allegorizes this vertigo-inducing chasm between economic comfort and misery, between classes, or between generations of workers, within startling portraits of the human body turned monstrous, demonic, or prodigious. Critique de la vie quotidienne, Tome I. The literary grotesque is peopled with characters whose bodies have something of the abnormal and unnatural about them, such as humans with animal body parts or whose limbs are plants. Furthermore, the grotesque always involves a break with pure representational mimesis. The grotesque also brings in uncanny and fantastical elements, offering narratives an oneiric quality.
However, unlike surrealism or magical realism, the grotesque foregrounds this disorientation. For Astruc, the grotesque always carries within its first impressions of strangeness a large grain of the familiar, even banal. Gargoyles, for instance, were a common feature of churches and were thus seen every day, losing their striking strangeness until someone contemplated their faces and bodies. Paris: Classiques Garnier, Astruc maintains that the power of the grotesque is to shock us into seeing beyond the veil of the banal so that we can account for the misfortunes and cruelties of everyday life.
In a similar sense, the aesthetics and disorienting narratives of the grotesque literary mode elicit a transfixed reaction and a compulsion to gaze and contemplate from the viewer or witness. Bakhtin insisted that the grotesque calls forth social reversal and renewal through its destabilization of social hierarchies and dichotomies of classification such as self-Other, human-animal, or human-monster. After Bakhtin, many critics thus understand the grotesque as eluding knowledge, understanding, and an easy definition. That which is unheimlich thus awakens and reflects something deep inside of us that we cannot name.
Paris: Librairie Artheme Fayard, As this edition is no longer in print and is difficult to obtain, I am referring to the reprint published by Pocket in Some of the short stories from the original edition do not appear in the reprint, but I have obtained those stories from Julien Campredon. This splitting and multiplication of Campredon the person into three fictional subjects arguing about his status as a writer makes his role as the inventor and orchestrator of his work both more apparent and more bizarre.
Demanding once again that he not see himself as a creator, the library administration allows him to leave only when he admits that he is, in a way, writing about himself. Narratives of humiliation for young workers attempting to establish themselves professionally color the other stories in the collection to varying degrees.
See: Six, Anne-Isabelle. On se croirait chez les sauvages. Accessed 12 December See also: Quillet, Lucile. Accessed 21 July Je… vous baiserai tous, oui, un par un! Mon travail! After the cathartic climax of his long dream about intergenerational class conflict, the young jobseeker wakes up. While the first short story encapsulates its oneiric, grotesque qualities within a dream sequence, it establishes the tendency toward visual images of destabilization and the transfixed contemplation of otherness that continues in other stories in the collection.
Et les flics qui ne font rien! Nous en manquions. Voyage au bout de la nuit. Alors, on les tuait. The elves are coded as superhuman, not human. The elves, as well as their bourgeois values that can only be maintained through violence and exploitation, are monstrous or grotesque in their own way. Do you want make tea at the BBC? Do you wanna be, do you really wanna be a cop?
Career opportunities the ones they never knock. Every job they offer you is to keep you off the dock. See: The Clash. The desires of the public, who are quick to destroy their public servants, and the private developers who take advantage of governments and citizens, are shown here as grotesque, even demonic forces of destabilization.
Fonctionnaires also appear as other sorts of domestic devils. His counselor must regularly visit to make sure he is job-hunting, but also to ensure that he is pleasing his wife through his behavior and lovemaking. In this story, the husband must placate his unhappy wife by finding her a new lover. The story also enters into another contemporary debate on the role of the government in the lives of workers: in France, the demonization of public services and employees has also been an effective rhetorical tool in the neoliberal campaign to privatize the public sector.
Accessed 14 May For a history of French privatization and its effects on the French economy, see: Maclean, Mairi. In this story, two bourgeois sexagenarians, former golf pro Jacques and professor Docteur Bonanit, strike a pact with the devil to allow them more free time and eternal youth. Ben Fowkes. Bonanit mangles Latin into malapropisms to intimidate his fellows into stopping their questions about his work.
See also: McNally, David. Monsters of the Market. Boston: Brill, See also: MacLellan, Matthew. Campredon discussed in our interview that his sense of Occitan linguistic and cultural identity spurs him to represent the South of France within its specificity. Schopenhauer, Arthur. London: Dunne, See: Cortier, Claude, and Laurent Puren. Albert, Michel. Althes, Liesbeth Korthals. Sabine van Wesemael. Arendt, Hannah. Aubert, Nicole and Christophe Roux-Dufort. Bakhtin, Mikhail M. Barthes, Roland. Bartnik, Marie. Accessed 20 May Beeber, Steven Lee. Au secours pardon. Francis Barker et al. Blair, Elaine.
Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne, Histoire contemporaine, Bourdieu, Pierre. Bourseiller, Christophe. Braendlin, Bonnie and Hans P. Les Cadavres. Cannavo, Richard et Anne Chabrol. Carver, Lisa, et al. Cambridge: The Wellness Syndrome. London and New York: Polity, Central Intelligence Agency.
The World Factbook Chauvel, Louis. Paris: PUF, Chrisafis, Angelique. The Clash. Collective author. Cortier, Claude, and Laurent Puren. Costes Disques, Croland, Michael. Travaux d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences no. CS 7, , pp. Dardot, Pierre and Christian Laval. Debies-Carl, Jeffrey S. Dead Kennedys. Dein, Simon. Delbrassinne, Laura. Accessed 8 March Detienne, Marcel. Douthat, Ross. Alain-Philippe Durand. Durand, Jean-Pierre. Edip, Alexandra. Accessed 15 May Estier, Samuel. Falconnier, Isabelle. Foenkinos, David.
Frammery, Catherine. Frayne, David. Malakoff: Armand Colin, Froese, Katrin. Rousseau and Nietzsche: Toward an Aesthetic Morality. Fryer, Paul. Fulford, Timothy, and Peter J. Gaudemar, Antoine de. Paris: Le Nouvel Attila, Accessed 10 October Gogol 1er et la Horde. Gopnik, Adam. Grint, Keith. The sociology of work: introduction. Cambridge: Polity, Hammes, David, and Douglas Wills.
Harvey, David. Hein, Fabien. Heldt, Barbara. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Holmstrom, John. Houellebecq, Michel. La carte et le territoire.
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