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Or is he destined to spend his long life alone? This is a novella set in the Hidden world. It takes place after the events of Strife, Hidden Book Four. The Hidden Saga Continues. Right hand of the Angel. For thousands of years, the Guardians collected the souls of the dead, bringing them before the God of Death for their final judgment. Now, she has no idea what to do with the rest of eternity.

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But all of that changes the day her best friend, the new Goddess of Death, comes to her with a problem only Eunomia, last of the Guardians, can solve. The Hunt Continues. A betrayer hides among the immortals of Detroit, a threat that could very well send not just the immortals, but the rest of the mortal realm into chaos. Violent souls have escaped their prison in the Nether, and the appearance of the undead, created by a rite long forgotten by most beings, only adds to the imminent danger.

Eunomia, created for the sole purpose of hunting the souls of the dead, searches ceaselessly for those who have escaped her Queen, as well as those new creations, the undead, which only she and her New Guardians can capture. When something precious is stolen, it sends the immortals into a turmoil unlike any they have ever experienced.

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Amid all of it, Eunomia fights beside the man she knows she is coming to treasure more than anything else in her long existence. She begins to understand how much she risks in letting herself love, and she can only hope she is strong enough to keep him and everyone else she cares for safe. Each betrayal, each lost soul, drives her Queen closer to insanity, and the safety of the mortal world hangs in the balance.

Vanderlinden combines witty dialogue and an original premise, using the crumbling urban landscape of Detroit as a backdrop for heart pumping action with just the right balance of romance. Memorable characters. Good and evil and a hell of a lot in between. Just wanted to say that I am really really really enjoying this series. Mollis has become my hero. On a return flight I thought I would give them a try, and I was hooked! I read Lost and Broken back to back.

These books are fast paced with just the right amount of action. Hi Paula! Absolutely love this series. I was hooked half way thru the first book. Again I love love love ur books. Hi Brittany! Thanks so much! Just finished all four books back to back and really enjoyed them.

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  • As a Michigander born and raised I loved being able to truly visualize and connect with the settings and location s in the series. Readers not from here might mistakenly think some places are made up but us devoted motorcity natives could totally put ourselves right in the middle of everything that unfolded. A real bonus! A certain slightly imperfect tool maker comes to mind. Thanks so much, Lori! That absolutely made my day! Our slightly imperfect toolmaker has some adventures ahead of him, for sure.

    Very engaging and so well written! Will start reading Strife tonight and am keeping my fingers crossed that love will prevail. Just saying Thanks for a great series! Hi Amber! Yes, Nether will definitely be available in paperback. Hidden Interludes 1. I am so happy to hear that!! Your comment absolutely made my day! I love both characters to bits. Not as crazy about Brennan though. He is not strong enough to be with someone like Molly. I absolutely love this series. This series was absolutely worth reading.

    Now if only I could find Nether. Yes, that is Nain to a T. If you are looking for the paperback of Nether, it should be available now.

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    Interesting reads on the subject: law. In general, from what I've read on the subject, vigilantism as we understand it is based upon events in the last three centuries, particularly in the U. This is not to discount that there are events in history that from a modern point of view could be considered or classified as vigilantism.

    I could argue that some secret societies in China, such as the Society of the White Lotus, started out as vigilante groups with the intent of insuring just and safe communities against bandits and corrupt officials. Well, I hope that some of those sources are helpful anyone who works on cleaning this article.

    • How to be a Vigilante by Luke Smitherd - Book Review - Whispering Stories.
    • My One and Only?
    • How LoneStar Got His Name (Happy Tales and Adventures from The Legend of LoneStar Bear Book 1).
    • Der arme Raimondin (German Edition);
    • Oh, there are some other good resources in the American Law Review archives. Luminece talk , 13 February UTC. I agree with the merge, but the other way round, the Vigilance committee merging into this article. This article is or should be about self-justice in general, as for the Vigilance committee article despite existing, for sure, some cases all over the world , maybe it will be always more related to the USA. In last case, it can stay as an individual article, as a differentiation of the Vigilance committee trade union.

      The proposed merge is not really necessary, as the Vigilance committee article has its own distinct topic. However since that topic is a subtopic of Vigilantism, if the articles were to be merged, I would agree with Bluedenim that the Vigilance committee article should be a subsection of the Vigilante article and not the other way around. The "Works of Fiction" section seems unnecessarily lengthy. Legislators speak of using baseball bats, penal islands, and the use of residency restrictions to run people out of towns, villages, cities, and states based on faulty information, which generally comes with vigilante reasoning.

      Does anyone know if there is any truth to this whatsoever? I was a little suspicious of it, due to the writing errors. Crosshairs-1 talk , 7 August UTC. If you read the page for the minuteman civil defense corps NOT the "minuteman project", it says they do not break the law but rather work with authorities, thus they are not "vigilantes" as the term is described in the article A vigilante is a person who violates the law in order to exact what they believe to be justice from criminals, because they think that the criminal will not be caught or will not be sufficiently punished by the legal system.

      If you look at the KKK in this manner as vigilante, then you may as well add Al Queda to the list too. Come on, take the KKK off.

      Batman and the Problem With Vigilante Justice: A Love Story | The Artifice

      Don't give them this kind of respect. Some people consider Osama bin Laden a God-sent vigilante. Type in his name plus "vigilante" on Google. So many conflicting groups, so many different visions of justice and outlawry. Universal justice is only believed in by certain desert-monks, most of humanity are apelike tribalists who sacralize and identify with their ingroup and dehumanize the out-group.

      The below comment refers to comments that I've removed in this history, due to them being racist and offensive. If people can't discuss the editing of an article without putting their prejudiced lies and ignorance in, they can hardly be trusted to edit an article in a balanced way! As I understood it the original KKK did perform some vigilante activities against those who committed crimes but were not punished by the Union occupation such as the fictional example in Gone with the Wind, though I am unsure if incidents like that really happened or were just fiction made up afterward , but they were mostly just a terrorist group, or were only considered vigilantes for resisting Union occupation which many saw as illegal.

      According to the suits Ryan Laforge and Surrey Creep Catchers have been named for defamation and various civil rights violations in the allegations. Is the current definition correct? I've never heard of vigilante being defined as "a person who violates the law to exact what they believe to be justice from criminals. I just cecked a Websters dictionary from the seventies, and it defined a vigilante as a member of a vigilance organization, and vigilance organization was defined as a group of people who enforce the law when the current legal system seems inadequate.

      Emperor talk , 20 June UTC. Therefore, the current defiition in the article is inaccurate. Emperor talk , 12 July UTC. He is considered as a folk hero in Mexico. He lkived with his family in his own property his ranch , when he received treats from the Los Zetas drug cartel, pretending him to pay for his life and property, He rejected the treats and prepared himself, sending his family to other safer place and gathering his legally owned firearms, then he waited for the criminals and died in the attack when the criminals invaded his home and ranch, but taking the life of several of them before dying.

      Portraiting him as a "vigilante2 is completely wrong.

      How to be a Vigilante by Luke Smitherd – Book Review

      It is a case of Self-Defense when a group of criminals trespassed his property and shoot at him. Why is the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society not valid for modern-day examples of vigilante organizations? While they are not "hard" vigilantes their personal enforcement is "soft"--i. I reverted the ip edit which took away the "unlawful" description. I suppose we could change it to "illegal", but does that really change anything? Vigilantism is interwoven with enigmatic ethical ambiguity, so just plain out calling the phenomena "unlawful" with connotations of ethical evil is reductionistic The term "extralega" is best, as it makes no moralistic commentary either on behalf of the putative government and its putative monopoly over punishment or in the vigilante's direction This reminds me of the insistence on calling illegal immigrants "undocumented," not "illegal.

      Let's ditch the political correctness, mk? According to who to does modern vigilantism descend from frankenpledge? Traditions of community law and retaliation existed in nearly every society I'm sure Did frontiersmen really invoke this directly?

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      Why are the Provisional IRA on this list? It was my understanding that they only cleared out criminality in areas they controlled so that they could profit from illicit activity. They also collected "Revolutionary tax" or, as normal citizens refer to it, "protection money". Not to mention the sectarian violence and random car-bombings they committed. Hardly a "Vigilante group". The IRA punished all criminals in their areas, especially drug-dealers, as many people mistrused or feared the 'legitimate' police the RUC, the people in these areas saw the IRA as their police force and were even supportive enough of their activities to ask them to continue 'policing' these areas even after the IRA announced there ceasefire.

      Not a single member of the PIRA or any other legit Republican organization has ever been charged with hangling drugs, or extorting money from drug dealers. Any claim alluding to the idea that this takes place in any form is basic British propaganda and should be handled as such. Ones where the police publicly and openly cooperate with the protagonist should not count. In that case, that would make the person an "instrument or agent" of the government.

      I refer you to United States vs. Jarrett which dealt with the matter of private individuals acting as "instruments or agents" of the government, and how that does not exempt them from refraining from unreasonable search and seizure. So, in the film version of The Shadow, he acted as a vigilante, since the police did not openly support him in fact, the police commissioner at one point says that he will appoint a task force to stop the Shadow from interfering in police affairs.

      Also, one has problems defining what counts as part of the genre; do Harry Potter, Luke Skywalker, Tarzan, and so forth count as part of the genre? The retired banking boss Sir Fred Goodwin whose windows were smashed and car vandalised this week as a reprisal for his gargantuan and unearned pension payout should count himself lucky for had he been living in this part of the country years ago then the consequences would have been far more severe.

      Instead of a foray lasting a few minutes by angry anti-capitalist protestors outside his Edinburgh home, he would have found himself at the mercy of the mob for several days, anxious to vent their wrath by what was known as ran-tanning, a particularly nasty form of social punishment prevalent in the South Lincolnshire fens until the early years of the last century. Ran-tanning was a notorious method of expressing public indignation whenever someone transgressed the bounds of what was perceived to be good behaviour but as with all illegal gatherings the definition was usually confined to that laid down by the ringleaders and often closely resembled a riot.

      If a person had committed some act of which the other villagers disapproved, they would congregate near their house carrying an effigy of the persons who had incurred their displeasure and making a terrible commotion by beating with sticks, tins, cans, pots, pans, buckets and kettles, playing mouth organs, booing, shouting and singing and on occasions lighting bonfires. The demonstrations were carried on for a number of nights in succession, usually three, after which the effigy would be burned.

      This was a form of vigilantism likely to provoke social disorder, doled out to anyone who breached the local code of what was right and what was wrong and was particularly likely in the case of sexual misdemeanours such as adultery and domestic incidents such as wife beating. In fact, cases became so frequent and so serious during the late 19th century that they eventually attracted the attention of the authorities and ran-tanning was banned under the Highways Act of Yet cases persisted.

      Illicit sexual liaisons were particularly prevalent in this country during the Great War of when husbands had either volunteered or been conscripted into the army to fight in the trenches of Flanders and France leaving wives behind who were vulnerable to temptation although always wary of what the neighbours might say. Not all of the soldiers were sent home immediately after the Armistice and by the following summer, hundreds had still not been reunited with their loved ones and in , a case came before the magistrates at the town hall in Bourne when it was alleged that a woman and her lover had been ran-tanned by a group of men at Rippingale on August 29th on the grounds that she had been carrying on with a sergeant-major on leave while her husband was still away from home serving with the army.

      Eight men were summoned to appear for unlawfully joining in a brawl and the case created so much interest that the courtroom was crowded with villagers for the entire two-hour hearing when the police described how they had been called out to quell a riot in which a crowd of men were causing pandemonium outside a house by beating drums, tins, buckets, plough shares, old pieces of iron and playing instruments, shouting and yelling, later gathering in a nearby field where two effigies were burned.

      The disturbances continued for three nights by which time the entire village was in a state of commotion and the noise could be heard two miles away but the men refused to stop despite warnings that they were guilty of disorderly conduct. Ran-tanning was by then dying out and the last recorded case in these parts was at Quadring Fen, near Spalding on 15th February when the victim was a woman alleged to have made remarks scandalising her neighbours.

      Police intervened and 23 people were charged with disorderly conduct when the court was told that ran-tanning was perhaps the only survival of mob law which existed in this country. All of the defendants were fined between five and ten shillings and ordered to pay costs and there have been no further cases of this nature since. Perhaps the case of Fred the Shred has provoked a return to this old but effective method of castigation because we hear that banking fat cats in London have been warned to be on their guard during the G20 summit next week in case of revenge attacks by militants for the collapse of the financial system.

      We wonder if ran-tanning is likely to spread to the capital and if this is why the police are being issued with dozens more taser guns. I dispute this point, groups defending their property isn't vigilantism, it's just self-defence. None of these groups are going out to punish 'rioters' or seek justice. Experiment 47 talk , 11 August UTC. Haning read the above comment on "A vigilante is a person who violates the law Skip to main content.

      You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Gavin Weston. Some changes exist in the final manuscript and page numbers do not correspond to the final print version. Applying social science literature on vigilantism, social banditry and death squads to fictional characters and contexts this article explores the gaps between vigilante fact and vigilante fiction.


      The idea strikes a chord with comic book fans as it represents a thought which has occurred to most of us. Having studied real life vigilantes for my doctoral research this question is intriguing. Ordinary patterns for the adoption of vigilantism would seem to suggest that a richer mythology of vigilantism ought to lead to a greater propensity towards vigilante activity.

      This paper explores why such an expectation is theoretically justified, but also why in turn we have yet to see it realised. In doing so I highlight not only the limits within the academic vigilantism literature, but also offer an explanation to the Kick-Ass paradox. First, most readers do not have superpowers, and second, those without superpowers can not afford the technical wizardry of a Batman or Tony Stark-like figure.

      The absence of superheroes is therefore attributable to a lack of super-ness. The absence of vigilantes is not. For those so inclined, vigilantism is a relatively easily achieved objective. The question then is why do comic book readers not follow in the footsteps of their superheroes and fictional vigilantes in taking justice into their own hands given that anyone has the potential to do so. It perhaps seems a little strange that a social anthropologist should be writing about superhero genre superheroes from here on referred to as superheroes.

      While such on-site research is impossible in a comic book universe, my enthusiasm for the genre is frequently piqued by overlap between the themes encountered within comic book fantasy and in my anthropological research on popular justice. My doctoral research focused on lynchings in Guatemala. Nonetheless having listened to the testimonies of those caught up in the violence, the disjuncture between the fantasy and reality of vigilantism remains a stark one.

      In turning my attentions towards comic books I do not wish to belittle the real suffering which often leads to, and frequently results from, real vigilantism. Instead my aim here is to use an anthropological lens to examine a particular disjuncture between expectation and reality. This paper will draw on the literature around social banditry, heroism, and state justice, to explore the overlaps and interplay between comic and real world vigilantism.

      Coogan notes that there are three defining aspects to superheroes: mission, powers and identity. This mission is what makes the superhero heroic. Powers on the other hand are the aspect which makes this heroism super Coogan , p. The final aspect, identity, is generally expressed through a costume and codename Coogan , p. The Hulk is an example of an often missionless hero Coogan , p.

      Buffy the Vampire Slayer has special powers, a secret identity although no costume and a mission, yet is perhaps best not thought of as a superhero as she fits more coherently within the category of slayers dating back to Van Helsing Coogan , p. Such liminal characters show the category of the superhero to be one that overlaps with others, but at the core lie these three defining characteristics.

      But good citizens themselves become criminals through their violence. Conversely, as is seen later in relation to Nigeria and Mozambique, vigilantes may be co-opted by the state and given legal or formal legitimacy. Equally state agents can become vigilantes when acting outside of the legally mandated roles. For the purpose of this article, the term vigilante will be used to mean those non-state actors who use violence against criminals and perceived social deviants in a way intended to equate with popular ideas of justice.

      Generally there is a distinction between superhero-genre superheroes and comic book vigilantes in that superheroes largely with exceptions act as enhanced police officers unbound by legal restrictions bypassing rules regarding surveillance or the use of force for example in ways that police are unable to - but they rarely punish criminals. Superheroes generally use force as part of apprehending the criminals in order to turn them over to the police. In other words, superheroes rely on and reinforce the existing judicial system; they do not attempt to replace it.

      Vigilantes on the other hand often disagree with aspects of the judicial system and enact punishment often through killing offenders. The line between arrest and punishment is generally the line that divides the superhero from the vigilante. Superheroes acting more militarily, rather than in relation to criminal justice, also lead to the collapse of these distinctions. Certain superheroes such as Wolverine, who is liable to kill while in a berserker rage, also step across this divide. But when superheroes kill the abnormality of the situation is generally emphasised and discussed within the comic book.

      As such, superheroes generally offer a blueprint for non-fatal vigilante violence. There is a second type of comic book which needs discussing separately; those concerned with non-super-powered vigilantes. They often co-exist alongside super-powered superheroes, yet have no superpowers themselves. But without the super-powers, and with more morally ambiguous missions, it would be wrong to amalgamate the superhero genre with the vigilante genre. The fact that these characters often co-exist alongside superheroes allows comic books to discuss varying vigilante ideologies.

      Both of these models are played with in Kick-Ass, particularly in the film version Vaughan This ability leads to him being captured on video fending off a brutal attack by a gang. Not wishing to spoil the book or film, generally speaking Kick-Ass is inept at using violence and it is his ability to take a beating with or without powers which casts him as heroic, and his use of violence is generally defensive and proportional.

      However, alongside Kick-Ass the unpowered Big Daddy who in the film dresses like Batman and speaks like Adam West and his young daughter Hit-Girl use often fatal violence against criminals in what is clearly outright vigilantism with none of the limits imposed upon superheroes. As such, both models of super-heroic and outright vigilantism are offered up in the film.

      Superhero and vigilante based comic books are predominantly consumed in North America, Europe and Japan. Comic strips may be popular throughout the world and comic books are also produced elsewhere for example see Beck on Swahili comics and comic books but production and consumption of superhero and vigilante comic books and graphic novels elsewhere is a small fraction of that in North America, Europe and Japan. The influence comic books have on the world is increasingly hard to avoid: a multi-billion dollar industry which saw 5. It is therefore not too far a stretch to imagine that comics impact on people's perception of vigilantism.

      Real world vigilantism consists of individuals or groups taking justice into their own hands outside of state justice systems. Ray Abrahams notes that there are three key factors which lend themselves to the establishment of vigilantism: first, dissatisfaction with present levels of order and justice; second, experience and awareness of such actions elsewhere and thirdly a pre-existing social and cultural template.

      These factors can be clearly mapped onto Guatemalan vigilantism Weston and lead to the emergent behaviour of vigilantes. Superheroes exist in universes where justice is fetishised and villainy is caricatured. But as with fairy tales Bettleheim narratives reflect and comment upon reality. While these situations are often literally cartoonish they are still anchored in real world issues and as such vigilante comic books might be expected to affect opinions in the real world and to reflect real world issues in themselves.

      The concrete answers and tidy outcomes of particular stories may shape readers notion of justice to some extent. Seeing justice being dispensed in comics is unlikely to have a direct impact on expectation regarding real world justice in most instances where people are largely satisfied with their real world justice system. Watching detectives on CSI or Law and Order solve a murder rarely changes expectations regarding real detectives; consumption of comic book superheroes affects us no differently.

      For the second factor, regarding experience and knowledge of such actions elsewhere, to be affected by comic book vigilantes would largely rely upon comic books depicting incidents of real life vigilantism, which they rarely do. In looking here at comic books one is forced to acknowledge the closeness of this factor and the third - a social or cultural template.

      Surely awareness of real life vigilantism is just another social template. This forces us to infer that Abrahams believes that the concrete reality of real vigilantism is substantially different to other templates. Without a real life case study to copy, vigilantism does not seem to be a concrete option, therefore maintaining distinctions between fantasy and reality. In Guatemala pre-existing social and cultural templates were diffuse. Their chosen name also clearly demonstrates that they have also taken inspiration from the Minutemen from the American War of Independence.

      Vigilantes are inspired by other vigilantes as well as quasi-vigilantes and others who fight against perceived injustices in various forms. Comic book characters, be they superheroes or non-super vigilantes, clearly offer myth-like potential for inspiring vigilantism. One might perhaps argue that there are people out there who consider themselves real life superheroes, costume wearing people out to make the world a better place.

      A look at the Real Life Superheroes website reallifesuperheroes. They do not seem to be taking justice into their own hands. At least not very often. As such the superhero genre can be seen here to inspire admirably moral action, but not vigilantism. One might also argue that infrequent acts of vigilantism which do occasionally occur in countries with high levels of consumption of vigilante comic books and films may have been inspired, in part, by those comic books. But the rates of vigilantism are far lower in Europe, North America and Japan than across Africa, Latin America and the Indian sub-continent where consumption of these materials is lower and vigilantism is more prevalent.

      We have a profusion of media directly representing vigilantism in the west, but we do not have a corresponding abundance of vigilantism. Are our lives so affluent and trouble free that we are in no need of real life heroes? Heroes and Social Bandits Central to the Kick-Ass paradox lies the ideas of heroism, hero worship and the ambiguity of heroes. To disentangle these issues I turn to literature on social banditry, a term popularised by the historian Eric Hobsbawm Social bandits, according to Hobsbawm, are outlaws on the rural fringes of many societies considered to be heroes by the disenfranchised, poor or working class masses due to their embodiment of popular resistance.